Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2021-273
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2021-273

  04 Nov 2021

04 Nov 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal BG.

Modeling interactions between tides, storm surges, and river discharges in the Kapuas River delta

Joko Sampurno1,2, Valentin Vallaeys1, Randy Ardianto3, and Emmanuel Hanert1,4 Joko Sampurno et al.
  • 1Earth and Life Institute (ELI), Université Catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Louvain-la-Neuve, 1348, Belgium
  • 2Department of Physics, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, 78124, Indonesia
  • 3Pontianak Maritime Meteorological Station, Pontianak, 78111, Indonesia
  • 4Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (IMMC), Université Catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Louvain-la-Neuve, 1348, Belgium

Abstract. The Kapuas River delta is a unique estuary system on the west coast of Borneo Island, Indonesia. Its hydrodynamics is driven by an interplay between storm surges, tides, and rivers discharge. These interactions are likely to be exacerbated by global warming, leading to more frequent compound flooding in the area. The mechanisms driving compound flooding events in the Kapuas River Delta remain, however, poorly known. Here we attempt to fill this gap by assessing the interactions between river discharges, tides, and storm surges and how they can drive a compound inundation over the riverbanks, particularly within Pontianak, the main city along the Kapuas River. We simulated these interactions using the multi-scale hydrodynamic model SLIM. Our model correctly reproduces the Kapuas River’s hydrodynamics and its interactions with tides and storm surge from the Karimata Strait. We considered several extreme scenario test cases to evaluate the impact of tide-storm-discharge interactions on the maximum water level profile from the river mouth to the upstream part of the river. Based on the maximum water level profiles, we could divide the main branch of the Kapuas River’s stream into three zones, i.e., the tidally-dominated region (from the river mouth to about 4 km upstream), the mixed-energy region (from about 4 km to about 30 km upstream) and the river-dominated region (beyond 30 km upstream). Thus, the local water management can define proper mitigation for handling compound flooding hazards along the riverbanks by using this zoning category. The model also successfully reproduced a compound inundation event in Pontianak, which occurred on 29 December 2018. For this event, the wind-generated surge appeared to be the dominant trigger.

Joko Sampurno et al.

Status: open (until 28 Dec 2021)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse

Joko Sampurno et al.

Joko Sampurno et al.

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Short summary
This study is the first compound flooding assessment in the Kapuas River Delta. We successfully created a realistic hydrodynamic model whose domain covers the land-sea continuum using a wetting-drying algorithm in a data-scarce environment. Based on the maximum water level profile along the river, we proposed a new method to categorize the compound flooding risk zone due to tide-storm-discharge interactions, i.e., Tidally-dominated region, Mixed Energy region, and River-dominated region.
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