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Volume 12, issue 20
Biogeosciences, 12, 6103–6124, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Special issue: EUROSPEC – spectral sampling tools for vegetation biophysical...

Biogeosciences, 12, 6103–6124, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Reviews and syntheses 27 Oct 2015

Reviews and syntheses | 27 Oct 2015

EUROSPEC: at the interface between remote-sensing and ecosystem CO2 flux measurements in Europe

A. Porcar-Castell1, A. Mac Arthur2, M. Rossini3, L. Eklundh4, J. Pacheco-Labrador5, K. Anderson6, M. Balzarolo7, M. P. Martín5, H. Jin4, E. Tomelleri8, S. Cerasoli9, K. Sakowska10,11, A. Hueni12, T. Julitta3, C. J. Nichol13, and L. Vescovo10 A. Porcar-Castell et al.
  • 1Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27 00014, Finland
  • 2NERC Field Spectroscopy Facility, GeoScience, The King's Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, UK
  • 3Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Lab., DISAT, Università degli Studi Milano-Bicocca, piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milan, Italy
  • 4Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
  • 5Environmental Remote Sensing and Spectroscopy Laboratory (SpecLab), Institute of Economics, Geography and Demography, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Albasanz 26–28, 28037, Madrid, Spain
  • 6Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Cornwall TR109FE, UK
  • 7Department of Biology, Centre of Excellence PLECO (Plant and Vegetation Ecology), University of Antwerp, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
  • 8Institute for Applied Remote Sensing, Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
  • 9Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal
  • 10Sustainable Agro-Ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Research and Innovation Centre – Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 – S. Michele all'Adige (TN), Italy
  • 11Meteorology Department, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Piatkowska Street 94, 60-649 Poznan, Poland
  • 12Remote Sensing Laboratories, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
  • 13School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF, UK

Abstract. Resolving the spatial and temporal dynamics of gross primary productivity (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems across different scales remains a challenge. Remote sensing is regarded as the solution to upscale point observations conducted at the ecosystem level, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique, to the landscape and global levels. In addition to traditional vegetation indices, the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the emission of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), now measurable from space, provide a new range of opportunities to monitor the global carbon cycle using remote sensing. However, the scale mismatch between EC observations and the much coarser satellite-derived data complicate the integration of the two sources of data. The solution is to establish a network of in situ spectral measurements that can act as a bridge between EC measurements and remote-sensing data. In situ spectral measurements have already been conducted for many years at EC sites, but using variable instrumentation, setups, and measurement standards. In Europe in particular, in situ spectral measurements remain highly heterogeneous. The goal of EUROSPEC Cost Action ES0930 was to promote the development of common measuring protocols and new instruments towards establishing best practices and standardization of these measurements. In this review we describe the background and main tradeoffs of in situ spectral measurements, review the main results of EUROSPEC Cost Action, and discuss the future challenges and opportunities of in situ spectral measurements for improved estimation of local and global estimates of GPP over terrestrial ecosystems.

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