EUROSPEC: at the interface between remote-sensing and ecosystem CO2 flux measurements in Europe
Abstract. Resolving the spatial and temporal dynamics of gross primary productivity (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems across different scales remains a challenge. Remote sensing is regarded as the solution to upscale point observations conducted at the ecosystem level, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique, to the landscape and global levels. In addition to traditional vegetation indices, the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the emission of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), now measurable from space, provide a new range of opportunities to monitor the global carbon cycle using remote sensing. However, the scale mismatch between EC observations and the much coarser satellite-derived data complicate the integration of the two sources of data. The solution is to establish a network of in situ spectral measurements that can act as a bridge between EC measurements and remote-sensing data. In situ spectral measurements have already been conducted for many years at EC sites, but using variable instrumentation, setups, and measurement standards. In Europe in particular, in situ spectral measurements remain highly heterogeneous. The goal of EUROSPEC Cost Action ES0930 was to promote the development of common measuring protocols and new instruments towards establishing best practices and standardization of these measurements. In this review we describe the background and main tradeoffs of in situ spectral measurements, review the main results of EUROSPEC Cost Action, and discuss the future challenges and opportunities of in situ spectral measurements for improved estimation of local and global estimates of GPP over terrestrial ecosystems.