Articles | Volume 13, issue 8
Biogeosciences, 13, 2319–2337, 2016

Special issue: Biogeochemical and biological response to a diazotroph bloom...

Biogeosciences, 13, 2319–2337, 2016

Research article 21 Apr 2016

Research article | 21 Apr 2016

Succession within the prokaryotic communities during the VAHINE mesocosms experiment in the New Caledonia lagoon

Ulrike Pfreundt1, France Van Wambeke2, Mathieu Caffin2, Sophie Bonnet2,3, and Wolfgang R. Hess1 Ulrike Pfreundt et al.
  • 1Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
  • 2Aix Marseille Université, CNRS/INSU, Université de Toulon, IRD, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO) UM110, 13288 Marseille, France
  • 3Institute de Recherche pour la Développement (IRD) Nouméa, 101 Promenade R. Laroque, BPA5, 98848, Nouméa CEDEX, New Caledonia

Abstract. N2 fixation fuels  ∼  50 % of new primary production in the oligotrophic South Pacific Ocean. The VAHINE experiment has been designed to track the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) and carbon within a coastal lagoon ecosystem in a comprehensive way. For this, large-volume ( ∼  50 m3) mesocosms were deployed in the New Caledonian lagoon and were intentionally fertilized with dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to stimulate N2 fixation. This study examined the temporal dynamics of the prokaryotic community together with the evolution of biogeochemical parameters for 23 consecutive days in one of these mesocosms (M1) and in the Nouméa lagoon using MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing and flow cytometry. Combining these methods allowed for inference of absolute cell numbers from 16S data. We observed clear successions within M1, some of which were not mirrored in the lagoon. The dominating classes in M1 were Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae, Marine Group II Euryarchaeota, Flavobacteriia, and Acidimicrobia. Enclosure led to significant changes in the M1 microbial community, probably initiated by the early decay of Synechococcus and diatoms. However, we did not detect a pronounced bottle effect with a copiotroph-dominated community. The fertilization with  ∼  0.8 µM DIP on day 4 did not have directly observable effects on the overall community within M1, as the data samples obtained from before and 4 days after fertilization clustered together, but likely influenced the development of individual populations later on, like Defluviicoccus-related bacteria and UCYN-C-type diazotrophic cyanobacteria (Cyanothece). Growth of UCYN-C led to among the highest N2-fixation rates ever measured in this region and enhanced growth of nearly all abundant heterotrophic groups in M1. We further show that different Rhodobacteraceae were the most efficient heterotrophs in the investigated system and we observed niche partitioning within the SAR86 clade. Whereas the location in- or outside the mesocosm had a significant effect on community composition, the temporal effect was significantly stronger and similar in both locations, suggesting that overarching abiotic factors were more influential than the enclosure. While temporal community changes were evident, prokaryotic diversity (Shannon index) only declined slightly from  ∼  6.5 to 5.7 or 6.05 in the lagoon and M1, respectively, throughout the experiment, highlighting the importance of multiple and varying sources of organic matter maintaining competition.

Short summary
The Southwest Pacific has one of the highest N2 fixation rates in the global ocean, yet information is scarce on the bacterioplankton interrelationships. We detected high microbial diversity in the New Caledonia lagoon and inside a 50 000 L experimental enclosure of the same water mass over 3 weeks and give evidence for previously unknown niche partitioning. Phosphate fertilization promoted the growth of efficient N2 fixing cyanobacteria triggering the growth of most heterotrophic bacteria.
Final-revised paper