N2 fixation in eddies of the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean
- 1Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany
- 2Institute of Microbiology, Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 1–9, 24118 Kiel, Germany
- 3School for Marine Science and Technology, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, New Bedford, Massachusetts, USA
- 4Department of Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstraße 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
- 5Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA
- 6Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
- 7Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-Platz 4, 24118 Kiel, Germany
- anow at: MARUM, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
- bnow at: Helmholtz Young Investigator Group SEAPUMP, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
Abstract. Mesoscale eddies play a major role in controlling ocean biogeochemistry. By impacting nutrient availability and water column ventilation, they are of critical importance for oceanic primary production. In the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean off Peru, where a large and persistent oxygen-deficient zone is present, mesoscale processes have been reported to occur frequently. However, investigations into their biological activity are mostly based on model simulations, and direct measurements of carbon and dinitrogen (N2) fixation are scarce.
We examined an open-ocean cyclonic eddy and two anticyclonic mode water eddies: a coastal one and an open-ocean one in the waters off Peru along a section at 16° S in austral summer 2012. Molecular data and bioassay incubations point towards a difference between the active diazotrophic communities present in the cyclonic eddy and the anticyclonic mode water eddies.
In the cyclonic eddy, highest rates of N2 fixation were measured in surface waters but no N2 fixation signal was detected at intermediate water depths. In contrast, both anticyclonic mode water eddies showed pronounced maxima in N2 fixation below the euphotic zone as evidenced by rate measurements and geochemical data. N2 fixation and carbon (C) fixation were higher in the young coastal mode water eddy compared to the older offshore mode water eddy. A co-occurrence between N2 fixation and biogenic N2, an indicator for N loss, indicated a link between N loss and N2 fixation in the mode water eddies, which was not observed for the cyclonic eddy. The comparison of two consecutive surveys of the coastal mode water eddy in November 2012 and December 2012 also revealed a reduction in N2 and C fixation at intermediate depths along with a reduction in chlorophyll by half, mirroring an aging effect in this eddy. Our data indicate an important role for anticyclonic mode water eddies in stimulating N2 fixation and thus supplying N offshore.