Articles | Volume 13, issue 19
Biogeosciences, 13, 5471–5485, 2016
Biogeosciences, 13, 5471–5485, 2016

Research article 04 Oct 2016

Research article | 04 Oct 2016

Seasonal and diurnal variation in CO fluxes from an agricultural bioenergy crop

Mari Pihlatie1,2, Üllar Rannik1, Sami Haapanala1, Olli Peltola1, Narasinha Shurpali3, Pertti J. Martikainen3, Saara Lind3, Niina Hyvönen3, Perttu Virkajärvi4, Mark Zahniser5, and Ivan Mammarella1 Mari Pihlatie et al.
  • 1Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 48, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 56, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 3Biogeochemistry research group, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistoranta 1D-E, PO Box 1627, Kuopio campus, 70211, Finland
  • 4Natural Resources Institute Finland, Green technology, Halolantie 31 A, 71750 Maaninka, Finland
  • 5Aerodyne Research, Inc. 45 Manning Road Billerica, MA 01821-3976, USA

Abstract. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important reactive trace gas in the atmosphere, while its sources and sinks in the biosphere are poorly understood. Soils are generally considered as a sink of CO due to microbial oxidation processes, while emissions of CO have been reported from a wide range of soil–plant systems. We measured CO fluxes using the micrometeorological eddy covariance method from a bioenergy crop (reed canary grass) in eastern Finland from April to November 2011. Continuous flux measurements allowed us to assess the seasonal and diurnal variability and to compare the CO fluxes to simultaneously measured net ecosystem exchange of CO2, N2O and heat fluxes as well as to relevant meteorological, soil and plant variables in order to investigate factors driving the CO exchange.

The reed canary grass (RCG) crop was a net source of CO from mid-April to mid-June and a net sink throughout the rest of the measurement period from mid-June to November 2011, excluding a measurement break in July. CO fluxes had a distinct diurnal pattern with a net CO uptake in the night and a net CO emission during the daytime with a maximum emission at noon. This pattern was most pronounced in spring and early summer. During this period the most significant relationships were found between CO fluxes and global radiation, net radiation, sensible heat flux, soil heat flux, relative humidity, N2O flux and net ecosystem exchange. The strong positive correlation between CO fluxes and radiation suggests abiotic CO production processes, whereas the relationship between CO fluxes and net ecosystem exchange of CO2, and night-time CO fluxes and N2O emissions indicate biotic CO formation and microbial CO uptake respectively. The study shows a clear need for detailed process studies accompanied by continuous flux measurements of CO exchange to improve the understanding of the processes associated with CO exchange.

Short summary
The sources and sinks of carbon monoxide (CO) in the biosphere are poorly understood. We report the first continuous data series of CO fluxes measured by eddy covariance method in an agricultural bioenergy crop. The CO fluxes were seasonally and diurnally variable demonstrating the parallel consumption and production processes. Radiation was the main driver of CO emissions, and the eddy covariance method was demonstrated as suitable for linking short-term flux dynamics to environmental drivers.
Final-revised paper