An empirical model simulating diurnal and seasonal CO2 flux for diverse vegetation types and climate conditions
Abstract. We present an empirical model for the estimation of diurnal variability in net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in various biomes. The model is based on the use of a simple saturated function for photosynthetic response of the canopy, and was constructed using the AmeriFlux network dataset that contains continuous eddy covariance CO2 flux data obtained at 24 ecosystems sites from seven biomes. The physiological parameters of maximum CO2 uptake rate by the canopy and ecosystem respiration have biome-specific responses to environmental variables. The model uses simplified empirical expression of seasonal variability in biome-specific physiological parameters based on air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and annual precipitation. The model was validated using measurements of NEE derived from 10 AmeriFlux and four AsiaFlux ecosystem sites. The predicted NEE had reasonable magnitude and seasonal variation and gave adequate timing for the beginning and end of the growing season; the model explained 83–95% and 76–89% of the observed diurnal variations in NEE for the AmeriFlux and AsiaFlux ecosystem sites used for validation, respectively. The model however worked less satisfactorily in two deciduous broadleaf forests, a grassland, a savanna, and a tundra ecosystem sites where leaf area index changed rapidly. These results suggest that including additional plant physiological parameters may improve the model simulation performance in various areas of biomes.