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Volume 8, issue 8
Biogeosciences, 8, 2209–2246, 2011
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Biogeosciences, 8, 2209–2246, 2011
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Reviews and syntheses 18 Aug 2011

Reviews and syntheses | 18 Aug 2011

Estimations of isoprenoid emission capacity from enclosure studies: measurements, data processing, quality and standardized measurement protocols

Ü. Niinemets1, U. Kuhn2, P. C. Harley3, M. Staudt4, A. Arneth5,6, A. Cescatti7, P. Ciccioli8, L. Copolovici1, C. Geron9, A. Guenther3, J. Kesselmeier10, M. T. Lerdau11, R. K. Monson12, and J. Peñuelas13 Ü. Niinemets et al.
  • 1Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014, Estonia
  • 2Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Troposphäre (IEK-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
  • 3National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA
  • 4Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE-CNRS), 1919, Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5, France
  • 5Division of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 22362 Lund, Sweden
  • 6Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate/Atmospheric Environmental Research, Kreuzeckbahnstr.~19, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
  • 7European Commission, Joint Research Center, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, 21020 Ispra, Italy
  • 8Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche del CNR, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Italy
  • 9US Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Mail Drop E305-02, 109 TW Alexander Dr., Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
  • 10Biogeochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany
  • 11Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4123, USA and Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Garden, Melung, Yunnan, China
  • 12Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0334, USA
  • 13Global Ecology Unit CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Facultat de Ciències, Univ. Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain

Abstract. The capacity for volatile isoprenoid production under standardized environmental conditions at a certain time (ES, the emission factor) is a key characteristic in constructing isoprenoid emission inventories. However, there is large variation in published ES estimates for any given species partly driven by dynamic modifications in ES due to acclimation and stress responses. Here we review additional sources of variation in ES estimates that are due to measurement and analytical techniques and calculation and averaging procedures, and demonstrate that estimations of ES critically depend on applied experimental protocols and on data processing and reporting. A great variety of experimental setups has been used in the past, contributing to study-to-study variations in ES estimates. We suggest that past experimental data should be distributed into broad quality classes depending on whether the data can or cannot be considered quantitative based on rigorous experimental standards. Apart from analytical issues, the accuracy of ES values is strongly driven by extrapolation and integration errors introduced during data processing. Additional sources of error, especially in meta-database construction, can further arise from inconsistent use of units and expression bases of ES. We propose a standardized experimental protocol for BVOC estimations and highlight basic meta-information that we strongly recommend to report with any ES measurement. We conclude that standardization of experimental and calculation protocols and critical examination of past reports is essential for development of accurate emission factor databases.

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