Effects of rising CO2 on a Baltic Sea plankton community: ecological and biogeochemical impacts
Effects of rising CO2 on a Baltic Sea plankton community: ecological and biogeochemical impacts
Editor(s): U. Riebesell, E. Achterberg, C. Brussaard, J. Engström-Öst, J.-P. Gattuso, H.-P. Grossart, and K. Schulz
As one of the largest brackish-water seas, the Baltic Sea has a comparatively low alkalinity and carbonate saturation state, leading to a low carbonate system buffer capacity. As a result of this, Baltic Sea surface waters experience large seasonal changes in pH and pCO2 and show strong changes in carbonate chemistry in response to biologically mediated carbon turnover, such as primary production, respiration, remineralisation, and calcification. Over the past two decades the Baltic Sea has experienced acidification of its surface waters at a rate more than twice as high as mean ocean acidification. Thus, carbonate system perturbations – diurnally, seasonally, and as a result of CO2-induced acidification – are much more pronounced than in marine systems. Whether the Baltic Sea biota has adapted to stronger carbonate system variations and is therefore able to better cope with anthropogenic acidification or whether it is less resilient because acidification further amplifies the stress already caused by natural carbonate system perturbations is presently not well understood.

To study the responses of a Baltic Sea plankton community to CO2-induced acidification, we conducted an in situ mesocosm experiment with the Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for Future Ocean Simulations (KOSMOS) in the framework of the BMBF project Surface Ocean Processes in the Anthropocene (SOPRAN). Nine mesocosm units, each enclosing ∼55 m3 of water, were deployed and moored at 59° 51.5' N, 23° 15.5' E in the Tvärminne Storfjärden, an open archipelago at the southern tip of Finland. The carbonate system of the enclosed water was manipulated to cover a pCO2 gradient from ambient (235 µatm) to 1650 µatm. From June 14 to August 7 2012, a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological parameters were monitored daily in the enclosed water bodies. Along with rate measurements of some key biological processes, these data provide a comprehensive overview of the ecological and biogeochemical responses of a Baltic Sea plankton community to anthropogenic acidification.

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29 Aug 2017
Alterations in microbial community composition with increasing fCO2: a mesocosm study in the eastern Baltic Sea
Katharine J. Crawfurd, Santiago Alvarez-Fernandez, Kristina D. A. Mojica, Ulf Riebesell, and Corina P. D. Brussaard
Biogeosciences, 14, 3831–3849, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-3831-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-3831-2017, 2017
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27 Jan 2017
Ciliate and mesozooplankton community response to increasing CO2 levels in the Baltic Sea: insights from a large-scale mesocosm experiment
Silke Lischka, Lennart T. Bach, Kai-Georg Schulz, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 14, 447–466, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-447-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-447-2017, 2017
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02 Jan 2017
Ocean acidification impacts bacteria–phytoplankton coupling at low-nutrient conditions
Thomas Hornick, Lennart T. Bach, Katharine J. Crawfurd, Kristian Spilling, Eric P. Achterberg, Jason N. Woodhouse, Kai G. Schulz, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Ulf Riebesell, and Hans-Peter Grossart
Biogeosciences, 14, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-1-2017,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-1-2017, 2017
16 Dec 2016
Effect of ocean acidification on the structure and fatty acid composition of a natural plankton community in the Baltic Sea
Rafael Bermúdez, Monika Winder, Annegret Stuhr, Anna-Karin Almén, Jonna Engström-Öst, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 6625–6635, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-6625-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-6625-2016, 2016
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15 Nov 2016
Ocean acidification challenges copepod phenotypic plasticity
Anu Vehmaa, Anna-Karin Almén, Andreas Brutemark, Allanah Paul, Ulf Riebesell, Sara Furuhagen, and Jonna Engström-Öst
Biogeosciences, 13, 6171–6182, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-6171-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-6171-2016, 2016
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04 Nov 2016
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Effects of ocean acidification on pelagic carbon fluxes in a mesocosm experiment
Kristian Spilling, Kai G. Schulz, Allanah J. Paul, Tim Boxhammer, Eric P. Achterberg, Thomas Hornick, Silke Lischka, Annegret Stuhr, Rafael Bermúdez, Jan Czerny, Kate Crawfurd, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Hans-Peter Grossart, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 6081–6093, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-6081-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-6081-2016, 2016
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22 Aug 2016
Ocean acidification decreases plankton respiration: evidence from a mesocosm experiment
Kristian Spilling, Allanah J. Paul, Niklas Virkkala, Tom Hastings, Silke Lischka, Annegret Stuhr, Rafael Bermúdez, Jan Czerny, Tim Boxhammer, Kai G. Schulz, Andrea Ludwig, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 4707–4719, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-4707-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-4707-2016, 2016
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15 Aug 2016
Effect of ocean acidification and elevated fCO2 on trace gas production by a Baltic Sea summer phytoplankton community
Alison L. Webb, Emma Leedham-Elvidge, Claire Hughes, Frances E. Hopkins, Gill Malin, Lennart T. Bach, Kai Schulz, Kate Crawfurd, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Annegret Stuhr, Ulf Riebesell, and Peter S. Liss
Biogeosciences, 13, 4595–4613, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-4595-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-4595-2016, 2016
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07 Jul 2016
No observed effect of ocean acidification on nitrogen biogeochemistry in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community
Allanah J. Paul, Eric P. Achterberg, Lennart T. Bach, Tim Boxhammer, Jan Czerny, Mathias Haunost, Kai-Georg Schulz, Annegret Stuhr, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 3901–3913, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-3901-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-3901-2016, 2016
09 Jun 2016
Survival and settling of larval Macoma balthica in a large-scale mesocosm experiment at different fCO2 levels
Anna Jansson, Silke Lischka, Tim Boxhammer, Kai G. Schulz, and Joanna Norkko
Biogeosciences, 13, 3377–3385, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-3377-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-3377-2016, 2016
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24 May 2016
Effects of CO2 perturbation on phosphorus pool sizes and uptake in a mesocosm experiment during a low productive summer season in the northern Baltic Sea
Monika Nausch, Lennart Thomas Bach, Jan Czerny, Josephine Goldstein, Hans-Peter Grossart, Dana Hellemann, Thomas Hornick, Eric Pieter Achterberg, Kai-Georg Schulz, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 3035–3050, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-3035-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-3035-2016, 2016
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13 May 2016
Technical note: Sampling and processing of mesocosm sediment trap material for quantitative biogeochemical analysis
Tim Boxhammer, Lennart T. Bach, Jan Czerny, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 2849–2858, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-2849-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-2849-2016, 2016
23 Feb 2016
Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea
Mati Kahru, Ragnar Elmgren, and Oleg P. Savchuk
Biogeosciences, 13, 1009–1018, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-1009-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-1009-2016, 2016
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23 Feb 2016
Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production
Anna-Karin Almén, Anu Vehmaa, Andreas Brutemark, Lennart Bach, Silke Lischka, Annegret Stuhr, Sara Furuhagen, Allanah Paul, J. Rafael Bermúdez, Ulf Riebesell, and Jonna Engström-Öst
Biogeosciences, 13, 1037–1048, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-1037-2016,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-1037-2016, 2016
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28 Oct 2015
Effect of elevated CO2 on organic matter pools and fluxes in a summer Baltic Sea plankton community
A. J. Paul, L. T. Bach, K.-G. Schulz, T. Boxhammer, J. Czerny, E. P. Achterberg, D. Hellemann, Y. Trense, M. Nausch, M. Sswat, and U. Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 12, 6181–6203, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-6181-2015,https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-6181-2015, 2015
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