Spectrally resolved efficiencies of carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction in the western Canadian Arctic: particles versus solutes
- 1Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L 3A1, Canada
- 2Département de biologie, chimie et géographie and BORÉAS, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, Québec, G5L 3A1 Canada
- 3Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
- 4Takuvik Joint International Laboratory (CNRS & ULaval), Département de Biologie, Québec-Océan and Arcticnet, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1V 0A6, Canada
Abstract. Spectrally resolved efficiency (i.e. apparent quantum yield, AQY) of carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction is a useful indicator of substrate photoreactivity and a crucial parameter for modeling CO photoproduction rates in the water column. Recent evidence has suggested that CO photoproduction from particles in marine waters is significant compared to the well-known CO production from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) photodegradation. Although CDOM-based CO AQY spectra have been extensively determined, little is known of this information on the particulate phase. Using water samples collected from the Mackenzie estuary, shelf, and Canada Basin in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, the present study for the first time quantified the AQY spectra of particle-based CO photoproduction and compared them with the concomitantly determined CDOM-based CO AQY spectra. CO AQYs of both particles and CDOM decreased with wavelength but the spectral shape of the particulate AQY was flatter in the visible regime. This feature resulted in a disproportionally higher visible light-driven CO production by particles, thereby increasing the ratio of particle- to CDOM-based CO photoproduction with depth in the euphotic zone. In terms of depth-integrated production in the euphotic zone, CO formation from CDOM was dominated by the ultraviolet (UV, 290–400 nm) radiation whereas UV and visible light played roughly equal roles in CO production from particles. Spatially, CO AQY of bulk particulate matter (i.e. the sum of organics and inorganics) augmented from the estuary and shelf to the basin while CO AQY of CDOM trended inversely. Water from the deep chlorophyll maximum layer revealed higher CO AQYs than did surface water for both particles and CDOM. CO AQY of bulk particulate matter exceeded that of CDOM on the shelf and in the basin, but the sequence reversed in the estuary. Without consideration of the potential role of metal oxides (e.g. iron oxides) in particle photochemistry, mineral absorption-corrected CO AQY of particulate organic matter (POM) could, however, surpass its CDOM counterpart in all three sub-regions and displayed magnitudes in the estuary that overtook those in shelf and offshore waters. In terms of CO photoproduction, POM was thus more photoreactive than CDOM, irrespective of the organic matter's origins (i.e. terrigenous or marine). Riverine CDOM exhibited higher photoreactivity than marine CDOM and land-derived POM appeared more photoreactive than marine POM. AQY-based modeling indicates that CO photoproduction in the study area is underestimated by 12–32% if the particulate term is ignored.