Articles | Volume 12, issue 20
Biogeosciences, 12, 5967–5979, 2015
Biogeosciences, 12, 5967–5979, 2015

Research article 21 Oct 2015

Research article | 21 Oct 2015

Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river

D. Müller2,1, T. Warneke1, T. Rixen3,2, M. Müller4, S. Jamahari5, N. Denis4, A. Mujahid6, and J. Notholt7,1 D. Müller et al.
  • 1Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany
  • 2Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstr. 6, 28359 Bremen, Germany
  • 3Institute of Geology, University of Hamburg, Bundesstr. 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
  • 4Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • 5Forest Department Sarawak, Wisma Sumber Alam, Jalan Stadium, 93660 Petrajaya Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • 6Department of Aquatic Science, Faculty of Resource Science & Technology, University Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • 7MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., 28359 Bremen, Germany

Abstract. Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their immense carbon storage capacity. However, pristine peat swamp forests are vanishing due to deforestation and peatland degradation, especially in Southeast Asia. CO2 emissions associated with this land use change might not only come from the peat soil directly but also from peat-draining rivers. So far, though, this has been mere speculation, since there has been no data from undisturbed reference sites. We present the first combined assessment of lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Two sampling campaigns were undertaken on the Maludam River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river catchment is covered by protected peat swamp forest, offering a unique opportunity to study a peat-draining river in its natural state, without any influence from tributaries with different characteristics. The two campaigns yielded consistent results. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations ranged between 3222 and 6218 μmol L−1 and accounted for more than 99 % of the total organic carbon (TOC). Radiocarbon dating revealed that the riverine DOC was of recent origin, suggesting that it derives from the top soil layers and surface runoff. We observed strong oxygen depletion, implying high rates of organic matter decomposition and consequently CO2 production. The measured median pCO2 was 7795 and 8400 μatm during the first and second campaign, respectively. Overall, we found that only 32 ± 19 % of the carbon was exported by CO2 evasion, while the rest was exported by discharge. CO2 outgassing seemed to be moderated by the short water residence time. Since most Southeast Asian peatlands are located at the coast, this is probably an important limiting factor for CO2 outgassing from most of its peat-draining rivers.

Short summary
Tropical peatlands are an important source of organic carbon to rivers. However, due to the remoteness of these ecosystems, data are scarce. We present the first combined assessment of both lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 emissions from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Compared to the organic carbon concentrations, CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere were actually relatively moderate, which we attributed to the short water residence time.
Final-revised paper