Articles | Volume 12, issue 23
Biogeosciences, 12, 7251–7278, 2015
Biogeosciences, 12, 7251–7278, 2015
Research article
 | Highlight paper
11 Dec 2015
Research article  | Highlight paper | 11 Dec 2015

Data-based estimates of the ocean carbon sink variability – first results of the Surface Ocean pCO2 Mapping intercomparison (SOCOM)

C. Rödenbeck1, D. C. E. Bakker2, N. Gruber3, Y. Iida4, A. R. Jacobson5, S. Jones6, P. Landschützer3, N. Metzl7, S. Nakaoka8, A. Olsen9, G.-H. Park10, P. Peylin11, K. B. Rodgers12, T. P. Sasse13, U. Schuster6, J. D. Shutler6, V. Valsala14, R. Wanninkhof15, and J. Zeng8 C. Rödenbeck et al.
  • 1Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany
  • 2Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
  • 3Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
  • 4Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan
  • 5University of Colorado and NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 6College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, UK
  • 7Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ Paris 06)-CNRS-IRD-MNHN, LOCEAN/IPSL Laboratory, Paris, France
  • 8National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 9Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 10East Sea Research Institute, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Uljin, Republic of Korea
  • 11Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), Gif sur Yvette, France
  • 12Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton University, NJ, USA
  • 13Climate Change Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
  • 14Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India
  • 15NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, FL, USA

Abstract. Using measurements of the surface-ocean CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and 14 different pCO2 mapping methods recently collated by the Surface Ocean pCO2 Mapping intercomparison (SOCOM) initiative, variations in regional and global sea–air CO2 fluxes are investigated. Though the available mapping methods use widely different approaches, we find relatively consistent estimates of regional pCO2 seasonality, in line with previous estimates. In terms of interannual variability (IAV), all mapping methods estimate the largest variations to occur in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Despite considerable spread in the detailed variations, mapping methods that fit the data more closely also tend to agree more closely with each other in regional averages. Encouragingly, this includes mapping methods belonging to complementary types – taking variability either directly from the pCO2 data or indirectly from driver data via regression. From a weighted ensemble average, we find an IAV amplitude of the global sea–air CO2 flux of 0.31 PgC yr−1 (standard deviation over 1992–2009), which is larger than simulated by biogeochemical process models. From a decadal perspective, the global ocean CO2 uptake is estimated to have gradually increased since about 2000, with little decadal change prior to that. The weighted mean net global ocean CO2 sink estimated by the SOCOM ensemble is −1.75 PgC yr−1 (1992–2009), consistent within uncertainties with estimates from ocean-interior carbon data or atmospheric oxygen trends.

Short summary
This study investigates variations in the CO2 uptake of the ocean from year to year. These variations have been calculated from measurements of the surface-ocean carbon content by various different interpolation methods. The equatorial Pacific is estimated to be the region with the strongest year-to-year variations, tied to the El Nino phase. The global ocean CO2 uptake gradually increased from about the year 2000. The comparison of the interpolation methods identifies these findings as robust.
Final-revised paper