A data-model fusion approach for upscaling gross ecosystem productivity to the landscape scale based on remote sensing and flux footprint modelling
Abstract. In order to use the global available eddy-covariance (EC) flux dataset and remote-sensing measurements to provide estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) at landscape (101–102 km2), regional (103–106 km2) and global land surface scales, we developed a satellite-based GPP algorithm using LANDSAT data and an upscaling framework. The satellite-based GPP algorithm uses two improved vegetation indices (Enhanced Vegetation Index – EVI, Land Surface Water Index – LSWI). The upscalling framework involves flux footprint climatology modelling and data-model fusion. This approach was first applied to an evergreen coniferous stand in the subtropical monsoon climatic zone of south China. The EC measurements at Qian Yan Zhou tower site (26°44´48" N, 115°04´13" E), which belongs to the China flux network and the LANDSAT and MODIS imagery data for this region in 2004 were used in this study. A consecutive series of LANDSAT-like images of the surface reflectance at an 8-day interval were predicted by blending the LANDSAT and MODIS images using an existing algorithm (ESTARFM: Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model). The seasonal dynamics of GPP were then predicted by the satellite-based algorithm. MODIS products explained 60% of observed variations of GPP and underestimated the measured annual GPP (= 1879 g C m−2) by 25–30%; while the satellite-based algorithm with default static parameters explained 88% of observed variations of GPP but overestimated GPP during the growing seasonal by about 20–25%. The optimization of the satellite-based algorithm using a data-model fusion technique with the assistance of EC flux tower footprint modelling reduced the biases in daily GPP estimations from about 2.24 g C m−2 day−1 (non-optimized, ~43.5% of mean measured daily value) to 1.18 g C m−2 day−1 (optimized, ~22.9% of mean measured daily value). The remotely sensed GPP using the optimized algorithm can explain 92% of the seasonal variations of EC observed GPP. These results demonstrated the potential combination of the satellite-based algorithm, flux footprint modelling and data-model fusion for improving the accuracy of landscape/regional GPP estimation, a key component for the study of the carbon cycle.