Predicting and partitioning ozone fluxes to maize crops from sowing to harvest: the Surfatm-O3 model
Abstract. Terrestrial ecosystems represent a major sink for ozone (O3) and also a critical control of tropospheric O3 budget. However, due to its deleterious effects, plant functioning is affected by the ozone absorbed. It is thus necessary to both predict total ozone deposition to ecosystems and partition the fluxes in stomatal and non-stomatal pathways. The Surfatm-O3 model was developed to predict ozone deposition to agroecosystems from sowing to harvest, taking into account each deposition pathways during bare soil, growth, maturity, and senescence periods. An additional sink was added during senescence: stomatal deposition for yellow leaves, not able to photosynthesise but transpiring. The model was confronted to measurements performed over three maize crops in different regions of France. Modelled and measured fluxes agreed well for one dataset for any phenological stage, with only 4% difference over the whole cropping season. A larger discrepancy was found for the two other sites, 15% and 18% over the entire study period, especially during bare soil, early growth and senescence. This was attributed to site-specific soil resistance to ozone and possible chemical reactions between ozone and volatile organic compounds emitted during late senescence. Considering both night-time and daytime conditions, non-stomatal deposition was the major ozone sink, from 100% during bare soil period to 70–80% on average during maturity. However, considering only daytime conditions, especially under optimal climatic conditions for plant functioning, stomatal flux could represent 75% of total ozone flux. This model could improve estimates of crop yield losses and projections of tropospheric ozone budget.