Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2023-128
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2023-128
09 Aug 2023
 | 09 Aug 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal BG.

Ecological evolution in northern Iberia (SW Europe) during the Late Pleistocene through isotopic analysis on ungulate teeth

Monica Fernández-Garcia, Sarah Pederzani, Kate Britton, Lucia Agudo-Pérez, Andrea Cicero, Jeanne Geiling, Joan Daura, Montse Sanz-Borrás, and Ana B. Marín-Arroyo

Abstract. During the Late Pleistocene, stadial and interstadial fluctuations affected vegetation, fauna, and human groups that were forced to cope with these pronounced climatic and environmental changes in time and space. These changes were especially abrupt during the Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 3. However, little is still known about the local and regional climatic conditions experienced by hominins in Europe. Here we reconstruct the climatic trends in northern Iberia considering the stable isotopic composition of ungulate skeletal tissues found in archaeological deposits dated between 80 to 15,000 cal BP. The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition preserved in the carbonate fraction of tooth enamel provides a reliable and high-resolution proxy of the food and water consumed by these animals, which is indirectly related to the local vegetation, environment, and climate, allowing us to estimate paleotemperatures and rainfall data. This study presents 44 bovine, equid, and cervid teeth from five archaeological sites in the Vasco-Cantabrian region (El Castillo, El Otero, Axlor, Labeko Koba, Aitzbitarte III) and one in the Mediterranean area (Canyars), where human evidence is attested from the Mousterian to the Magdalenian. The carbon isotope values reflect animals feeding on C3 plants with a mix-feeder diet mainly developed in open environments. However, carbon isotope value ranges point to differentiated ecological niches for equids and bovines, especially during the Aurignacian in the Vasco-Cantabrian region. Temperature estimations based on oxygen isotopic compositions and rainfall obtained from carbon isotopic compositions indicate colder and more arid conditions than nowadays from the Late Mousterian to the Aurignacian. The contemporary Mediterranean site shows slightly lower temperatures related to an arid period when animals mainly graze in open landscapes. In the Vasco-Cantabrian region, during the MIS2, the Gravettian data reflect a landscape opening, whereas the Magdalenian point to warmer conditions but still arid.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Monica Fernández-Garcia, Sarah Pederzani, Kate Britton, Lucia Agudo-Pérez, Andrea Cicero, Jeanne Geiling, Joan Daura, Montse Sanz-Borrás, and Ana B. Marín-Arroyo

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on bg-2023-128', Anonymous Referee #1, 09 Oct 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Ana B. Marín-Arroyo, 13 Nov 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on bg-2023-128', Anonymous Referee #2, 23 Oct 2023
Monica Fernández-Garcia, Sarah Pederzani, Kate Britton, Lucia Agudo-Pérez, Andrea Cicero, Jeanne Geiling, Joan Daura, Montse Sanz-Borrás, and Ana B. Marín-Arroyo
Monica Fernández-Garcia, Sarah Pederzani, Kate Britton, Lucia Agudo-Pérez, Andrea Cicero, Jeanne Geiling, Joan Daura, Montse Sanz-Borrás, and Ana B. Marín-Arroyo

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Short summary
Significant climatic changes affected Europe's landscape, animals, and human groups during the Late Pleistocene. Reconstructing the local conditions humans faced is essential to understand adaptation processes and resilience. This study analyzed the chemical composition of animal teeth consumed by humans in northern Iberia, spanning 80,000 to 15,000 years, revealing the ecological changing conditios.
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