Articles | Volume 11, issue 4
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Biogeochemistry of the North Atlantic during oceanic anoxic event 2: role of changes in ocean circulation and phosphorus input
I. Ruvalcaba Baroni
Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht, the Netherlands
R. P. M. Topper
Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht, the Netherlands
N. A. G. M. van Helmond
Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg, Texel, the Netherlands
C. P. Slomp
Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht, the Netherlands
No articles found.
Frida S. Hoem, Adrián López-Quirós, Suzanna van de Lagemaat, Johan Etourneau, Marie-Alexandrine Sicre, Carlota Escutia, Henk Brinkhuis, Francien Peterse, Francesca Sangiorgi, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 19, 1931–1949,Short summary
We present two new sea surface temperature (SST) records in comparison with available SST records to reconstruct South Atlantic paleoceanographic evolution. Our results show a low SST gradient in the Eocene–early Oligocene due to the persistent gyral circulation. A higher SST gradient in the Middle–Late Miocene infers a stronger circumpolar current. The southern South Atlantic was the coldest region in the Southern Ocean and likely the main deep-water formation location in the Middle Miocene.
William Rush, Jean Self-Trail, Yang Zhang, Appy Sluijs, Henk Brinkhuis, James Zachos, James G. Ogg, and Marci Robinson
Clim. Past, 19, 1677–1698,Short summary
The Eocene contains several brief warming periods referred to as hyperthermals. Studying these events and how they varied between locations can help provide insight into our future warmer world. This study provides a characterization of two of these events in the mid-Atlantic region of the USA. The records of climate that we measured demonstrate significant changes during this time period, but the type and timing of these changes highlight the complexity of climatic changes.
Wout Krijgsman, Iuliana Vasiliev, Anouk Beniest, Timothy Lyons, Johanna Lofi, Gabor Tari, Caroline P. Slomp, Namik Cagatay, Maria Triantaphyllou, Rachel Flecker, Dan Palcu, Cecilia McHugh, Helge Arz, Pierre Henry, Karen Lloyd, Gunay Cifci, Özgür Sipahioglu, Dimitris Sakellariou, and the BlackGate workshop participants
Sci. Dril., 31, 93–110,Short summary
BlackGate seeks to MSP drill a transect to study the impact of dramatic hydrologic change in Mediterranean–Black Sea connectivity by recovering the Messinian to Holocene (~ 7 Myr) sedimentary sequence in the North Aegean, Marmara, and Black seas. These archives will reveal hydrographic, biotic, and climatic transitions studied by a broad scientific community spanning the stratigraphic, tectonic, biogeochemical, and microbiological evolution of Earth’s most recent saline and anoxic giant.
Karol Kuliński, Gregor Rehder, Eero Asmala, Alena Bartosova, Jacob Carstensen, Bo Gustafsson, Per O. J. Hall, Christoph Humborg, Tom Jilbert, Klaus Jürgens, H. E. Markus Meier, Bärbel Müller-Karulis, Michael Naumann, Jørgen E. Olesen, Oleg Savchuk, Andreas Schramm, Caroline P. Slomp, Mikhail Sofiev, Anna Sobek, Beata Szymczycha, and Emma Undeman
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 633–685,Short summary
The paper covers the aspects related to changes in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (C, N, P) external loads; their transformations in the coastal zone; changes in organic matter production (eutrophication) and remineralization (oxygen availability); and the role of sediments in burial and turnover of C, N, and P. Furthermore, this paper also focuses on changes in the marine CO2 system, the structure of the microbial community, and the role of contaminants for biogeochemical processes.
Frida S. Hoem, Isabel Sauermilch, Suning Hou, Henk Brinkhuis, Francesca Sangiorgi, and Peter K. Bijl
J. Micropalaeontol., 40, 175–193,Short summary
We use marine microfossil (dinocyst) assemblage data as well as seismic and tectonic investigations to reconstruct the oceanographic history south of Australia 37–20 Ma as the Tasmanian Gateway widens and deepens. Our results show stable conditions with typically warmer dinocysts south of Australia, which contrasts with the colder dinocysts closer to Antarctica, indicating the establishment of modern oceanographic conditions with a strong Southern Ocean temperature gradient and frontal systems.
Tanya J. R. Lippmann, Michiel H. in 't Zandt, Nathalie N. L. Van der Putten, Freek S. Busschers, Marc P. Hijma, Pieter van der Velden, Tim de Groot, Zicarlo van Aalderen, Ove H. Meisel, Caroline P. Slomp, Helge Niemann, Mike S. M. Jetten, Han A. J. Dolman, and Cornelia U. Welte
Biogeosciences, 18, 5491–5511,Short summary
This paper is a step towards understanding the basal peat ecosystem beneath the North Sea. Plant remains followed parallel sequences. Methane concentrations were low with local exceptions, with the source likely being trapped pockets of millennia-old methane. Microbial community structure indicated the absence of a biofilter and was diverse across sites. Large carbon stores in the presence of methanogens and in the absence of methanotrophs have the potential to be metabolized into methane.
Frida S. Hoem, Luis Valero, Dimitris Evangelinos, Carlota Escutia, Bella Duncan, Robert M. McKay, Henk Brinkhuis, Francesca Sangiorgi, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 17, 1423–1442,Short summary
We present new offshore palaeoceanographic reconstructions for the Oligocene (33.7–24.4 Ma) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Our study of dinoflagellate cysts and lipid biomarkers indicates warm-temperate sea surface conditions. We posit that warm surface-ocean conditions near the continental shelf during the Oligocene promoted increased precipitation and heat delivery towards Antarctica that led to dynamic terrestrial ice sheet volumes in the warmer climate state of the Oligocene.
Martijn Hermans, Nils Risgaard-Petersen, Filip J. R. Meysman, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 17, 5919–5938,Short summary
This paper demonstrates that the recently discovered cable bacteria are capable of using a mineral, known as siderite, as a source for the formation of iron oxides. This work also demonstrates that the activity of cable bacteria can lead to a distinct subsurface layer in the sediment that can be used as a marker for their activity.
Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Elizabeth K. Robertson, Daniel J. Conley, Martijn Hermans, Christoph Humborg, L. Joëlle Kubeneck, Wytze K. Lenstra, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 17, 2745–2766,Short summary
We studied the removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the eutrophic Stockholm archipelago (SA). High sedimentation rates and sediment P contents lead to high P burial. Benthic denitrification is the primary nitrate-reducing pathway. Together, these mechanisms limit P and N transport to the open Baltic Sea. We expect that further nutrient load reduction will contribute to recovery of the SA from low-oxygen conditions and that the sediments will continue to remove part of the P and N loads.
Julien Richirt, Bettina Riedel, Aurélia Mouret, Magali Schweizer, Dewi Langlet, Dorina Seitaj, Filip J. R. Meysman, Caroline P. Slomp, and Frans J. Jorissen
Biogeosciences, 17, 1415–1435,Short summary
The paper presents the response of benthic foraminiferal communities to seasonal absence of oxygen coupled with the presence of hydrogen sulfide, considered very harmful for several living organisms. Our results suggest that the foraminiferal community mainly responds as a function of the duration of the adverse conditions. This knowledge is especially useful to better understand the ecology of benthic foraminifera but also in the context of palaeoceanographic interpretations.
Erik Gustafsson, Mathilde Hagens, Xiaole Sun, Daniel C. Reed, Christoph Humborg, Caroline P. Slomp, and Bo G. Gustafsson
Biogeosciences, 16, 437–456,Short summary
This work highlights that iron (Fe) dynamics plays a key role in the release of alkalinity from sediments, as exemplified for the Baltic Sea. It furthermore demonstrates that burial of Fe sulfides should be included in alkalinity budgets of low-oxygen basins. The sedimentary alkalinity generation may undergo large changes depending on both organic matter loads and oxygen conditions. Enhanced release of alkalinity from the seafloor can increase the CO2 storage capacity of seawater.
Wytze K. Lenstra, Matthias Egger, Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Emma Kritzberg, Daniel J. Conley, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 15, 6979–6996,Short summary
We show that burial rates of phosphorus (P) in an estuary in the northern Baltic Sea are very high. We demonstrate that at high sedimentation rates, P retention in the sediment is related to the formation of vivianite. With a reactive transport model, we assess the sensitivity of sedimentary vivianite formation. We suggest that enrichments of iron and P in the sediment are linked to periods of enhanced riverine input of Fe, which subsequently strongly enhances P burial in coastal sediments.
Julian D. Hartman, Francesca Sangiorgi, Ariadna Salabarnada, Francien Peterse, Alexander J. P. Houben, Stefan Schouten, Henk Brinkhuis, Carlota Escutia, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 14, 1275–1297,Short summary
We reconstructed sea surface temperatures for the Oligocene and Miocene periods (34–11 Ma) based on archaeal lipids from a site close to the Wilkes Land coast, Antarctica. Our record suggests generally warm to temperate surface waters: on average 17 °C. Based on the lithology, glacial and interglacial temperatures could be distinguished, showing an average 3 °C offset. The long-term temperature trend resembles the benthic δ18O stack, which may have implications for ice volume reconstructions.
Ariadna Salabarnada, Carlota Escutia, Ursula Röhl, C. Hans Nelson, Robert McKay, Francisco J. Jiménez-Espejo, Peter K. Bijl, Julian D. Hartman, Stephanie L. Strother, Ulrich Salzmann, Dimitris Evangelinos, Adrián López-Quirós, José Abel Flores, Francesca Sangiorgi, Minoru Ikehara, and Henk Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 14, 991–1014,Short summary
Here we reconstruct ice sheet and paleoceanographic configurations in the East Antarctic Wilkes Land margin based on a multi-proxy study conducted in late Oligocene (26–25 Ma) sediments from IODP Site U1356. The new obliquity-forced glacial–interglacial sedimentary model shows that, under the high CO2 values of the late Oligocene, ice sheets had mostly retreated to their terrestrial margins and the ocean was very dynamic with shifting positions of the polar fronts and associated water masses.
Timme H. Donders, Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Roel Verreussel, Dirk Munsterman, Johan ten Veen, Robert P. Speijer, Johan W. H. Weijers, Francesca Sangiorgi, Francien Peterse, Gert-Jan Reichart, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Lucas Lourens, Gesa Kuhlmann, and Henk Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 14, 397–411,Short summary
The buildup and melting of ice during the early glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere, around 2.5 million years ago, were far shorter in duration than during the last million years. Based on molecular compounds and microfossils from sediments dating back to the early glaciations we show that the temperature on land and in the sea changed simultaneously and was a major factor in the ice buildup in the Northern Hemisphere. These data provide key insights into the dynamics of early glaciations.
Nikki Dijkstra, Mathilde Hagens, Matthias Egger, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 15, 861–883,Short summary
We show that post-depositional formation of iron(II) phosphate as vivianite strongly alters the phosphorus record in sediments of the Bornholm Basin (Baltic Sea). These minerals began to precipitate in the lake sediments just after the last lake–marine transition ~ 7.5 kyr BP, migrated downwards and are now a stable feature. Formation of vivianite may affect sedimentary phosphorus records in other systems as well. This should be considered when using such records to reconstruct past environments.
Jassin Petersen, Christine Barras, Antoine Bézos, Carole La, Lennart J. de Nooijer, Filip J. R. Meysman, Aurélia Mouret, Caroline P. Slomp, and Frans J. Jorissen
Biogeosciences, 15, 331–348,Short summary
In Lake Grevelingen, a coastal ecosystem, foraminifera experience important temporal variations in oxygen concentration and in pore water manganese. The high resolution of LA-ICP-MS allows us to analyse the chambers of foraminiferal shells separately and to obtain signals from a series of calcification events. We estimate the variability in Mn/Ca observed within single shells due to biomineralization and show that a substantial part of the signal is related to environmental variability.
Ulrich Kotthoff, Jeroen Groeneveld, Jeanine L. Ash, Anne-Sophie Fanget, Nadine Quintana Krupinski, Odile Peyron, Anna Stepanova, Jonathan Warnock, Niels A. G. M. Van Helmond, Benjamin H. Passey, Ole Rønø Clausen, Ole Bennike, Elinor Andrén, Wojciech Granoszewski, Thomas Andrén, Helena L. Filipsson, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, Caroline P. Slomp, and Thorsten Bauersachs
Biogeosciences, 14, 5607–5632,Short summary
We present reconstructions of paleotemperature, paleosalinity, and paleoecology from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past ~ 8000 years and evaluate the applicability of numerous proxies. Conditions were lacustrine until ~ 7400 cal yr BP. A transition to brackish–marine conditions then occurred within ~ 200 years. Salinity proxies rarely allowed quantitative estimates but revealed congruent results, while quantitative temperature reconstructions differed depending on the proxies used.
Johan Vellekoop, Lineke Woelders, Sanem Açikalin, Jan Smit, Bas van de Schootbrugge, Ismail Ö. Yilmaz, Henk Brinkhuis, and Robert P. Speijer
Biogeosciences, 14, 885–900,Short summary
The Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, ~ 66 Ma, is characterized by a mass extinction. We studied groups of both surface-dwelling and bottom-dwelling organisms to unravel the oceanographic consequences of these extinctions. Our integrated records indicate that a reduction of the transport of organic matter to the sea floor resulted in enhanced recycling of nutrients in the upper water column and decreased food supply at the sea floor in the first tens of thousands of years after the extinctions.
Matthias Egger, Peter Kraal, Tom Jilbert, Fatimah Sulu-Gambari, Célia J. Sapart, Thomas Röckmann, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 13, 5333–5355,Short summary
By combining detailed geochemical analyses with diagenetic modeling, we provide new insights into how methane dynamics may strongly overprint burial records of iron, sulfur and phosphorus in marine systems subject to changes in organic matter loading or water column salinity. A better understanding of these processes will improve our ability to read ancient sediment records and thus to predict the potential consequences of global warming and human-enhanced inputs of nutrients to the ocean.
Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Appy Sluijs, Nina M. Papadomanolaki, A. Guy Plint, Darren R. Gröcke, Martin A. Pearce, James S. Eldrett, João Trabucho-Alexandre, Ireneusz Walaszczyk, Bas van de Schootbrugge, and Henk Brinkhuis
Biogeosciences, 13, 2859–2872,Short summary
Over the past decades large changes have been observed in the biogeographical dispersion of marine life resulting from climate change. To better understand present and future trends it is important to document and fully understand the biogeographical response of marine life during episodes of environmental change in the geological past. Here we investigate the response of phytoplankton, the base of the marine food web, to a rapid cold spell, interrupting greenhouse conditions during the Cretaceous.
C. Lenz, T. Jilbert, D.J. Conley, M. Wolthers, and C.P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 12, 4875–4894,
N. A. G. M. van Helmond, A. Sluijs, J. S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.-J. Reichart, S. Voigt, J. Erbacher, J. Pross, and H. Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 11, 495–508,Short summary
Based on the chemistry and microfossils preserved in sediments deposited in a shallow sea, in the current Lower Saxony region (NW Germany), we conclude that changes in Earth’s orbit around the Sun led to enhanced rainfall and organic matter production. The additional supply of organic matter, depleting oxygen upon degradation, and freshwater, inhibiting the mixing of oxygen-rich surface waters with deeper waters, caused the development of oxygen-poor waters about 94 million years ago.
M. Hagens, C. P. Slomp, F. J. R. Meysman, D. Seitaj, J. Harlay, A. V. Borges, and J. J. Middelburg
Biogeosciences, 12, 1561–1583,Short summary
This study looks at the combined impacts of hypoxia and acidification, two major environmental stressors affecting coastal systems, in a seasonally stratified basin. Here, the surface water experiences less seasonality in pH than the bottom water despite higher process rates. This is due to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the bottom water as it turns hypoxic in summer. This highlights the crucial role of the buffering capacity as a modulating factor in pH dynamics.
A. Sluijs, L. van Roij, G. J. Harrington, S. Schouten, J. A. Sessa, L. J. LeVay, G.-J. Reichart, and C. P. Slomp
Clim. Past, 10, 1421–1439,
L. Contreras, J. Pross, P. K. Bijl, R. B. O'Hara, J. I. Raine, A. Sluijs, and H. Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 10, 1401–1420,
A. F. Bouwman, M. F. P. Bierkens, J. Griffioen, M. M. Hefting, J. J. Middelburg, H. Middelkoop, and C. P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 10, 1–22,
Related subject area
Paleobiogeoscience: Past Ecosystem FunctioningThe Volyn biota (Ukraine) – indications of 1.5 Gyr old eukaryotes in 3D preservation, a spotlight on the “boring billion”Pyrite-lined shells as indicators of inefficient bioirrigation in the Holocene–Anthropocene stratigraphic recordThe Cretaceous physiological adaptation of angiosperms to a declining pCO2: a modeling approach emulating paleo-traitsInfluence of late Quaternary climate on the biogeography of Neotropical aquatic species as reflected by non-marine ostracodesPhytoplankton community disruption caused by latest Cretaceous global warmingThe colonization of the oceans by calcifying pelagic algaeA conservation palaeobiological approach to assess faunal response of threatened biota under natural and anthropogenic environmental changeA 150-year record of phytoplankton community succession controlled by hydroclimatic variability in a tropical lakeBlooms of cyanobacteria in a temperate Australian lagoon system post and prior to European settlementComplexity of diatom response to Lateglacial and Holocene climate and environmental change in ancient, deep and oligotrophic Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)Age structure, carbonate production and shell loss rate in an Early Miocene reef of the giant oyster Crassostrea gryphoidesFundamental molecules of life are pigments which arose and co-evolved as a response to the thermodynamic imperative of dissipating the prevailing solar spectrumLena River delta formation during the HoloceneHistorical TOC concentration minima during peak sulfur deposition in two Swedish lakesThe Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepageScaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming eventsNorthern peatland carbon stocks and dynamics: a review
Gerhard Franz, Vladimir Khomenko, Peter Lyckberg, Vsevolod Chournousenko, Ulrich Struck, Ulrich Gernert, and Jörg Nissen
Biogeosciences, 20, 1901–1924,Short summary
This research describes the occurrence of Precambrian fossils, with exceptionally well preserved morphology in 3D. These microfossils reach a size of millimeters (possibly up to centimeters) and thus indicate the presence of multicellular eukaryotes. Many of them are filamentous, but other types were also found. These fossils lived in a depth of several hundred meters and thus provide good evidence of a continental the deep biosphere, from a time generally considered as the
Adam Tomašových, Michaela Berensmeier, Ivo Gallmetzer, Alexandra Haselmair, and Martin Zuschin
Biogeosciences, 18, 5929–5965,Short summary
The timescale of mixing and irrigation of sediments by burrowers that affect biogeochemical cycles is difficult to estimate in the stratigraphic record. We show that pyrite linings in molluscan shells preserved below the mixed layer represent a signature of limited bioirrigation. We document an increase in the frequency of pyrite-lined shells in cores collected in the northern Adriatic Sea, suggesting that bioirrigation rates significantly declined during the late 20th century.
Julia Bres, Pierre Sepulchre, Nicolas Viovy, and Nicolas Vuichard
Biogeosciences, 18, 5729–5750,Short summary
We emulate angiosperm paleo-traits in a land surface model according to the fossil record, and we assess this paleovegetation functioning under different pCO2 from the leaf scale to the global scale. We show that photosynthesis, transpiration and water-use efficiency are dependent on both the vegetation parameterization and the pCO2. Comparing the modeled vegetation with the fossil record, we provide clues on how to account for angiosperm evolutionary traits in paleoclimate simulations.
Sergio Cohuo, Laura Macario-González, Sebastian Wagner, Katrin Naumann, Paula Echeverría-Galindo, Liseth Pérez, Jason Curtis, Mark Brenner, and Antje Schwalb
Biogeosciences, 17, 145–161,Short summary
We evaluated how freshwater ostracode species responded to long-term and abrupt climate fluctuations during the last 155 kyr in the northern Neotropical region. We used fossil records and species distribution modelling. Fossil evidence suggests negligible effects of long-term climate variations on aquatic niche stability. Models suggest that abrupt climate fluctuation forced species to migrate south to Central America. Micro-refugia and meta-populations can explain survival of endemic species.
Johan Vellekoop, Lineke Woelders, Appy Sluijs, Kenneth G. Miller, and Robert P. Speijer
Biogeosciences, 16, 4201–4210,Short summary
Our micropaleontological analyses on three cores from New Jersey (USA) show that the late Maastrichtian warming event (66.4–66.1 Ma), characterized by a ~ 4.0 °C warming of sea waters on the New Jersey paleoshelf, resulted in a disruption of phytoplankton communities and a stressed benthic ecosystem. This increased ecosystem stress during the latest Maastrichtian potentially primed global ecosystems for the subsequent mass extinction following the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary impact.
Baptiste Suchéras-Marx, Emanuela Mattioli, Pascal Allemand, Fabienne Giraud, Bernard Pittet, Julien Plancq, and Gilles Escarguel
Biogeosciences, 16, 2501–2510,Short summary
Calcareous nannoplankton are photosynthetic plankton producing micrometric calcite platelets having a fossil record covering the past 200 Myr. Based on species richness, platelets size and abundance we observed four evolution phases through time: Jurassic–Early Cretaceous invasion phase of the open ocean, Early Cretaceous–K–Pg extinction specialization phase to the ecological niches, post-K–Pg mass extinction recovery and Eocene–Neogene establishment phase with domination of a few small species.
Sabrina van de Velde, Elisabeth L. Jorissen, Thomas A. Neubauer, Silviu Radan, Ana Bianca Pavel, Marius Stoica, Christiaan G. C. Van Baak, Alberto Martínez Gándara, Luis Popa, Henko de Stigter, Hemmo A. Abels, Wout Krijgsman, and Frank P. Wesselingh
Biogeosciences, 16, 2423–2442,
Kweku Afrifa Yamoah, Nolwenn Callac, Ernest Chi Fru, Barbara Wohlfarth, Alan Wiech, Akkaneewut Chabangborn, and Rienk H. Smittenberg
Biogeosciences, 13, 3971–3980,Short summary
Predicting the effects of changing climate on microbial community shifts on longer timescales can be challenging. This study exploits the power of combining organic geochemistry, molecular microbial ecology, and geochemistry to unravel trends in microbial community induced by climatic variability. Our results show that climate-induced variability on decadal timescales can trigger changes in both lake trophic status and phytoplankton communities.
Perran L. M. Cook, Miles Jennings, Daryl P. Holland, John Beardall, Christy Briles, Atun Zawadzki, Phuong Doan, Keely Mills, and Peter Gell
Biogeosciences, 13, 3677–3686,Short summary
The Gippsland Lakes, Australia, have suffered from periodic blooms of cyanobacteria (blue green algae) since the mid 1980s. Prior to this, little is known about the history of cyanobacterial blooms in this system. We investigated the history of cyanobacterial blooms using a sediment core taken from the Gippsland Lakes which had each layer dated using lead isotopes. The results showed that surprising blooms of cyanobacteria were also prevalent prior to European settlement
X. S. Zhang, J. M. Reed, J. H. Lacey, A. Francke, M. J. Leng, Z. Levkov, and B. Wagner
Biogeosciences, 13, 1351–1365,
Mathias Harzhauser, Ana Djuricic, Oleg Mandic, Thomas A. Neubauer, Martin Zuschin, and Norbert Pfeifer
Biogeosciences, 13, 1223–1235,Short summary
We present the first analysis of population structure and cohort distribution in a fossil oyster reef. Data are derived from Terrestrial Laser Scanning of a Miocene shell bed covering 459 m². A growth model was calculated, revealing this species as the giant oyster Crassostrea gryphoides was the fastest growing oyster known so far. The shell half-lives range around few years, indicating that oyster reefs were geologically short-lived structures, which were degraded on a decadal scale.
K. Michaelian and A. Simeonov
Biogeosciences, 12, 4913–4937,Short summary
We show that the fundamental molecules of life (those common to all three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota), including nucleotides, amino acids, enzyme cofactors, and porphyrin agglomerates, absorb light strongly from 230 to 280nm (in the UV-C) and have chemical affinity to RNA and DNA. This supports the "thermodynamic dissipation theory for the origin of life", which suggests that life arose and evolved as a response to dissipating the prevailing Archaean UV-C sunlight into heat.
D. Bolshiyanov, A. Makarov, and L. Savelieva
Biogeosciences, 12, 579–593,
P. Bragée, F. Mazier, A. B. Nielsen, P. Rosén, D. Fredh, A. Broström, W. Granéli, and D. Hammarlund
Biogeosciences, 12, 307–322,
M. Taviani, L. Angeletti, A. Ceregato, F. Foglini, C. Froglia, and F. Trincardi
Biogeosciences, 10, 4653–4671,
S. J. Gibbs, P. R. Bown, B. H. Murphy, A. Sluijs, K. M. Edgar, H. Pälike, C. T. Bolton, and J. C. Zachos
Biogeosciences, 9, 4679–4688,
Z. C. Yu
Biogeosciences, 9, 4071–4085,
Algeo, T. J. and Ingall, E.: Sedimentary Corg:P ratios, paleocean ventilation, and Phanerozoic atmospheric pO2, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol., 256, 130–155, 2007.
Andersson, J. H., Woulds, C., Schwartz, M., Cowie, G. L., Levin, L. A., Soetaert, K., and Middelburg, J. J.: Short-term fate of phytodetritus in sediments across the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone, Biogeosciences, 5, 43–53, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-5-43-2008, 2008.
Arthur, M. A. and Dean, W. A. Pratt, L. M.: Geochemical and climatic effects of increased marine organic carbon burial at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Nature, 335, 714–717, https://doi.org/10.1038/335714a0, 1988.
Arthur, M. A. and Fischer, A. G.: Upper Cretaceous–Paleocene magnetic stratigraphy at Gubbio, Italy I. Lithostratigraphy and sedimentology, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 88, 367–371, 1977.
Arthur, M. A., Dean, W. A., Neff, E. D., Hay, B. J., King, J., and Jones, G.: Varve calibration records of carbonate and organic carbon accumulation over the last 2000 years in the Black Sea, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 8, 195–217, 1994.
Barron, E. J., Fawcett, P. J., Pollard, D., Thompson, S., Berger, A., and Valdes, P.: Model Simulations of Cretaceous Climates: The Role of Geography and Carbon Dioxide, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 341, 307–316, 1993.
Benson, B. B. and Krause, D. J.: The concentration and isotopic fractionation of oxygen dissolved in freshwater and seawater in equilibrium with the atmosphere, Limnol. Oceanogr., 29, 620–632, 1984.
Bice, K. L., Huber, B. T., and Norris, R. D.: Extreme polar warmth during the Cretaceous greenhouse?: The paradox of the Late Turonian Record at DSDP Site 511, Paleoceanography, 18, 1031, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002PA000848, 2003.
Bice, K. L., Birgel, D., Meyers, P. A., Dahl, K. A., Hinrichs, K.-U., and Norris, R. D.: A multiple proxy and model study of Cretaceous upper ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, Paleoceanography, 21, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001203, 2006.
Bjerrum, C. J., Bendtsen, J., and Legarth, J. J. F.: Modeling organic carbon burial during sea level rise with reference to the Cretaceous, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 7, 1–24, 2006.
Blättler, C. L., Jenkyns, H. C., Reynard, L. M., and Henderson, G. M.: Significant increases in global weathering during Oceanic Anoxic Events 1a and 2 indicated by calcium isotopes, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 309, 77–88, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.06.029, 2011.
Bowman, A. R. and Bralower, T. J.: Paleoceanographic significance of high-resolution carbon isotope records across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in the Western Interior and New Jersey coastal plain, USA, Mar. Geol., 217, 305–321, 2005.
Campbell, J. W. and Aarup, T.: New production in the North Atlantic derived from seasonal patterns of surface chlorophyll, Deep Sea Res., 39, 1669–1694, 1992.
Cunningham, S. A., Kanzow, T., Rayner, D., Baringer, M. O., Johns, W. E., Marotzke, J., Longworth, H. R., Grant, E. M. Hirschi, J. J. M., Beal, L. M., Meinen, C. S., and Bryden, H. L.: Temporal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5° N, Science, 317, 935–938, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1141304, 2007.
Erbacher, J., Thurow, J., and Littke, R.: Evolution patterns of radiolaria and organic matter variations: A new approach to identify sea-level changes in mid-Cretaceous pelagic environments, Geology, 24, 499–502, 1996.
Erbacher, J., Huber, B. T., Norris, R. D., and Markey, M.: Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period, Nature, 409, 325–327, 2001.
Erbacher, J., Mosher, D. C., and Malone, M.: Shipboard scientific party, in: Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, Initial reports, 207, 845–954, 2004.
Erbacher, J., Friedrich, O., Wilson, P. A., Birch, H., and Mutterlose, J.: Stable organic carbon isotope stratigraphy across Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 of Demerara Rise, Western Tropical Atlantic, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 6, 1–9, 2005.
Fashman, M. J. R.: Ocean Biogeochemistry: The role of the ocean carbon cycle in global change, Springer, 2003.
Filippelli, G. M. and Delaney, M. L.: Phosphorus geochemistry of equatorial Pacific sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60, 1479–1495, 1996.
Flögel, S., Wallmann, K., Poulsen, C. J., Zhou, J., Oschlies, A., Voigt, S., and Kuhnt, W.: Simulating the biogeochemical effects of volcanic CO2 degassing on the oxygen-state of the deep ocean during the Cenomanian-Turonian Anoxic Event (OAE2), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 305, 371–384, 2011.
Föllmi, K. B.: 160 m.y. record of marine sedimentary phosphorus burial: coupling of climate and continental weathering under greenhouse and icehouse conditions, Geology, 23, 859–862, 1995.
Föllmi, K. B.: The phosphorus cycle, phosphogenesis and marine phosphate-rich deposits, Earth Sci. Rev., 40, 55–124, 1999.
Forster, A., Schouten, S., Baas, M., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: Mid-Cretaceous (Albian–Santonian) sea surface temperature record of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Geology, 35, 919–922, 2007.
Freeman, K. H. and Hayes, J. M.: Fractionation of carbon isotopes by phytoplankton and estimates of ancient CO2 levels, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 6, 185–198, 1992.
Friedrich, O. and Erbacher, J.: Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Demarara Rise (ODP Leg 207, western tropical Atlantic): possible evidence for a progressive opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway, Cretaceous Res., 27, 377–397, 2006.
Gale, A. S. and Christensen, W. K.: Occurrence of the belemnite Actinocamax plenus in the Cenomanian of SE France and its significance, Bull. Geol. So. Denmark, 43, 68–77, 1996.
Gale, A. S., Smith, A. B., Monks, N. E. A., Young, J. A., Howard, A., Wray, D. S., and Huggett, J. M.: Marine biodiversity through Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian: Palaeoceanographic controls and sequence stratigraphic biases, J. Geol. Soc., 159, 745–757, 2000.
Gale, A. S., Hardenbol, J., Hathway, B., Kennedy, W. J., Young, J. R., and Phansalkar, V.: Global correlation of Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) sequences: Evidence for Milankovitch control on sea level, Geology, 30, 291–294, 2002.
Gupta, A.: Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management, Wiley, 2007.
Handoh, I. C. and Lenton, T. M.: Periodic mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events linked by oscillations of the phosphorus and oxygen biogeochemical cycles, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 17, 1–11, 2003.
Harrison, J. A., Seitzinger, S. P., Caraco, N., Beusen, A. H. W., and Vörösmarty, C. J.: Dissolved inorganic phosphorous export to the coastal zone: Results from a spatially explicit, global model, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002357, 2005.
Hartnett, H. E., Keil, R. G., Hedges, J. I., and Devol, A. H.: Influence of oxygen exposure time on organic carbon preservation in continental margin sediments, Nature, 391, 572–574, 1998.
Herbin, J. P., Montadert, L., Miiller, C., Gomez, R., Thurow, J., and Wiedmann, J.: Organic-rich sedimentation at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in oceanic and coastal basins in the North Atlantic and Tethys, Geological Society Special Publication, 21, 389–422, 1986.
Herman, A. B. and Spicer, R. A.: Mid-Cretaceous floras and climate of the Russian high Arctic (Novosibirsk Islands, Northern Yakutiya), Palaeogeogr. Palaeocli. Palaeoecol., 295, 409–422, 2010.
Hetzel, A., März, C., Vogt, C., and Brumsack, H.-J.: Geochemical environment of Cenomanian-Turonian black shale deposition at Wunstorf (northern Germany), Cretaceous Res., 32, 480–494, 2011.
Huber, B. T., Norris, R. D., and MacLeod, K. G.: Deep-sea palaeotemperature record of extreme warmth during the Cretaceous, Geology, 30, 123–126, 2002.
Ingall, E. D., Bustin, R. M., and Van Cappellen, P.: Influence of water column anoxia on the burial and preservation of carbon and phosphorus in marine shales, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, 303–316, 1993.
Inman, D. L. and Nordstrom, C. K.: On the tectonic and morphologic classification of coasts, The J. Geol., 79, 1–21, 1971.
Jenkyns, H. C.: Geochemistry of oceanic anoxic events, Geochem. Geophyis. Geosyst., 11, 1–30, 2010.
Jenkyns, H. C., Forster, A., Schouten, S., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: High temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean, Nature, 432, 888–892, 2004.
Jilbert, T., Slomp, C. P., Gustafsson, B. G., and Boer, W.: Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles, Biogeosciences, 8, 1699–1720, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-1699-2011, 2011.
Jones, E. J. W., Cande, S. C., and Spathopoulos, F.: Evolution of a major oceanographic pathway: the equatorial Atlantic, Special Publications, Geol. Soc. London, 90, 199–213, 1995.
Kolonic, S., Wagner, T., Forster, A., Sinninghe Damsté, J. S., Walsworth-Bell, B., Erba, E., Turgeon, S., Brumsack, H.-J., Hassane Chellai, E., Tsikos, H., Kuhnt, W., and Kuypers, M. M. M.: Black shale deposition on the northwest African Shelf during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event: Climate coupling and global organic carbon burial, Paleoceanography, 20, 95–128, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA000950, 2005.
Kraal, P., Slomp, C. P., Forster, A., Kuypers, M. M. M., and Sluijs, A.: Pyrite oxidation during sample storage determines phosphorus fractionation in carbonate-poor anoxic sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73, 3277–3290, 2009.
Kraal, P., Slomp, C. P., and de Lange, G. J.: Sedimentary organic carbon to phosphorus ratios as a redox proxy in Quaternary records from the Mediterranean, Chem. Geol., 277, 167–177, 2010a.
Kraal, P., Slomp, C. P., Forster, A., and Kuypers, M. M. M.: Phosphorus cycling from the margin to abyssal depths in the proto-Atlantic during oceanic anoxic event 2, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol., 295, 42–54, 2010b.
Kuypers, M. M. M., Pancost, R. D., Nijenhuis, I. A., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: Enhanced productivity led to increased organic carbon burial in the euxinic North Atlantic basin during the late Cenomanian oceanic anoxic event, Paleoceanography, 17, 1–13, 2002.
Kuypers, M. M. M., Lourens, L. J., Rijpstra, W. I. C., Pancost, R. D., Nijenhuis, I. A., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: Orbital forcing of organic carbon burial in the proto-North Atlantic during oceanic anoxic event 2, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 228, 465–482, 2004.
Lachkar, Z. and Gruber, N.: A comparative study of biological production in eastern boundary upwelling systems using an artificial neural network, Biogeosciences, 9, 293–308, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-293-2012, 2012.
Leckie, R. M., Bralower, T. J., and Cashman, R.: Oceanic anoxic events and plankton evolution: Biotic response to tectonic forcing during the mid-Cretaceous, Paleoceanography, 17, 1–29, 2002.
Leine, L.: Geology of the Tarfaya oil shale deposits, Morocco, Geol. Mijnbouw, 65, 57–74, 1986.
Lohrenz, S. E., Knauer, G. A., Asper, V. L., Tuel, M., Michaels, A. F., and Knap, A. H.: Seasonal variability in primary production and particle flux in the northwestern Sargasso Sea: U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic time-series study, Deep Sea Res., 39, 1373–1391, 1992.
Loyd, I. J.: Primary Production Off the Coast of North-West Africa, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 33, 312–323, 1971.
Marra, J., Dickey, T., and Chamberlin, W. S.: The estimation of seasonal primary production from moored optical sensors in the Sargasso Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 7399–7412, 1992.
Middelburg, J. J. and Levin, L. A.: Coastal hypoxia and sediment biogeochemistry, Biogeosciences, 6, 1273–1293, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-1273-2009, 2009.
Middelburg, J. J., Soetaert, K., and Herman, P. M. J.: Empirical relationships for use in global diagenetic models, Deep Sea Res. Part I, 44, 327–344, 1997.
Millero, F. J.: Chemical Oceanography, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2 Edn., 1996.
Monteiro, F. M., Pancost, R. D., Ridgwell, A., and Donnadieu, Y.: Nutrients as the dominant control on the spread of anoxia and euxinia across the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event (OAE2): Model-data comparison, Paleoceanography, 27, PA4209, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012PA002351, 2012.
Mort, H. P., Adatte, T., Föllmi, K. B., Keller, G., Steinmann, P., Matera, V., Berner, Z., and Stüben, D.: Phosphorus and the roles of productivity and nutrient recycling during oceanic anoxic event 2, Geology, 35, 483–486, 2007.
Mort, H. P., Slomp, C. P., Gustafsson, B. G., and Andersen, T. J.: Phosphorus recycling and burial in Baltic Sea sediments with contrasting redox conditions, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 74, 1350–1362, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2009.11.016, 2010.
Müller, R. D., Sdrolias, M., Gaina, C., Steinberge, R. B., and Heine, C.: Long-term sea-level fluctuations driven by ocean basin dynamics, Science, 319, 1357–1362, 2008.
Otterå, O. H. and Drange, H.: Effects of solar irradiance forcing on the ocean circulation and sea-ice in the North Atlantic in an isopycnic coordinate ocean general circulation model, Tellus, 56A, 154–166, 2004.
Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Brady, E. C., and Shield, C.: Late Cretaceous ocean: Coupled simulations with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Climate System Model, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 1–14, 2002.
Owens, J. D., Lyons, T. W., Li, X., Macleod, K. G., Gordon, G., Kuypers, M. M. M., Anbar, A., Kuhnt, W., and Severmann, S.: Iron isotope and trace metal records of iron cycling in the proto-North Atlantic during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event (OAE-2), Palaeogeography, 27, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012PA002328, 2012.
Parrish, J. T. and Curtis, R. L.: Atmospheric circulation, upwelling, and organic rich rocks in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol., 40, 31–66, 1982.
Pearce, M. A., Jarvis, I., and Tocher, B. A.: The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event, OAE2 and palaeoenvironmental change in epicontinental seas: New insights from the dinocyst and geochemical records, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol., 280, 207–234, 2009.
Piper, D. Z. and Calvert, S. E.: A marine biogeochemical perspective on black shale deposition, Earth Sci. Rev., 95, 63–96, 2009.
Planavsky, N. J., Rouxel, O. J., Bekker, A., Lalonde, S. V., Konhauser, K. O., Reinhard, C. T., and Lyons, T. W.: The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir, Nature, 467, 1088–1090, 2010.
Poulsen, C. J., Barron, E. J., Arthur, M. A., and Peterson, W. H.: Response of the mid-Cretaceous global oceanic circulation to tectonic and CO2 forcings, Paleoceanography, 16, 576–592, 2001.
Poulsen, C. J., Gendaszek, A. S., and Jacob, R. L.: Did the rifting of the Atlantic Ocean cause the Cretaceous thermal maximum?, Geology, 31, 115–118, 2003.
Rabouille, C., Mackenzie, F. T., and May Ver, L.: Influence of the human perturbation on carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen biogeochemical cycles in the global coastal ocean, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 65, 3615–3641, 2001.
R Development Core team: R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2006.
Reed, D. C., Slomp, C. P., and de Lange, G. J.: A quantitative reconstruction of organic matter and nutrient diagenesis in Mediterranean Sea sediments over the Holocene, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 75, 5540–5558, 2011.
Ruttenberg, K. C.: Reassessment of the oceanic residence time of phosphorus, Chem. Geol., 107, 405–409, 1993.
Ruttenberg, K. C. and Berner, R. A.: Authigenic apatite formation and burial in sediments from non-upwelling, continental margin environments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, 991–1007, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(93)90035-U, 1993.
Ryan, W. B. F. and Cita, M. B.: Ignorance concerning episodes of ocean-wide stagnation, Mar. Geol., 23, 197–215, 1977.
Sarmiento, J. L. and Gruber, N.: Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics, Princeton University Press, USA, 2006.
Schenau, S. J. and De Lange, G. J.: A novel chemical method to quantify fish debris in marine sediments, Limnol. Oceanogr., 45, 963–971, 2000.
Schenau, S. J. and De Lange, G. J.: Phosphorus regeneration vs. burial in sediments of the Arabian Sea, Mar. Chem., 75, 201–217, 2001.
Schlanger, S. O. and Jenkyns, H. C.: Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events: causes and consequences, Geo. Mijnbouw, 55, 179–184, 1976.
Schlanger, S. O., Arthur, M. A., Jenkyns, H. C., and Scholle, P. A.: The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event, I. Stratigraphy and distribution of organic carbon-rich beds and the marine δ13C excursion, Marine Petroleum Source Rock, Geol. Soc. Special Publication, 6, 371–399, 1987.
Scholle, P. A. and Arthur, M. A.: Carbon isotope fluctuations in Cretaceous pelagic limestones: potential stratigraphic and petroleum exploration tool, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 64, 67–87, 1980.
Schouten, S., Hopmans, E. C., Forster, A., van Breugel, Y., Kuypers, M. M. M., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: Extremely high sea-surface temperatures at low latitudes during the middle Cretaceous as revealed by archaeal membrane lipids, Geology, 31, 1069–1072, https://doi.org/10.1130/G19876.1, 2003.
Schulz, H. D. and Zabel, M.: Marine geochemistry, Springer, 2006.
Schulz, H. N. and Schulz, H. D.: Large sulfur bacteria and the formation of phosphorite, Science, 307, 416–418, 2005.
Sewall, J. O., van de Wal, R. S. W., van der Zwan, K., van Oosterhout, C., Dijkstra, H. A., and Scotese, C. R.: Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices, Clim. Past, 3, 647–657, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-3-647-2007, 2007.
Sinninghe Damsté, J. S. and Köster, J.: A euxinic southern North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 158, 165–173, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-3-647-2007, 1998.
Sinninghe Damsté, J. S., van Bentum, E. C., Reichart, G.-J., Pross, P., and Schouten, S.: A CO2 decrease-driven cooling and increased latitudinal temperature gradient during the mid-Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 293, 97–103, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.02.027, 2010.
Slomp, C. P.: Phosphorus Cycling in the Estuarine and Coastal Zones: Sources, Sinks, and Transformations, in: Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science, edited by: Wolanski, E. and McLusky, D. S., 5, 201–229. Waltham: Academic Press, 2011.
Slomp, C. P. and Van Cappellen, P.: The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation, Biogeosciences, 4, 155–171, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-4-155-2007, 2007.
Slomp, C. P., van der Gaast, S. J., and van Raaphorst, W.: Phosphorus binding by poorly crystalline iron oxides in North Sea sediments, Mar. Chem., 53, 55–73, 1996.
Slomp, C. P., Thomson, J., and de Lange, G. J.: Enhanced regeneration of phosphorus during formation of the most recent eastern Mediterranean sapropel (S1), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66, 1171–1184, 2002.
Slomp, C. P., Thomson, J., and de Lange, G. J.: Controls on phosphorus regeneration and burial during formation of eastern Mediterranean sapropels, Mar. Geol., 203, 141–159, 2004.
Soetaert, K., Petzoldt, T., and Woodrow Setzer, R.: Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve, J. Stat. Softw.e, 33, 1–25, 2010.
Tamburini, C., Garcin, J., Ragot, M., and Bianchi, A.: Biopolymer hydrolysis and bacterial production under ambient hydrostatic pressure through a 2000 m water column in the NW Mediterranean, Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 2109–2123, 2002.
Topper, R. P. M., Trabucho Alexandre, J., Tuenter, E., and Meijer, P. Th.: A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation, Clim. Past, 7, 277–297, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-7-277-2011, 2011.
Trabucho Alexandre, J., Tuenter, E., Henstra, G. A., van der Zwan, K. J. van de Wal, R. S. W., Dijkstra, H. A., and de Boer, P. L.: The mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic nutrient trap: Black shales and OAEs, Paleoceanography, 25, 1–14, 2010.
Tsandev, I. and Slomp, C. P.: Modeling phosphorus cycling and carbon burial during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 286, 71–79, 2009.
van Bentum, E. C., Hetzel, A., Brumsack, H.-J., Forster, A., Reichart, G.-J., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: Reconstruction of water column anoxia in the equatorial Atlantic during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event using biomarker and trace metal proxies, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol., 280, 489–498, 2009.
van Bentum, E. C., Reichart, G.-J., and Sinninghe-Damsté, J. S.: Organic matter provenance, palaeoproductivity and bottom water anoxia during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event in the Newfoundland Basin (northern proto North Atlantic Ocean), Org. Geochem., 50, 11–18, 2012.
Van Cappellen, P. and Ingall, E. D.: Benthic phosphorus regeneration, net primary production, and ocean anoxia: A model of the coupled marine biogeochemical cycles of carbon and phosphorus, Paleoceanography, 9, 677–692, 1994.
van Helmond, N. A. G. M., Sluijs, A., Reichart, G.-J., Sinninghe Damsté, J. S., Slomp, C. P., and Brinkhuis, H.: A perturbed hydrological cycle during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, Geology, 42, 123–126, https://doi.org/10.1130/G34929.1, 2014.
Voigt, S.: Cenomanian-Turonian composite δ13C curve for Western and Central Europe: the role of organic and inorganic carbon fluxes, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol., 160, 91–104, 2000.
Voigt, S., Gale, A., and Flögel, S.: Midlatitude shelf seas in the Cenomanian-Turonian greenhouse world: Temperature evolution and North Atlantic circulation, Paleoceanography, 19, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001015, 2004.
Wagner, T., Wallmann, K., Herrle, J. O., Hofmann, P., and Stuesser, I.: Consequences of moderate 25,000 yr lasting emission of light CO2 into the mid-Cretaceous ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 259, 200–211, 2007.
Weiss, R. F.: The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater, Deep Sea Res., 17, 721–735, 1970.
White, T. and Arthur, M. A.: Organic carbon production and preservation in response to sea-level changes in the Turonian Carlile Formation, US Western Interior Basin, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol., 235, 223–244, 2006.
Wollast, R.: Continental Margins: Review of Geochemical Settings, 15–31, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002.