Articles | Volume 18, issue 6
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Topography-based statistical modelling reveals high spatial variability and seasonal emission patches in forest floor methane flux
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)/Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Environmental Soil Sciences, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)/Forest Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Climate Research Programme, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)/Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Helsinki, Finland
School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)/Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Environmental Soil Sciences, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
No articles found.
Lejish Vettikkat, Pasi Miettinen, Angela Buchholz, Pekka Rantala, Hao Yu, Simon Schallhart, Tuukka Petäjä, Roger Seco, Elisa Männistö, Markku Kulmala, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Alex B. Guenther, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2683–2698,Short summary
Wetlands cover a substantial fraction of the land mass in the northern latitudes, from northern Europe to Siberia and Canada. Yet, their isoprene and terpene emissions remain understudied. Here, we used a state-of-the-art measurement technique to quantify ecosystem-scale emissions from a boreal wetland during an unusually warm spring/summer. We found that the emissions from this wetland were (a) higher and (b) even more strongly dependent on temperature than commonly thought.
Sasu Karttunen, Ewan O'Connor, Olli Peltola, and Leena Järvi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2417–2432,Short summary
To study the complex structure of the lowest tens of metres of atmosphere in urban areas, measurement methods with great spatial and temporal coverage are needed. In our study, we analyse measurements with a promising and relatively new method, distributed temperature sensing, capable of providing detailed information on the near-surface atmosphere. We present multiple ways to utilise these kinds of measurements, as well as important considerations for planning new studies using the method.
Anna-Maria Virkkala, Susan M. Natali, Brendan M. Rogers, Jennifer D. Watts, Kathleen Savage, Sara June Connon, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Darcy Peter, Christina Minions, Julia Nojeim, Roisin Commane, Craig A. Emmerton, Mathias Goeckede, Manuel Helbig, David Holl, Hiroki Iwata, Hideki Kobayashi, Pasi Kolari, Efrén López-Blanco, Maija E. Marushchak, Mikhail Mastepanov, Lutz Merbold, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Torsten Sachs, Oliver Sonnentag, Masahito Ueyama, Carolina Voigt, Mika Aurela, Julia Boike, Gerardo Celis, Namyi Chae, Torben R. Christensen, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Sigrid Dengel, Han Dolman, Colin W. Edgar, Bo Elberling, Eugenie Euskirchen, Achim Grelle, Juha Hatakka, Elyn Humphreys, Järvi Järveoja, Ayumi Kotani, Lars Kutzbach, Tuomas Laurila, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Yojiro Matsuura, Gesa Meyer, Mats B. Nilsson, Steven F. Oberbauer, Sang-Jong Park, Roman Petrov, Anatoly S. Prokushkin, Christopher Schulze, Vincent L. St. Louis, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, William Quinton, Andrej Varlagin, Donatella Zona, and Viacheslav I. Zyryanov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 179–208,Short summary
The effects of climate warming on carbon cycling across the Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) remain poorly understood due to the relatively limited distribution of ABZ flux sites. Fortunately, this flux network is constantly increasing, but new measurements are published in various platforms, making it challenging to understand the ABZ carbon cycle as a whole. Here, we compiled a new database of Arctic–boreal CO2 fluxes to help facilitate large-scale assessments of the ABZ carbon cycle.
Pavel Alekseychik, Aino Korrensalo, Ivan Mammarella, Samuli Launiainen, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Ilkka Korpela, and Timo Vesala
Biogeosciences, 18, 4681–4704,Short summary
Bogs of northern Eurasia represent a major type of peatland ecosystem and contain vast amounts of carbon, but carbon balance monitoring studies on bogs are scarce. The current project explores 6 years of carbon balance data obtained using the state-of-the-art eddy-covariance technique at a Finnish bog Siikaneva. The results reveal relatively low interannual variability indicative of ecosystem resilience to both cool and hot summers and provide new insights into the seasonal course of C fluxes.
Kyle B. Delwiche, Sara Helen Knox, Avni Malhotra, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Gavin McNicol, Sarah Feron, Zutao Ouyang, Dario Papale, Carlo Trotta, Eleonora Canfora, You-Wei Cheah, Danielle Christianson, Ma. Carmelita R. Alberto, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Dennis Baldocchi, Sheel Bansal, David P. Billesbach, Gil Bohrer, Rosvel Bracho, Nina Buchmann, David I. Campbell, Gerardo Celis, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Housen Chu, Higo J. Dalmagro, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Matteo Detto, Han Dolman, Elke Eichelmann, Eugenie Euskirchen, Daniela Famulari, Kathrin Fuchs, Mathias Goeckede, Sébastien Gogo, Mangaliso J. Gondwe, Jordan P. Goodrich, Pia Gottschalk, Scott L. Graham, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Carole Helfter, Kyle S. Hemes, Takashi Hirano, David Hollinger, Lukas Hörtnagl, Hiroki Iwata, Adrien Jacotot, Gerald Jurasinski, Minseok Kang, Kuno Kasak, John King, Janina Klatt, Franziska Koebsch, Ken W. Krauss, Derrick Y. F. Lai, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Giovanni Manca, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Trofim Maximov, Lutz Merbold, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Eiko Nemitz, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Walter C. Oechel, Patricia Y. Oikawa, Keisuke Ono, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, William Riley, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Ayaka Sakabe, Camilo Rey Sanchez, Edward A. Schuur, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Oliver Sonnentag, Jed P. Sparks, Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Cove Sturtevant, Ryan C. Sullivan, Daphne J. Szutu, Jonathan E. Thom, Margaret S. Torn, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Jessica Turner, Masahito Ueyama, Alex C. Valach, Rodrigo Vargas, Andrej Varlagin, Alma Vazquez-Lule, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Timo Vesala, George L. Vourlitis, Eric J. Ward, Christian Wille, Georg Wohlfahrt, Guan Xhuan Wong, Zhen Zhang, Donatella Zona, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Benjamin Poulter, and Robert B. Jackson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3607–3689,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, yet we lack knowledge about its global emissions and drivers. We present FLUXNET-CH4, a new global collection of methane measurements and a critical resource for the research community. We use FLUXNET-CH4 data to quantify the seasonality of methane emissions from freshwater wetlands, finding that methane seasonality varies strongly with latitude. Our new database and analysis will improve wetland model accuracy and inform greenhouse gas budgets.
Toprak Aslan, Olli Peltola, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5089–5106,Short summary
Vertical turbulent fluxes of gases measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to high-frequency losses. There are different methods used to describe this low-pass filtering effect and to correct the measured fluxes. In this study, we analysed the systematic uncertainty related to this correction for various attenuation and signal-to-noise ratios. A new and robust transfer function method is finally proposed.
Olli Peltola, Toprak Aslan, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5071–5088,Short summary
Gas fluxes measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to filtering due to non-ideal instrumentation. For linear first-order systems this filtering causes also a time lag between vertical wind speed and gas signal which is additional to the gas travel time in the sampling line. The effect of this additional time lag on EC fluxes is ignored in current EC data processing routines. Here we show that this oversight biases EC fluxes and hence propose an approach to rectify this bias.
Lukas Kohl, Markku Koskinen, Tatu Polvinen, Salla Tenhovirta, Kaisa Rissanen, Marjo Patama, Alessandro Zanetti, and Mari Pihlatie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4445–4460,Short summary
We present ShoTGa-FluMS, a measurement system designed for continuous and automated measurements of trace gas and volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes from plant shoots. ShoTGa-FluMS uses transparent shoot enclosures equipped with cooling elements, automatically replaces fixated CO2, and removes transpired water from the enclosure, thus solving multiple technical problems that have so far prevented automated plant shoot trace gas flux measurements.
Olli Peltola, Karl Lapo, Ilkka Martinkauppi, Ewan O'Connor, Christoph K. Thomas, and Timo Vesala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2409–2427,Short summary
We evaluated the suitability of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) for observing spatial (>25 cm) and temporal (>1 s) details of airflow within and above forests. The DTS measurements could discern up to third-order moments of the flow and observe spatial details of coherent flow motions. Similar measurements are not possible with more conventional measurement techniques. Hence, the DTS measurements will provide key insights into flows close to roughness elements, e.g. trees.
Hui Zhang, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Aino Korrensalo, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Mika Aurela, Timo Penttilä, Tuomas Laurila, Stephanie Gerin, Viivi Lindholm, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 17, 6247–6270,Short summary
We studied the impact of a stream on peatland microhabitats and CH4 emissions in a northern boreal fen. We found that there were higher water levels, lower peat temperatures, and greater oxygen concentrations close to the stream; these supported the highest biomass production but resulted in the lowest CH4 emissions. Further from the stream, the conditions were drier and CH4 emissions were also low. CH4 emissions were highest at an intermediate distance from the stream.
Jinnan Gong, Nigel Roulet, Steve Frolking, Heli Peltola, Anna M. Laine, Nicola Kokkonen, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 17, 5693–5719,Short summary
In this study, which combined a field and lab experiment with modelling, we developed a process-based model for simulating dynamics within peatland moss communities. The model is useful because Sphagnum mosses are key engineers in peatlands; their response to changes in climate via altered hydrology controls the feedback of peatland biogeochemistry to climate. Our work showed that moss capitulum traits related to water retention are the mechanism controlling moss layer dynamics in peatlands.
Chris R. Flechard, Andreas Ibrom, Ute M. Skiba, Wim de Vries, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Nancy B. Dise, Janne F. J. Korhonen, Nina Buchmann, Arnaud Legout, David Simpson, Maria J. Sanz, Marc Aubinet, Denis Loustau, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Ivan A. Janssens, Mari Pihlatie, Ralf Kiese, Jan Siemens, André-Jean Francez, Jürgen Augustin, Andrej Varlagin, Janusz Olejnik, Radosław Juszczak, Mika Aurela, Daniel Berveiller, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Ulrich Dämmgen, Nicolas Delpierre, Vesna Djuricic, Julia Drewer, Eric Dufrêne, Werner Eugster, Yannick Fauvel, David Fowler, Arnoud Frumau, André Granier, Patrick Gross, Yannick Hamon, Carole Helfter, Arjan Hensen, László Horváth, Barbara Kitzler, Bart Kruijt, Werner L. Kutsch, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Michal V. Marek, Giorgio Matteucci, Marta Mitosinkova, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Kim Pilegaard, Gabriel Pita, Francisco Sanz, Jan K. Schjoerring, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Y. Sim Tang, Hilde Uggerud, Marek Urbaniak, Netty van Dijk, Timo Vesala, Sonja Vidic, Caroline Vincke, Tamás Weidinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1583–1620,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a network of 40 monitoring sites in Europe suggests that atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forests and other semi-natural vegetation impacts the carbon sequestration rates in ecosystems, as well as the net greenhouse gas balance including other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Excess nitrogen deposition in polluted areas also leads to other environmental impacts such as nitrogen leaching to groundwater and other pollutant gaseous emissions.
Terhi Riutta, Aino Korrensalo, Anna M. Laine, Jukka Laine, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 17, 727–740,Short summary
We studied the role of plant species groups in peatland methane fluxes under natural conditions and lowered water level. At a natural water level, sedges and mosses increased the fluxes. At a lower water level, the impact of plant groups on the fluxes was small. Only at a high water level did vegetation regulate the fluxes. The results are relevant for assessing peatland methane fluxes in a changing climate, as peatland water level and vegetation are predicted to change.
Lukas Kohl, Markku Koskinen, Kaisa Rissanen, Iikka Haikarainen, Tatu Polvinen, Heidi Hellén, and Mari Pihlatie
Biogeosciences, 16, 3319–3332,Short summary
Plants emit small amounts of methane and large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Measurements of plant methane emissions therefore require analysers that can provide accurate measurements of CH4 concentrations in the presence of changing amounts of VOCs. We therefore quantified to which degree various VOCs bias methane concentration measurements on different analysers. Our results show that some analysers are more sensitive to the presence of VOCs than others.
Samuli Launiainen, Mingfu Guan, Aura Salmivaara, and Antti-Jussi Kieloaho
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3457–3480,Short summary
Boreal forest evapotranspiration and water cycle is modeled at stand and catchment scale using physiological and physical principles, open GIS data and daily weather data. The approach can predict daily evapotranspiration well across Nordic coniferous-dominated stands and successfully reproduces daily streamflow and annual evapotranspiration across boreal headwater catchments in Finland. The model is modular and simple and designed for practical applications over large areas using open data.
Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, Yao Gao, Olle Räty, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Bogdan Chojnicki, Ankur R. Desai, Albertus J. Dolman, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Thomas Friborg, Mathias Göckede, Manuel Helbig, Elyn Humphreys, Robert B. Jackson, Georg Jocher, Fortunat Joos, Janina Klatt, Sara H. Knox, Natalia Kowalska, Lars Kutzbach, Sebastian Lienert, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Daniel F. Nadeau, Mats B. Nilsson, Walter C. Oechel, Matthias Peichl, Thomas Pypker, William Quinton, Janne Rinne, Torsten Sachs, Mateusz Samson, Hans Peter Schmid, Oliver Sonnentag, Christian Wille, Donatella Zona, and Tuula Aalto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1263–1289,Short summary
Here we develop a monthly gridded dataset of northern (> 45 N) wetland methane (CH4) emissions. The data product is derived using a random forest machine-learning technique and eddy covariance CH4 fluxes from 25 wetland sites. Annual CH4 emissions from these wetlands calculated from the derived data product are comparable to prior studies focusing on these areas. This product is an independent estimate of northern wetland CH4 emissions and hence could be used, e.g. for process model evaluation.
Elisa Männistö, Aino Korrensalo, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 16, 2409–2421,Short summary
We studied methane emitted as episodic bubble release (ebullition) from water and bare peat surfaces of a boreal bog over three years. There was more ebullition from water than from bare peat surfaces, and it was controlled by peat temperature, water level, atmospheric pressure and the weekly temperature sum. However, the contribution of methane bubbles to the total ecosystem methane emission was small. This new information can be used to improve process models of peatland methane dynamics.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Gustaf Granath, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Fia Bengtsson, Nicholas Boncek, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon J. M. Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, David P. Gillikin, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hájek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna I. Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia G. Koronatova, Natalia P. Kosykh, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina, Juul Limpens, Maiju Linkosalmi, Jin-Ze Ma, Marguerite Mauritz, Tariq M. Munir, Susan M. Natali, Rayna Natcheva, Maria Noskova, Richard J. Payne, Kyle Pilkington, Sean Robinson, Bjorn J. M. Robroek, Line Rochefort, David Singer, Hans K. Stenøien, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Kai Vellak, Anouk Verheyden, James Michael Waddington, and Steven K. Rice
Biogeosciences, 15, 5189–5202,Short summary
Peat constitutes a long-term archive for climate reconstruction by using the isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen. We analysed isotopes in two peat moss species across North America and Eurasia. Peat (moss tissue) isotope composition was predicted by soil moisture and isotopic composition of the rainwater but differed between species. Our results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.
Licheng Liu, Qianlai Zhuang, Qing Zhu, Shaoqing Liu, Hella van Asperen, and Mari Pihlatie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7913–7931,Short summary
carbon monoxide (CO) plays an important role in atmosphere. We developed a model to quantify soil CO exchanges with the atmosphere. The simulation is conducted for various ecosystems on a global scale during the 20th and 21st centuries. We found that areas near the Equator, the eastern US, Europe and eastern Asia are the largest sinks due to optimum soil moisture and high temperature. This study will benefit the modeling of the global climate and atmospheric chemistry.
Jouni Susiluoto, Maarit Raivonen, Leif Backman, Marko Laine, Jarmo Makela, Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, and Tuula Aalto
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1199–1228,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and methane emissions from wetlands contribute to the warming of the climate. Wetland methane emissions are also challenging to estimate. We analyze the performance of a new wetland emission computer model utilizing mathematical methods and using data from a wetland in southern Finland. The analysis helps to explain how wetlands produce methane and how emission modeling can be improved and uncertainties in the emission estimates reduced in future studies.
Aino Korrensalo, Elisa Männistö, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Janne Rinne, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 15, 1749–1761,Short summary
We measured methane fluxes of a boreal bog from six different plant community types in 2012–2014. We found only little variation in methane fluxes among plant community types. Peat temperature as well as both leaf area of plant species with air channels and of all vegetation are important factors controlling the fluxes. We also detected negative net fluxes indicating methane consumption each year. Our results can be used to improve the models of peatland methane dynamics under climate change.
Olli Peltola, Maarit Raivonen, Xuefei Li, and Timo Vesala
Biogeosciences, 15, 937–951,Short summary
Emission via bubbling, i.e. ebullition, is one of the main CH4 emission pathways from wetlands to the atmosphere, yet it is still coarsely represented in wetland CH4 models. In this study three ebullition modelling approaches are evaluated. Modeled annual CH4 emissions were similar, whereas temporal variability in CH4 emissions varied an order of magnitude between the approaches. Hence realistic description of ebullition is needed when models are compared to and calibrated against measurements.
Chunjing Qiu, Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, Gerhard Krinner, Shushi Peng, Mika Aurela, Christian Bernhofer, Christian Brümmer, Syndonia Bret-Harte, Housen Chu, Jiquan Chen, Ankur R. Desai, Jiří Dušek, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Lawrence B. Flanagan, Thomas Friborg, Mateusz Grygoruk, Sébastien Gogo, Thomas Grünwald, Birger U. Hansen, David Holl, Elyn Humphreys, Miriam Hurkuck, Gerard Kiely, Janina Klatt, Lars Kutzbach, Chloé Largeron, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Magnus Lund, Peter M. Lafleur, Xuefei Li, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Mats B. Nilsson, Janusz Olejnik, Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius, Walter Oechel, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Norbert Pirk, Olli Peltola, Włodzimierz Pawlak, Daniel Rasse, Janne Rinne, Gaius Shaver, Hans Peter Schmid, Matteo Sottocornola, Rainer Steinbrecher, Torsten Sachs, Marek Urbaniak, Donatella Zona, and Klaudia Ziemblinska
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 497–519,Short summary
Northern peatlands store large amount of soil carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We implemented peatland hydrological and carbon accumulation processes into the ORCHIDEE land surface model. The model was evaluated against EC measurements from 30 northern peatland sites. The model generally well reproduced the spatial gradient and temporal variations in GPP and NEE at these sites. Water table depth was not well predicted but had only small influence on simulated NEE.
Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Anne Ojala, David Bastviken, Tobias Biermann, Jouni J. Heiskanen, Anders Lindroth, Olli Peltola, Miitta Rantakari, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 15, 429–445,Short summary
Global estimates of freshwater greenhouse gas emissions are usually based on simple gas transfer models that underestimate the emissions. Thus, comparison of different gas transfer models is required for evaluating the uncertainties. This study compares three commonly used methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions over lakes. We conclude that simple gas transfer models underestimate the emissions and more recent models should be used for global freshwater greenhouse gas emission estimates.
Maarit Raivonen, Sampo Smolander, Leif Backman, Jouni Susiluoto, Tuula Aalto, Tiina Markkanen, Jarmo Mäkelä, Janne Rinne, Olli Peltola, Mika Aurela, Annalea Lohila, Marin Tomasic, Xuefei Li, Tuula Larmola, Sari Juutinen, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Martin Heimann, Sanna Sevanto, Thomas Kleinen, Victor Brovkin, and Timo Vesala
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4665–4691,Short summary
Wetlands are one of the most significant natural sources of the strong greenhouse gas methane. We developed a model that can be used within a larger wetland carbon model to simulate the methane emissions. In this study, we present the model and results of its testing. We found that the model works well with different settings and that the results depend primarily on the rate of input anoxic soil respiration and also on factors that affect the simulated oxygen concentrations in the wetland soil.
Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Mari Pihlatie, Samuli Launiainen, Markku Kulmala, Marja-Liisa Riekkola, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, and Jussi Heinonsalo
Biogeosciences, 14, 1075–1091,Short summary
The alkylamines are important precursors in secondary aerosol formation in boreal forests. We quantified alkylamine concentrations in fungal species present in boreal forests in order to estimate soil as a source of atmospheric alkylamines. Based on our knowledge we estimated possible soil–atmosphere exchange of these compounds. The results shows that the boreal forest soil could act as a source of alkylamines depending on environmental conditions and studied compound.
Aino Korrensalo, Pavel Alekseychik, Tomáš Hájek, Janne Rinne, Timo Vesala, Lauri Mehtätalo, Ivan Mammarella, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 14, 257–269,Short summary
Photosynthetic parameters of peatland plant species were measured over one growing season in an ombrotrophic bog. Based on these measurements, ecosystem-level photosynthesis was calculated for the whole growing season and compared with an estimate derived from micrometeorological measurements. These two estimates corresponded well. Species with low areal cover at the site but high photosynthetic efficiency appeared to be potentially important for the ecosystem-level carbon balance.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Üllar Rannik, Olli Peltola, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5163–5181,Short summary
We review available methods for the random error estimation of turbulent fluxes that are widely used by the flux community. Flux errors are evaluated theoretically as well as via numerical calculations by using measured and simulated records. We recommend two flux random errors with clear physical meaning: the total error resulting from stochastic nature of turbulence, well approximated by the method of Finkelstein and Sims (2001), and the error of the flux due to the instrumental noise.
Ivan Mammarella, Olli Peltola, Annika Nordbo, Leena Järvi, and Üllar Rannik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4915–4933,Short summary
In this study we have performed an inter-comparison between EddyUH and EddyPro, two public and commonly used software packages for eddy covariance data processing and calculation. The aims are to estimate the flux uncertainty due to the use of different software packages, and to assess the most critical processing steps, determining the largest deviations in the calculated fluxes. We focus not only on water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes, but also on the methane flux.
Mari Pihlatie, Üllar Rannik, Sami Haapanala, Olli Peltola, Narasinha Shurpali, Pertti J. Martikainen, Saara Lind, Niina Hyvönen, Perttu Virkajärvi, Mark Zahniser, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 13, 5471–5485,Short summary
The sources and sinks of carbon monoxide (CO) in the biosphere are poorly understood. We report the first continuous data series of CO fluxes measured by eddy covariance method in an agricultural bioenergy crop. The CO fluxes were seasonally and diurnally variable demonstrating the parallel consumption and production processes. Radiation was the main driver of CO emissions, and the eddy covariance method was demonstrated as suitable for linking short-term flux dynamics to environmental drivers.
Miguel Portillo-Estrada, Mari Pihlatie, Janne F. J. Korhonen, Janne Levula, Arnoud K. F. Frumau, Andreas Ibrom, Jonas J. Lembrechts, Lourdes Morillas, László Horváth, Stephanie K. Jones, and Ülo Niinemets
Biogeosciences, 13, 1621–1633,Short summary
We studied tree and grass litter decomposition across several climates in Europe. Climatic (air temperature, precipitation and soil water content) controls on litter decomposition were quantitatively more important than species or site of origin. The data were used to generate prediction models of remaining litter mass, and carbon and nitrogen contents during the decomposition period. We also observed a significant drop in remaining litter mass after the first couple of days of decomposition.
Saara E. Lind, Narasinha J. Shurpali, Olli Peltola, Ivan Mammarella, Niina Hyvönen, Marja Maljanen, Mari Räty, Perttu Virkajärvi, and Pertti J. Martikainen
Biogeosciences, 13, 1255–1268,Short summary
We showed that the reed canary grass (RCG) was environmentally friendly from the CO2 balance point of view when cultivated on this mineral soil. When compared to the earlier findings on the same crop on organic soil site, the capacity of the crop to withdraw atmospheric CO2 was even stronger on the present mineral soil site than that on the organic soil site. For full estimation of the climatic impacts of this bioenergy system, a life cycle assessment will be needed.
V. Kasurinen, H. Aarnos, and A. Vähätalo
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Irradiations of filtered water samples from ten major rivers stimulated bacterial production and respiration. The stimulus depended on photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Assuming complete photobleaching of CDOM in the global coastal ocean, sunlight-induced photochemical reactions transform >15% (>38 Mt yr-1) of riverine dissolved organic carbon flux into biologically labile photoproducts, which are consumed by bacteria with 13% growth efficiency.
Ü. Rannik, S. Haapanala, N. J. Shurpali, I. Mammarella, S. Lind, N. Hyvönen, O. Peltola, M. Zahniser, P. J. Martikainen, and T. Vesala
Biogeosciences, 12, 415–432,
O. Peltola, A. Hensen, C. Helfter, L. Belelli Marchesini, F. C. Bosveld, W. C. M. van den Bulk, J. A. Elbers, S. Haapanala, J. Holst, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Nemitz, T. Röckmann, A. T. Vermeulen, and I. Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 11, 3163–3186,
A. Virkkula, J. Levula, T. Pohja, P. P. Aalto, P. Keronen, S. Schobesberger, C. B. Clements, L. Pirjola, A.-J. Kieloaho, L. Kulmala, H. Aaltonen, J. Patokoski, J. Pumpanen, J. Rinne, T. Ruuskanen, M. Pihlatie, H. E. Manninen, V. Aaltonen, H. Junninen, T. Petäjä, J. Backman, M. Dal Maso, T. Nieminen, T. Olsson, T. Grönholm, J. Aalto, T. H. Virtanen, M. Kajos, V.-M. Kerminen, D. M. Schultz, J. Kukkonen, M. Sofiev, G. De Leeuw, J. Bäck, P. Hari, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4473–4502,
K. Wang, C. Liu, X. Zheng, M. Pihlatie, B. Li, S. Haapanala, T. Vesala, H. Liu, Y. Wang, G. Liu, and F. Hu
Biogeosciences, 10, 6865–6877,
O. Peltola, I. Mammarella, S. Haapanala, G. Burba, and T. Vesala
Biogeosciences, 10, 3749–3765,
J. F. J. Korhonen, M. Pihlatie, J. Pumpanen, H. Aaltonen, P. Hari, J. Levula, A.-J. Kieloaho, E. Nikinmaa, T. Vesala, and H. Ilvesniemi
Biogeosciences, 10, 1083–1095,
L. Wang, A. Ibrom, J. F. J. Korhonen, K. F. Arnoud Frumau, J. Wu, M. Pihlatie, and J. K. Schjoerring
Biogeosciences, 10, 999–1011,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Greenhouse GasesOptical and radar Earth observation data for upscaling methane emissions linked to permafrost degradation in sub-Arctic peatlands in northern SwedenHerbivore–shrub interactions influence ecosystem respiration and biogenic volatile organic compound composition in the subarcticMethane emissions due to reservoir flushing: a significant emission pathway?Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from mounds of African fungus-growing termitesDiel and seasonal methane dynamics in the shallow and turbulent Wadden SeaTechnical note: Skirt chamber – an open dynamic method for the rapid and minimally intrusive measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from peatlandsSeasonal variability of nitrous oxide concentrations and emissions in a temperate estuaryReviews and syntheses: Recent advances in microwave remote sensing in support of terrestrial carbon cycle science in Arctic–boreal regionsSimulated methane emissions from Arctic ponds are highly sensitive to warmingWater-table-driven greenhouse gas emission estimates guide peatland restoration at national scaleRelationships between greenhouse gas production and landscape position during short-term permafrost thaw under anaerobic conditions in the Lena DeltaCarbon emissions and radiative forcings from tundra wildfires in the Yukon–Kuskokwim River Delta, AlaskaCarbon monoxide (CO) cycling in the Fram Strait, Arctic OceanPost-flooding disturbance recovery promotes carbon capture in riparian zonesEnhanced Southern Ocean CO2 outgassing as a result of stronger and poleward shifted southern hemispheric westerliesMeteorological responses of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of a subarctic landscapeSpatial and temporal variability of methane emissions and environmental conditions in a hyper-eutrophic fishpondCarbon emission and export from the Ket River, western SiberiaEvaluation of wetland CH4 in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model using satellite observationsGreenhouse gas fluxes in mangrove forest soil in an Amazon estuaryTemporal patterns and drivers of CO2 emission from dry sediments in a groyne field of a large riverEffects of water table level and nitrogen deposition on methane and nitrous oxide emissions in an alpine peatlandHighest methane concentrations in an Arctic river linked to local terrestrial inputsSeasonal study of the small-scale variability in dissolved methane in the western Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea) during the European heatwave in 2018Trace gas fluxes from tidal salt marsh soils: implications for carbon–sulfur biogeochemistrySpatial and temporal variation in δ13C values of methane emitted from a hemiboreal mire: methanogenesis, methanotrophy, and hysteresisIntercomparison of methods to estimate gross primary production based on CO2 and COS flux measurementsLateral carbon export has low impact on the net ecosystem carbon balance of a polygonal tundra catchmentThe effect of static chamber base on N2O flux in drip irrigationControls on autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in an ombrotrophic bogEpisodic N2O emissions following tillage of a legume–grass cover crop mixtureVariation in CO2 and CH4 fluxes among land cover types in heterogeneous Arctic tundra in northeastern SiberiaResponse of vegetation and carbon fluxes to brown lemming herbivory in northern AlaskaSources of nitrous oxide and the fate of mineral nitrogen in subarctic permafrost peat soilsData-based estimates of interannual sea–air CO2 flux variations 1957–2020 and their relation to environmental driversEvaluating alternative ebullition models for predicting peatland methane emission and its pathways via data–model fusionExcess soil moisture and fresh carbon input are prerequisites for methane production in podzolic soilLow biodegradability of particulate organic carbon mobilized from thaw slumps on the Peel Plateau, NT, and possible chemosynthesis and sorption effectsGrazing enhances carbon cycling but reduces methane emission during peak growing season in the Siberian Pleistocene Park tundra siteIdeas and perspectives: Enhancing research and monitoring of carbon pools and land-to-atmosphere greenhouse gases exchange in developing countriesIgnoring carbon emissions from thermokarst ponds results in overestimation of tundra net carbon uptakeQuantification of potential methane emissions associated with organic matter amendments following oxic-soil inundationAssessing the spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from different configurations of on-site wastewater treatment system using discrete and continuous gas flux measurementDimethylated sulfur compounds in the Peruvian upwelling systemPartitioning carbon sources between wetland and well-drained ecosystems to a tropical first-order stream – implications for carbon cycling at the watershed scale (Nyong, Cameroon)Extreme events driving year-to-year differences in gross primary productivity across the USMethane gas emissions from savanna fires: what analysis of local burning regimes in a working West African landscape tell usMethane in Zackenberg Valley, NE Greenland: multidecadal growing season fluxes of a high-Arctic tundraField-scale CH4 emission at a subarctic mire with heterogeneous permafrost thaw statusEvaluation of denitrification and decomposition from three biogeochemical models using laboratory measurements of N2, N2O and CO2
Sofie Sjögersten, Martha Ledger, Matthias Siewert, Betsabé de la Barreda-Bautista, Andrew Sowter, David Gee, Giles Foody, and Doreen S. Boyd
Biogeosciences, 20, 4221–4239,Short summary
Permafrost thaw in Arctic regions is increasing methane emissions, but quantification is difficult given the large and remote areas impacted. We show that UAV data together with satellite data can be used to extrapolate emissions across the wider landscape as well as detect areas at risk of higher emissions. A transition of currently degrading areas to fen type vegetation can increase emission by several orders of magnitude, highlighting the importance of quantifying areas at risk.
Cole G. Brachmann, Tage Vowles, Riikka Rinnan, Mats P. Björkman, Anna Ekberg, and Robert G. Björk
Biogeosciences, 20, 4069–4086,Short summary
Herbivores change plant communities through grazing, altering the amount of CO2 and plant-specific chemicals (termed VOCs) emitted. We tested this effect by excluding herbivores and studying the CO2 and VOC emissions. Herbivores reduced CO2 emissions from a meadow community and altered VOC composition; however, community type had the strongest effect on the amount of CO2 and VOCs released. Herbivores can mediate greenhouse gas emissions, but the effect is marginal and community dependent.
Ole Lessmann, Jorge Encinas Fernández, Karla Martínez-Cruz, and Frank Peeters
Biogeosciences, 20, 4057–4068,Short summary
Based on a large dataset of seasonally resolved methane (CH4) pore water concentrations in a reservoir's sediment, we assess the significance of CH4 emissions due to reservoir flushing. In the studied reservoir, CH4 emissions caused by one flushing operation can represent 7 %–14 % of the annual CH4 emissions and depend on the timing of the flushing operation. In reservoirs with high sediment loadings, regular flushing may substantially contribute to the overall CH4 emissions.
Matti Räsänen, Risto Vesala, Petri Rönnholm, Laura Arppe, Petra Manninen, Markus Jylhä, Jouko Rikkinen, Petri Pellikka, and Janne Rinne
Biogeosciences, 20, 4029–4042,Short summary
Fungus-growing termites recycle large parts of dead plant material in African savannas and are significant sources of greenhouse gases. We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes from their mounds and surrounding soils in open and closed habitats. The fluxes scale with mound volume. The results show that emissions from mounds of fungus-growing termites are more stable than those from other termites. The soil fluxes around the mound are affected by the termite colonies at up to 2 m distance from the mound.
Tim René de Groot, Anne Margriet Mol, Katherine Mesdag, Pierre Ramond, Rachel Ndhlovu, Julia Catherine Engelmann, Thomas Röckmann, and Helge Niemann
Biogeosciences, 20, 3857–3872,Short summary
This study investigates methane dynamics in the Wadden Sea. Our measurements revealed distinct variations triggered by seasonality and tidal forcing. The methane budget was higher in warmer seasons but surprisingly high in colder seasons. Methane dynamics were amplified during low tides, flushing the majority of methane into the North Sea or releasing it to the atmosphere. Methanotrophic activity was also elevated during low tide but mitigated only a small fraction of the methane efflux.
Frederic Thalasso, Brenda Riquelme, Andrés Gómez, Roy Mackenzie, Francisco Javier Aguirre, Jorge Hoyos-Santillan, Ricardo Rozzi, and Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui
Biogeosciences, 20, 3737–3749,Short summary
A robust skirt-chamber design to capture and quantify greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands is presented. Compared to standard methods, this design improves the spatial resolution of field studies in remote locations while minimizing intrusion.
Gesa Schulz, Tina Sanders, Yoana G. Voynova, Hermann W. Bange, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 20, 3229–3247,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas. However, N2O emissions from estuaries underlie significant uncertainties due to limited data availability and high spatiotemporal variability. We found the Elbe Estuary (Germany) to be a year-round source of N2O, with the highest emissions in winter along with high nitrogen loads. However, in spring and summer, N2O emissions did not decrease alongside lower nitrogen loads because organic matter fueled in situ N2O production along the estuary.
Alex Mavrovic, Oliver Sonnentag, Juha Lemmetyinen, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Christophe Kinnard, and Alexandre Roy
Biogeosciences, 20, 2941–2970,Short summary
This review supports the integration of microwave spaceborne information into carbon cycle science for Arctic–boreal regions. The microwave data record spans multiple decades with frequent global observations of soil moisture and temperature, surface freeze–thaw cycles, vegetation water storage, snowpack properties, and land cover. This record holds substantial unexploited potential to better understand carbon cycle processes.
Zoé Rehder, Thomas Kleinen, Lars Kutzbach, Victor Stepanenko, Moritz Langer, and Victor Brovkin
Biogeosciences, 20, 2837–2855,Short summary
We use a new model to investigate how methane emissions from Arctic ponds change with warming. We find that emissions increase substantially. Under annual temperatures 5 °C above present temperatures, pond methane emissions are more than 3 times higher than now. Most of this increase is caused by an increase in plant productivity as plants provide the substrate microbes used to produce methane. We conclude that vegetation changes need to be included in predictions of pond methane emissions.
Julian Koch, Lars Elsgaard, Mogens H. Greve, Steen Gyldenkærne, Cecilie Hermansen, Gregor Levin, Shubiao Wu, and Simon Stisen
Biogeosciences, 20, 2387–2403,Short summary
Utilizing peatlands for agriculture leads to large emissions of greenhouse gases worldwide. The emissions are triggered by lowering the water table, which is a necessary step in order to make peatlands arable. Many countries aim at reducing their emissions by restoring peatlands, which can be achieved by stopping agricultural activities and thereby raising the water table. We estimate a total emission of 2.6 Mt CO2-eq for organic-rich peatlands in Denmark and a potential reduction of 77 %.
Mélissa Laurent, Matthias Fuchs, Tanja Herbst, Alexandra Runge, Susanne Liebner, and Claire C. Treat
Biogeosciences, 20, 2049–2064,Short summary
In this study we investigated the effect of different parameters (temperature, landscape position) on the production of greenhouse gases during a 1-year permafrost thaw experiment. For very similar carbon and nitrogen contents, our results show a strong heterogeneity in CH4 production, as well as in microbial abundance. According to our study, these differences are mainly due to the landscape position and the hydrological conditions established as a result of the topography.
Michael Moubarak, Seeta Sistla, Stefano Potter, Susan M. Natali, and Brendan M. Rogers
Biogeosciences, 20, 1537–1557,Short summary
Tundra wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity with climate change. We show using a combination of field measurements and computational modeling that tundra wildfires result in a positive feedback to climate change by emitting significant amounts of long-lived greenhouse gasses. With these effects, attention to tundra fires is necessary for mitigating climate change.
Hanna I. Campen, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 20, 1371–1379,Short summary
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a climate-relevant trace gas emitted from the ocean. However, oceanic CO cycling is understudied. Results from incubation experiments conducted in the Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) indicated that (i) pH did not affect CO cycling and (ii) enhanced CO production and consumption were positively correlated with coloured dissolved organic matter and nitrate concentrations. This suggests microbial CO uptake to be the driving factor for CO cycling in the Arctic Ocean.
Yihong Zhu, Ruihua Liu, Huai Zhang, Shaoda Liu, Zhengfeng Zhang, Fei-Hai Yu, and Timothy G. Gregoire
Biogeosciences, 20, 1357–1370,Short summary
With global warming, the risk of flooding is rising, but the response of the carbon cycle of aquatic and associated riparian systems to flooding is still unclear. Based on the data collected in the Lijiang, we found that flooding would lead to significant carbon emissions of fluvial areas and riparian areas during flooding, but carbon capture may happen after flooding. In the riparian areas, the surviving vegetation, especially clonal plants, played a vital role in this transformation.
Laurie C. Menviel, Paul Spence, Andrew E. Kiss, Matthew A. Chamberlain, Hakase Hayashida, Matthew H. England, and Darryn Waugh
As the ocean absorbs 25 % of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon, it is important to understand the impact of climate change on the flux of carbon between the ocean and the atmosphere. Here, we use a very high-resolution ocean, sea-ice, carbon cycle model to show that the capability of the Southern Ocean to uptake CO2 has decreased over the last 50 years due to a strengthening and poleward shift of the southern hemispheric westerlies. This trend is expected to continue over the coming century.
Lauri Heiskanen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Henriikka Vekuri, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Sari Juutinen, Annalea Lohila, Juha Mikola, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 20, 545–572,Short summary
We measured and modelled the CO2 and CH4 fluxes of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the subarctic landscape for 2 years. The landscape was an annual CO2 sink and a CH4 source. The forest had the largest contribution to the landscape-level CO2 sink and the peatland to the CH4 emissions. The lakes released 24 % of the annual net C uptake of the landscape back to the atmosphere. The C fluxes were affected most by the rainy peak growing season of 2017 and the drought event in July 2018.
Petr Znachor, Jiří Nedoma, Vojtech Kolar, and Anna Matoušů
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We conducted intensive spatial sampling of the hypertrophic fishpond to better understand the spatial dynamics of methane fluxes and environmental heterogeneity in fishponds. The diffusive fluxes of methane accounted for only a minor fraction of the total fluxes, and both varied pronouncedly within the pond and over the studied summer season, which could be explained only by the water depth. Wind substantially affected temperature, oxygen and chlorophyll-a distribution in the pond.
Artem G. Lim, Ivan V. Krickov, Sergey N. Vorobyev, Mikhail A. Korets, Sergey Kopysov, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Jan Karlsson, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 19, 5859–5877,Short summary
In order to quantify C transport and emission and main environmental factors controlling the C cycle in Siberian rivers, we investigated the largest tributary of the Ob River, the Ket River basin, by measuring spatial and seasonal variations in carbon CO2 and CH4 concentrations and emissions together with hydrochemical analyses. The obtained results are useful for large-scale modeling of C emission and export fluxes from permafrost-free boreal rivers of an underrepresented region of the world.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Toby R. Marthews, A. Anthony Bloom, Mark F. Lunt, Nicola Gedney, Simon J. Dadson, Joe McNorton, Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Paul I. Palmer, and Dai Yamazaki
Biogeosciences, 19, 5779–5805,Short summary
Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane, one of the most important climate gases. The JULES land surface model simulates these emissions. We use satellite data to evaluate how well JULES reproduces the methane seasonal cycle over different tropical wetlands. It performs well for most regions; however, it struggles for some African wetlands influenced heavily by river flooding. We explain the reasons for these deficiencies and highlight how future development will improve these areas.
Saúl Edgardo Martínez Castellón, José Henrique Cattanio, José Francisco Berrêdo, Marcelo Rollnic, Maria de Lourdes Ruivo, and Carlos Noriega
Biogeosciences, 19, 5483–5497,Short summary
We seek to understand the influence of climatic seasonality and microtopography on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in an Amazonian mangrove. Topography and seasonality had a contrasting influence when comparing the two gas fluxes: CO2 fluxes were greater in high topography in the dry period, and CH4 fluxes were greater in the rainy season in low topography. Only CO2 fluxes were correlated with soil organic matter, the proportion of carbon and nitrogen, and redox potential.
Matthias Koschorreck, Klaus Holger Knorr, and Lelaina Teichert
Biogeosciences, 19, 5221–5236,Short summary
At low water levels, parts of the bottom of rivers fall dry. These beaches or mudflats emit the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. We found that those emissions are caused by microbial reactions in the sediment and that they change with time. Emissions were influenced by many factors like temperature, water level, rain, plants, and light.
Wantong Zhang, Zhengyi Hu, Joachim Audet, Thomas A. Davidson, Enze Kang, Xiaoming Kang, Yong Li, Xiaodong Zhang, and Jinzhi Wang
Biogeosciences, 19, 5187–5197,Short summary
This work focused on the CH4 and N2O emissions from alpine peatlands in response to the interactive effects of altered water table levels and increased nitrogen deposition. Across the 2-year mesocosm experiment, nitrogen deposition showed nonlinear effects on CH4 emissions and linear effects on N2O emissions, and these N effects were associated with the water table levels. Our results imply the future scenario of strengthened CH4 and N2O emissions from an alpine peatland.
Karel Castro-Morales, Anna Canning, Sophie Arzberger, Will A. Overholt, Kirsten Küsel, Olaf Kolle, Mathias Göckede, Nikita Zimov, and Arne Körtzinger
Biogeosciences, 19, 5059–5077,Short summary
Permafrost thaw releases methane that can be emitted into the atmosphere or transported by Arctic rivers. Methane measurements are lacking in large Arctic river regions. In the Kolyma River (northeast Siberia), we measured dissolved methane to map its distribution with great spatial detail. The river’s edge and river junctions had the highest methane concentrations compared to other river areas. Microbial communities in the river showed that the river’s methane likely is from the adjacent land.
Sonja Gindorf, Hermann W. Bange, Dennis Booge, and Annette Kock
Biogeosciences, 19, 4993–5006,Short summary
Methane is a climate-relevant greenhouse gas which is emitted to the atmosphere from coastal areas such as the Baltic Sea. We measured the methane concentration in the water column of the western Kiel Bight. Methane concentrations were higher in September than in June. We found no relationship between the 2018 European heatwave and methane concentrations. Our results show that the methane distribution in the water column is strongly affected by temporal and spatial variabilities.
Margaret Capooci and Rodrigo Vargas
Biogeosciences, 19, 4655–4670,Short summary
Tidal salt marsh soil emits greenhouse gases, as well as sulfur-based gases, which play roles in global climate but are not well studied as they are difficult to measure. Traditional methods of measuring these gases worked relatively well for carbon dioxide, but less so for methane, nitrous oxide, carbon disulfide, and dimethylsulfide. High variability of trace gases complicates the ability to accurately calculate gas budgets and new approaches are needed for monitoring protocols.
Janne Rinne, Patryk Łakomiec, Patrik Vestin, Joel D. White, Per Weslien, Julia Kelly, Natascha Kljun, Lena Ström, and Leif Klemedtsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 4331–4349,Short summary
The study uses the stable isotope 13C of carbon in methane to investigate the origins of spatial and temporal variation in methane emitted by a temperate wetland ecosystem. The results indicate that methane production is more important for spatial variation than methane consumption by micro-organisms. Temporal variation on a seasonal timescale is most likely affected by more than one driver simultaneously.
Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Roderick Dewar, Gianluca Tramontana, Aleksanteri Mauranen, Pasi Kolari, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Dario Papale, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 19, 4067–4088,Short summary
Four different methods for quantifying photosynthesis (GPP) at ecosystem scale were tested, of which two are based on carbon dioxide (CO2) and two on carbonyl sulfide (COS) flux measurements. CO2-based methods are traditional partitioning, and a new method uses machine learning. We introduce a novel method for calculating GPP from COS fluxes, with potentially better applicability than the former methods. Both COS-based methods gave on average higher GPP estimates than the CO2-based estimates.
Lutz Beckebanze, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Josefine Walz, Christian Wille, David Holl, Manuel Helbig, Julia Boike, Torsten Sachs, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 19, 3863–3876,Short summary
In this study, we present observations of lateral and vertical carbon fluxes from a permafrost-affected study site in the Russian Arctic. From this dataset we estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance for this study site. We show that lateral carbon export has a low impact on the net ecosystem carbon balance during the complete study period (3 months). Nevertheless, our results also show that lateral carbon export can exceed vertical carbon uptake at the beginning of the growing season.
Shahar Baram, Asher Bar-Tal, Alon Gal, Shmulik P. Friedman, and David Russo
Biogeosciences, 19, 3699–3711,Short summary
Static chambers are the most common tool used to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. We tested the impact of such chambers on nitrous oxide emissions in drip irrigation. Field measurements and 3-D simulations show that the chamber base drastically affects the water and nutrient distribution in the soil and hence the measured GHG fluxes. A nomogram is suggested to determine the optimal diameter of a cylindrical chamber that ensures minimal disturbance.
Tracy E. Rankin, Nigel T. Roulet, and Tim R. Moore
Biogeosciences, 19, 3285–3303,Short summary
Peatland respiration is made up of plant and peat sources. How to separate these sources is not well known as peat respiration is not straightforward and is more influenced by vegetation dynamics than previously thought. Results of plot level measurements from shrubs and sparse grasses in a woody bog show that plants' respiration response to changes in climate is related to their different root structures, implying a difference in the mechanisms by which they obtain water resources.
Alison Bressler and Jennifer Blesh
Biogeosciences, 19, 3169–3184,Short summary
Our field experiment tested if a mixture of a nitrogen-fixing legume and non-legume cover crop could reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions following tillage, compared to the legume grown alone. We found higher N2O following both legume treatments, compared to those without, and lower emissions from the cover crop mixture at one of the two test sites, suggesting that interactions between cover crop types and soil quality influence N2O emissions.
Sari Juutinen, Mika Aurela, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Viktor Ivakhov, Maiju Linkosalmi, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Juha Mikola, Johanna Nyman, Emmi Vähä, Marina Loskutova, Alexander Makshtas, and Tuomas Laurila
Biogeosciences, 19, 3151–3167,Short summary
We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in heterogenous Arctic tundra in eastern Siberia. We found that tundra wetlands with sedge and grass vegetation contributed disproportionately to the landscape's ecosystem CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Moreover, we observed high CH4 consumption in dry tundra, particularly in barren areas, offsetting part of the CH4 emissions from the wetlands.
Jessica Plein, Rulon W. Clark, Kyle A. Arndt, Walter C. Oechel, Douglas Stow, and Donatella Zona
Biogeosciences, 19, 2779–2794,Short summary
Tundra vegetation and the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems can be substantially impacted by herbivory. We tested how herbivory by brown lemmings in individual enclosure plots have impacted carbon exchange of tundra ecosystems via altering carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Lemmings significantly decreased net CO2 uptake while not affecting CH4 emissions. There was no significant difference in the subsequent growing season due to recovery of the vegetation.
Jenie Gil, Maija E. Marushchak, Tobias Rütting, Elizabeth M. Baggs, Tibisay Pérez, Alexander Novakovskiy, Tatiana Trubnikova, Dmitry Kaverin, Pertti J. Martikainen, and Christina Biasi
Biogeosciences, 19, 2683–2698,Short summary
N2O emissions from permafrost soils represent up to 11.6 % of total N2O emissions from natural soils, and their contribution to the global N2O budget will likely increase due to climate change. A better understanding of N2O production from permafrost soil is needed to evaluate the role of arctic ecosystems in the global N2O budget. By studying microbial N2O production processes in N2O hotspots in permafrost peatlands, we identified denitrification as the dominant source of N2O in these surfaces.
Christian Rödenbeck, Tim DeVries, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, and Ralph F. Keeling
Biogeosciences, 19, 2627–2652,Short summary
The ocean is an important part of the global carbon cycle, taking up about a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted by burning of fossil fuels and thus slowing down climate change. However, the CO2 uptake by the ocean is, in turn, affected by variability and trends in climate. Here we use carbon measurements in the surface ocean to quantify the response of the oceanic CO2 exchange to environmental conditions and discuss possible mechanisms underlying this response.
Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Yuanyuan Huang, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 19, 2245–2262,Short summary
The relative ratio of wetland methane (CH4) emission pathways determines how much CH4 is oxidized before leaving the soil. We found an ebullition modeling approach that has a better performance in deep layer pore water CH4 concentration. We suggest using this approach in land surface models to accurately represent CH4 emission dynamics and response to climate change. Our results also highlight that both CH4 flux and belowground concentration data are important to constrain model parameters.
Mika Korkiakoski, Tiia Määttä, Krista Peltoniemi, Timo Penttilä, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 19, 2025–2041,Short summary
We measured CH4 fluxes and production and oxidation potentials from irrigated and non-irrigated podzolic soil in a boreal forest. CH4 sink was smaller at the irrigated site but did not cause CH4 emission, with one exception. We also showed that under laboratory conditions, not only wet conditions, but also fresh carbon, are needed to make podzolic soil into a CH4 source. Our study provides important data for improving the process models describing the upland soil CH4 dynamics.
Sarah Shakil, Suzanne E. Tank, Jorien E. Vonk, and Scott Zolkos
Biogeosciences, 19, 1871–1890,Short summary
Permafrost thaw-driven landslides in the western Arctic are increasing organic carbon delivered to headwaters of drainage networks in the western Canadian Arctic by orders of magnitude. Through a series of laboratory experiments, we show that less than 10 % of this organic carbon is likely to be mineralized to greenhouse gases during transport in these networks. Rather most of the organic carbon is likely destined for burial and sequestration for centuries to millennia.
Wolfgang Fischer, Christoph K. Thomas, Nikita Zimov, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 19, 1611–1633,Short summary
Arctic permafrost ecosystems may release large amounts of carbon under warmer future climates and may therefore accelerate global climate change. Our study investigated how long-term grazing by large animals influenced ecosystem characteristics and carbon budgets at a Siberian permafrost site. Our results demonstrate that such management can contribute to stabilizing ecosystems to keep carbon in the ground, particularly through drying soils and reducing methane emissions.
Dong-Gill Kim, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Youngryel Ryu, Bumsuk Seo, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 19, 1435–1450,Short summary
As carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) research has adopted appropriate technology and approach (AT&A), low-cost instruments, open-source software, and participatory research and their results were well accepted by scientific communities. In terms of cost, feasibility, and performance, the integration of low-cost and low-technology, participatory and networking-based research approaches can be AT&A for enhancing C and GHG research in developing countries.
Lutz Beckebanze, Zoé Rehder, David Holl, Christian Wille, Charlotta Mirbach, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 19, 1225–1244,Short summary
Arctic permafrost landscapes feature many water bodies. In contrast to the terrestrial parts of the landscape, the water bodies release carbon to the atmosphere. We compare carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from small water bodies to the surrounding tundra and find not accounting for the carbon dioxide emissions leads to an overestimation of the tundra uptake by 11 %. Consequently, changes in hydrology and water body distribution may substantially impact the overall carbon budget of the Arctic.
Brian Scott, Andrew H. Baldwin, and Stephanie A. Yarwood
Biogeosciences, 19, 1151–1164,Short summary
Carbon dioxide and methane contribute to global warming. What can we do? We can build wetlands: they store carbon dioxide and should cause global cooling. But when first built they produce excess methane. Eventually built wetlands will cause cooling, but it may take decades or even centuries. How we build wetlands matters. We show that a common practice, using organic matter, such as manure, can make a big difference whether or not the wetlands we build start global cooling within our lifetime.
Jan Knappe, Celia Somlai, and Laurence W. Gill
Biogeosciences, 19, 1067–1085,Short summary
Two domestic on-site wastewater treatment systems have been monitored for greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) emissions coming from the process units, soil and vent pipes. This has enabled the net greenhouse gas per person to be quantified for the first time, as well as the impact of pre-treatment on the effluent before being discharged to soil. These decentralised wastewater treatment systems serve approx. 20 % of the population in both Europe and the United States.
Yanan Zhao, Dennis Booge, Christa A. Marandino, Cathleen Schlundt, Astrid Bracher, Elliot L. Atlas, Jonathan Williams, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 19, 701–714,Short summary
We present here, for the first time, simultaneously measured dimethylsulfide (DMS) seawater concentrations and DMS atmospheric mole fractions from the Peruvian upwelling region during two cruises in December 2012 and October 2015. Our results indicate low oceanic DMS concentrations and atmospheric DMS molar fractions in surface waters and the atmosphere, respectively. In addition, the Peruvian upwelling region was identified as an insignificant source of DMS emissions during both periods.
Moussa Moustapha, Loris Deirmendjian, David Sebag, Jean-Jacques Braun, Stéphane Audry, Henriette Ateba Bessa, Thierry Adatte, Carole Causserand, Ibrahima Adamou, Benjamin Ngounou Ngatcha, and Frédéric Guérin
Biogeosciences, 19, 137–163,Short summary
We monitor the spatio-temporal variability of organic and inorganic carbon (C) species in the tropical Nyong River (Cameroon), across groundwater and increasing stream orders. We show the significant contribution of wetland as a C source for tropical rivers. Thus, ignoring the river–wetland connectivity might lead to the misrepresentation of C dynamics in tropical watersheds. Finally, total fluvial carbon losses might offset ~10 % of the net C sink estimated for the whole Nyong watershed.
Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Troy S. Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6579–6588,Short summary
This work builds a high-resolution estimate (500 m) of gross primary productivity (GPP) over the US using satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) between 2018 and 2020. We identify ecosystem-specific scaling factors for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) from TROPOMI SIF. Extreme precipitation events drive four regional GPP anomalies that account for 28 % of year-to-year GPP differences across the US.
Paul Laris, Moussa Koné, Fadiala Dembélé, Christine M. Rodrigue, Lilian Yang, Rebecca Jacobs, and Quincy Laris
Biogeosciences, 18, 6229–6244,Short summary
Savanna fires play a key role in the global carbon cycle because they release methane. Although it burns the most, there are few studies from West Africa. We conducted 36 experimental fires according to local practice to collect smoke samples. We found that fires set early in the season had higher methane emissions than those set later, and head fires had double the emissions of backfires. We conclude policies to reduce emissions will not have the desired effects if fire type is not considered.
Johan H. Scheller, Mikhail Mastepanov, Hanne H. Christiansen, and Torben R. Christensen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6093–6114,Short summary
Our study presents a time series of methane emissions in a high-Arctic-tundra landscape over 14 summers, which shows large variations between years. The methane emissions from the valley are expected to more than double in the late 21st century. This warming increases permafrost thaw, which could increase surface erosion in the valley. Increased erosion could offset some of the rise in methane fluxes from the valley, but this would require large-scale impacts on vegetated surfaces.
Patryk Łakomiec, Jutta Holst, Thomas Friborg, Patrick Crill, Niklas Rakos, Natascha Kljun, Per-Ola Olsson, Lars Eklundh, Andreas Persson, and Janne Rinne
Biogeosciences, 18, 5811–5830,Short summary
Methane emission from the subarctic mire with heterogeneous permafrost status was measured for the years 2014–2016. Lower methane emission was measured from the palsa mire sector while the thawing wet sector emitted more. Both sectors have a similar annual pattern with a gentle rise during spring and a decrease during autumn. The highest emission was observed in the late summer. Winter emissions were positive during the measurement period and have a significant impact on the annual budgets.
Balázs Grosz, Reinhard Well, Rene Dechow, Jan Reent Köster, Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil, Simone Merl, Andreas Rode, Bianca Ziehmer, Amanda Matson, and Hongxing He
Biogeosciences, 18, 5681–5697,Short summary
To assure quality predictions biogeochemical models must be current. We use data measured using novel incubation methods to test the denitrification sub-modules of three models. We aim to identify limitations in the denitrification modeling to inform next steps for development. Several areas are identified, most urgently improved denitrification control parameters and further testing with high-temporal-resolution datasets. Addressing these would significantly improve denitrification modeling.
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We studied forest floor methane exchange over an area of 10 ha in a boreal pine forest. The results demonstrate high spatial variability in soil moisture and consequently in the methane flux. We detected wet patches emitting high amounts of methane in the early summer; however, these patches turned to methane uptake in the autumn. We concluded that the small-scale spatial variability of the boreal forest methane flux highlights the importance of soil chamber placement in similar studies.
We studied forest floor methane exchange over an area of 10 ha in a boreal pine forest. The...