15 Feb 2018

15 Feb 2018

Review status: this preprint was under review for the journal BG. A revision for further review has not been submitted.

Quantification of the fine-scale distribution of Mn-nodules: insights from AUV multi-beam and optical imagery data fusion

Evangelos Alevizos1, Timm Schoening1, Kevin Koeser1, Mirjam Snellen2,3, and Jens Greinert1 Evangelos Alevizos et al.
  • 1GEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research, 24148 Kiel, Germany
  • 2Acoustics Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, the Netherlands
  • 3Deltares, Princetonlaan 6, 3584 CB Utrecht, the Netherlands

Abstract. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) offer unique possibilities for exploring the deep seafloor in high resolution over large areas. We highlight the results from AUV-based multibeam echosounder (MBES) bathymetry / backscatter and digital optical imagery from the DISCOL area acquired during research cruise SO242 in 2015. AUV bathymetry reveals a morphologically complex seafloor with rough terrain in seamount areas and low-relief variations in sedimentary abyssal plains which are covered in Mn-nodules. Backscatter provides valuable information about the seafloor type and particularly about the influence of Mn-nodules on the response of the transmitted acoustic signal. Primarily, Mn-nodule abundances were determined by means of automated nodule detection on AUV seafloor imagery and nodule metrics such as nodules m−2 were calculated automatically for each image allowing further spatial analysis within GIS in conjunction with the acoustic data. AUV-based backscatter was clustered using both raw data and corrected backscatter mosaics.

In total, two unsupervised methods and one machine learning approach were utilized for backscatter classification and Mn-nodule predictive mapping. Bayesian statistical analysis was applied to the raw backscatter values resulting in six acoustic classes. In addition, Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) clustering was applied to the backscatter mosaic and its statistics (mean, mode, 10th, and 90th quantiles) suggesting an optimum of six clusters as well. Part of the nodule metrics data was combined with bathymetry, bathymetric derivatives and backscatter statistics for predictive mapping of the Mn-nodule density using a Random Forest classifier. Results indicate that acoustic classes, predictions from Random Forest model and image-based nodule metrics show very similar spatial distribution patterns with acoustic classes hence capturing most of the fine-scale Mn-nodule variability. Backscatter classes reflect areas with homogeneous nodule density. A strong influence of mean backscatter, fine scale BPI and concavity of the bathymetry on nodule prediction is seen. These observations imply that nodule densities are generally affected by local micro-bathymetry in a way that is not yet fully understood. However, it can be concluded that the spatial occurrence of Mn-covered areas can be sufficiently analysed by means of acoustic classification and multivariate predictive mapping allowing to determine the spatial nodule density in a much more robust way than previously possible.

Evangelos Alevizos et al.

Status: closed (peer review stopped)
Status: closed (peer review stopped)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Status: closed (peer review stopped)
Status: closed (peer review stopped)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Evangelos Alevizos et al.

Evangelos Alevizos et al.


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Latest update: 02 Mar 2021
Short summary
AUV hydro-acoustic and optical data enhance high resolution quantitative mapping of deep sea hard substrates such Mn-nodules. Machine learning algorithms predict with good accuracy the Mn-nodules abundances over large scale areas utilizing one third of ground truth optical data. Accurate maps of Mn-nodule abundances raise new questions about the role of fine scale geomorphology in nodule formation, provide new insights in deep sea ecological studies, and improve mineral assessment estimations.