Effects of CO2 and iron availability on rbcL gene expression in Bering Sea diatoms
- 1Faculty of Environmental Earth Science/Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, North 10 West 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan
- 2CREST, Japan Science and Technology, North 10 West 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan
- 3Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Abiko, Chiba 270-1194, Japan
- 4Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kawasaki-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001, Japan
Abstract. Iron (Fe) can limit phytoplankton productivity in approximately 40% of the global ocean, including in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. However, there is little information available on the impact of CO2-induced seawater acidification on natural phytoplankton assemblages in HNLC regions. We therefore conducted an on-deck experiment manipulating CO2 and Fe using Fe-deficient Bering Sea water during the summer of 2009. The concentrations of CO2 in the incubation bottles were set at 380 and 600 ppm in the non-Fe-added (control) bottles and 180, 380, 600, and 1000 ppm in the Fe-added bottles. The phytoplankton assemblages were primarily composed of diatoms followed by haptophytes in all incubation bottles as estimated by pigment signatures throughout the 5-day (control) or 6-day (Fe-added treatment) incubation period. At the end of incubation, the relative contribution of diatoms to chlorophyll a biomass was significantly higher in the 380 ppm CO2 treatment than in the 600 ppm treatment in the controls, whereas minimal changes were found in the Fe-added treatments. These results indicate that, under Fe-deficient conditions, the growth of diatoms could be negatively affected by the increase in CO2 availability. To further support this finding, we estimated the expression and phylogeny of rbcL (which encodes the large subunit of RuBisCO) mRNA in diatoms by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and clone library techniques, respectively. Interestingly, regardless of Fe availability, the transcript abundance of rbcL decreased in the high CO2 treatments (600 and 1000 ppm). The present study suggests that the projected future increase in seawater pCO2 could reduce the RuBisCO transcription of diatoms, resulting in a decrease in primary productivity and a shift in the food web structure of the Bering Sea.