Articles | Volume 18, issue 14
Research article 28 Jul 2021
Research article | 28 Jul 2021
Incorporating the stable carbon isotope 13C in the ocean biogeochemical component of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model
Bo Liu et al.
Thomas Extier, Katharina D. Six, Bo Liu, Hanna Paulsen, and Tatiana Ilyina
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
The role of land-sea fluxes during deglacial flooding on the ocean biogeochemistry and CO2 change remains poorly constrained due to the lack of climate models that consider such fluxes. We implement the terrestrial organic matter fluxes into the ocean at transiently changing land-sea interface in MPI-ESM and investigate their effect during the last deglaciation. Most of the terrestrial carbon goes to the ocean during flooding events of Meltwater Pulse 1a, which leads to regional CO2 outgassing.
Thomas Extier, Katharina D. Six, Bo Liu, Hanna Paulsen, and Tatiana Ilyina
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
The role of land-sea fluxes during deglacial flooding on the ocean biogeochemistry and CO2 change remains poorly constrained due to the lack of climate models that consider such fluxes. We implement the terrestrial organic matter fluxes into the ocean at transiently changing land-sea interface in MPI-ESM and investigate their effect during the last deglaciation. Most of the terrestrial carbon goes to the ocean during flooding events of Meltwater Pulse 1a, which leads to regional CO2 outgassing.
Aaron Spring, István Dunkl, Hongmei Li, Victor Brovkin, and Tatiana Ilyina
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESDShort summary
Numerical carbon cycle prediction models usually do not start from observed carbon states due to sparse observations. Instead, only physical climate is reconstructed before, assuming that the carbon cycle follows indirectly. Here, we test in an idealized framework how well this indirect and direct reconstruction with perfect observations works. We find that indirect reconstruction works quite well and that improvements from the direct method are limited, strengthening the current indirect use.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Vivek K. Arora, Anna Katavouta, Richard G. Williams, Chris D. Jones, Victor Brovkin, Pierre Friedlingstein, Jörg Schwinger, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Boucher, Patricia Cadule, Matthew A. Chamberlain, James R. Christian, Christine Delire, Rosie A. Fisher, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Emilie Joetzjer, Michio Kawamiya, Charles D. Koven, John P. Krasting, Rachel M. Law, David M. Lawrence, Andrew Lenton, Keith Lindsay, Julia Pongratz, Thomas Raddatz, Roland Séférian, Kaoru Tachiiri, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Andy Wiltshire, Tongwen Wu, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 4173–4222,Short summary
Since the preindustrial period, land and ocean have taken up about half of the carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Comparison of different earth system models with the carbon cycle allows us to assess how carbon uptake by land and ocean differs among models. This yields an estimate of uncertainty in our understanding of how land and ocean respond to increasing atmospheric CO2. This paper summarizes results from two such model intercomparison projects that use an idealized scenario.
Lester Kwiatkowski, Olivier Torres, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Aumont, Matthew Chamberlain, James R. Christian, John P. Dunne, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Jasmin G. John, Andrew Lenton, Hongmei Li, Nicole S. Lovenduski, James C. Orr, Julien Palmieri, Yeray Santana-Falcón, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Charles A. Stock, Alessandro Tagliabue, Yohei Takano, Jerry Tjiputra, Katsuya Toyama, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Michio Watanabe, Akitomo Yamamoto, Andrew Yool, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 3439–3470,Short summary
We assess 21st century projections of marine biogeochemistry in the CMIP6 Earth system models. These models represent the most up-to-date understanding of climate change. The models generally project greater surface ocean warming, acidification, subsurface deoxygenation, and euphotic nitrate reductions but lesser primary production declines than the previous generation of models. This has major implications for the impact of anthropogenic climate change on marine ecosystems.
Joeran Maerz, Katharina D. Six, Irene Stemmler, Soeren Ahmerkamp, and Tatiana Ilyina
Biogeosciences, 17, 1765–1803,Short summary
Marine micro-algae bind carbon dioxide, CO2. During their decay, snowflake-like aggregates form that sink, remineralize and transport organically bound CO2 to depth; this is referred to as the biological carbon pump. In our model study, we elucidate how variable aggregate composition impacts the global pattern of vertical carbon fluxes. Our mechanistic model approach advances the representation of the global biological carbon pump and promotes a more realistic projection under climate change.
Fabrice Lacroix, Tatiana Ilyina, and Jens Hartmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 55–88,Short summary
Contributions of rivers to the oceanic cycling of carbon have been poorly represented in global models until now. Here, we assess the long–term implications of preindustrial riverine loads in the ocean in a novel framework which estimates the loads through a hierarchy of weathering and land–ocean export models. We investigate their impacts for the oceanic biological production and air–sea carbon flux. Finally, we assess the potential incorporation of the framework in an Earth system model.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Vladislav Bastrikov, Meike Becker, Laurent Bopp, Erik Buitenhuis, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Kim I. Currie, Richard A. Feely, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Nicolas Gruber, Sören Gutekunst, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Jed O. Kaplan, Etsushi Kato, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Anna Peregon, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Roland Séférian, Jörg Schwinger, Naomi Smith, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783–1838,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2019 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Chris D. Jones, Thomas L. Frölicher, Charles Koven, Andrew H. MacDougall, H. Damon Matthews, Kirsten Zickfeld, Joeri Rogelj, Katarzyna B. Tokarska, Nathan P. Gillett, Tatiana Ilyina, Malte Meinshausen, Nadine Mengis, Roland Séférian, Michael Eby, and Friedrich A. Burger
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4375–4385,Short summary
Global warming is simply related to the total emission of CO2 allowing us to define a carbon budget. However, information on the Zero Emissions Commitment is a key missing link to assess remaining carbon budgets to achieve the climate targets of the Paris Agreement. It was therefore decided that a small targeted MIP activity to fill this knowledge gap would be extremely valuable. This article formalises the experimental design alongside the other CMIP6 documentation papers.
Victor Brovkin, Stephan Lorenz, Thomas Raddatz, Tatiana Ilyina, Irene Stemmler, Matthew Toohey, and Martin Claussen
Biogeosciences, 16, 2543–2555,Short summary
Mechanisms of atmospheric CO2 growth by 20 ppm from 6000 BCE to the pre-industrial period are still uncertain. We apply the Earth system model MPI-ESM-LR for two transient simulations of the climate–carbon cycle. An additional process, e.g. carbonate accumulation on shelves, is required for consistency with ice-core CO2 data. Our simulations support the hypothesis that the ocean was a source of CO2 until the late Holocene when anthropogenic CO2 sources started to affect atmospheric CO2.
Hanna Paulsen, Tatiana Ilyina, Johann H. Jungclaus, Katharina D. Six, and Irene Stemmler
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 1283–1300,Short summary
We use an Earth system model to study the effects of light absorption by marine cyanobacteria on climate. We find that cyanobacteria have a considerable cooling effect on tropical SST with implications for ocean and atmosphere circulation patterns as well as for climate variability. The results indicate the importance of considering phytoplankton light absorption in climate models, and specifically highlight the role of cyanobacteria due to their regulative effect on tropical SST and climate.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Judith Hauck, Julia Pongratz, Penelope A. Pickers, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Almut Arneth, Vivek K. Arora, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Scott C. Doney, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Forrest M. Hoffman, Mario Hoppema, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Truls Johannessen, Chris D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Are Olsen, Tsueno Ono, Prabir Patra, Anna Peregon, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Matthias Rocher, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Tobias Steinhoff, Adrienne Sutton, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Rebecca Wright, Sönke Zaehle, and Bo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2018 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Uwe Mikolajewicz, Florian Ziemen, Guido Cioni, Martin Claussen, Klaus Fraedrich, Marvin Heidkamp, Cathy Hohenegger, Diego Jimenez de la Cuesta, Marie-Luise Kapsch, Alexander Lemburg, Thorsten Mauritsen, Katharina Meraner, Niklas Röber, Hauke Schmidt, Katharina D. Six, Irene Stemmler, Talia Tamarin-Brodsky, Alexander Winkler, Xiuhua Zhu, and Bjorn Stevens
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 1191–1215,Short summary
Model experiments show that changing the sense of Earth's rotation has relatively little impact on the globally and zonally averaged energy budgets but leads to large shifts in continental climates and patterns of precipitation. The retrograde world is greener as the desert area shrinks. Deep water formation shifts from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific with subsequent changes in ocean overturning. Over large areas of the Indian Ocean, cyanobacteria dominate over bulk phytoplankton.
Christoph Heinze, Tatiana Ilyina, and Marion Gehlen
Biogeosciences, 15, 3521–3539,Short summary
The ocean becomes increasingly acidified through uptake of additional man-made CO2 from the atmosphere. This is impacting ecosystems. In order to find out whether reduced biological production of calcium carbonate shell material of biota is occurring at a large scale, we carried out a model study simulating the changes in oceanic 230Th concentrations with reduced availability of calcium carbonate particles in the water. 230Th can serve as a useful magnifying glass for acidification impacts.
Johannes Pätsch, Wilfried Kühn, and Katharina Dorothea Six
Biogeosciences, 15, 3293–3309,Short summary
Biogeochemical shelf sea modelling has a long tradition. Most models include early diagenesis sediment modules for remineralization of organic matter. The model presented here also simulates alkalinity, which is exported into the pelagic system. There the produced alkalinity joins in the carbonate system and is able to buffer invading atmospheric CO2. The input of nitrate via rivers stimulates alkalinity generation within the sediment, which in turn reduces the acidification of coastal areas.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Julia Pongratz, Andrew C. Manning, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Oliver D. Andrews, Vivek K. Arora, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Leticia Barbero, Meike Becker, Richard A. Betts, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Catherine E. Cosca, Jessica Cross, Kim Currie, Thomas Gasser, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Christopher W. Hunt, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Markus Kautz, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Ivan Lima, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, X. Antonio Padin, Anna Peregon, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Janet Reimer, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Steven van Heuven, Nicolas Viovy, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Watson, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Dan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 405–448,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2017 describes data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. It is the 12th annual update and the 6th published in this journal.
Jörg Schwinger, Jerry Tjiputra, Nadine Goris, Katharina D. Six, Alf Kirkevåg, Øyvind Seland, Christoph Heinze, and Tatiana Ilyina
Biogeosciences, 14, 3633–3648,Short summary
Transient global warming under the high emission scenario RCP8.5 is amplified by up to 6 % if a pH dependency of marine DMS production is assumed. Importantly, this additional warming is not spatially homogeneous but shows a pronounced north–south gradient. Over the Antarctic continent, the additional warming is almost twice the global average. In the Southern Ocean we find a small DMS–climate feedback that counteracts the original reduction of DMS production due to ocean acidification.
Stephen M. Griffies, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Paul J. Durack, Alistair J. Adcroft, V. Balaji, Claus W. Böning, Eric P. Chassignet, Enrique Curchitser, Julie Deshayes, Helge Drange, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Peter J. Gleckler, Jonathan M. Gregory, Helmuth Haak, Robert W. Hallberg, Patrick Heimbach, Helene T. Hewitt, David M. Holland, Tatiana Ilyina, Johann H. Jungclaus, Yoshiki Komuro, John P. Krasting, William G. Large, Simon J. Marsland, Simona Masina, Trevor J. McDougall, A. J. George Nurser, James C. Orr, Anna Pirani, Fangli Qiao, Ronald J. Stouffer, Karl E. Taylor, Anne Marie Treguier, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Petteri Uotila, Maria Valdivieso, Qiang Wang, Michael Winton, and Stephen G. Yeager
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3231–3296,Short summary
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) aims to provide a framework for evaluating, understanding, and improving the ocean and sea-ice components of global climate and earth system models contributing to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). This document defines OMIP and details a protocol both for simulating global ocean/sea-ice models and for analysing their output.
Chris D. Jones, Vivek Arora, Pierre Friedlingstein, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, John Dunne, Heather Graven, Forrest Hoffman, Tatiana Ilyina, Jasmin G. John, Martin Jung, Michio Kawamiya, Charlie Koven, Julia Pongratz, Thomas Raddatz, James T. Randerson, and Sönke Zaehle
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2853–2880,Short summary
How the carbon cycle interacts with climate will affect future climate change and how society plans emissions reductions to achieve climate targets. The Coupled Climate Carbon Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (C4MIP) is an endorsed activity of CMIP6 and aims to quantify these interactions and feedbacks in state-of-the-art climate models. This paper lays out the experimental protocol for modelling groups to follow to contribute to C4MIP. It is a contribution to the CMIP6 GMD Special Issue.
Roland Séférian, Marion Gehlen, Laurent Bopp, Laure Resplandy, James C. Orr, Olivier Marti, John P. Dunne, James R. Christian, Scott C. Doney, Tatiana Ilyina, Keith Lindsay, Paul R. Halloran, Christoph Heinze, Joachim Segschneider, Jerry Tjiputra, Olivier Aumont, and Anastasia Romanou
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1827–1851,Short summary
This paper explores how the large diversity in spin-up protocols used for ocean biogeochemistry in CMIP5 models contributed to inter-model differences in modeled fields. We show that a link between spin-up duration and skill-score metrics emerges from both individual IPSL-CM5A-LR's results and an ensemble of CMIP5 models. Our study suggests that differences in spin-up protocols constitute a source of inter-model uncertainty which would require more attention in future intercomparison exercises.
C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, J. G. Canadell, S. Sitch, J. I. Korsbakken, P. Friedlingstein, G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, T. A. Boden, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, R. F. Keeling, P. Tans, A. Arneth, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Barbero, L. Bopp, J. Chang, F. Chevallier, L. P. Chini, P. Ciais, M. Fader, R. A. Feely, T. Gkritzalis, I. Harris, J. Hauck, T. Ilyina, A. K. Jain, E. Kato, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, N. Metzl, F. Millero, D. R. Munro, A. Murata, J. E. M. S. Nabel, S. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, K. O'Brien, A. Olsen, T. Ono, F. F. Pérez, B. Pfeil, D. Pierrot, B. Poulter, G. Rehder, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, G. R. van der Werf, S. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, N. Viovy, A. Wiltshire, S. Zaehle, and N. Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 349–396,Short summary
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. We describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on a range of data and models and their interpretation by a broad scientific community.
M. Heinze and T. Ilyina
Clim. Past, 11, 63–79,
C. D. Nevison, M. Manizza, R. F. Keeling, M. Kahru, L. Bopp, J. Dunne, J. Tiputra, T. Ilyina, and B. G. Mitchell
Biogeosciences, 12, 193–208,Short summary
The observed seasonal cycles in atmospheric potential oxygen (APO) at five surface monitoring sites are compared to those inferred from the air-sea O2 fluxes of six ocean biogeochemistry models. The simulated air-sea fluxes are translated into APO seasonal cycles using a matrix method that takes into account atmospheric transport model (ATM) uncertainty among 13 different ATMs. Net primary production (NPP), estimated from satellite ocean color data, is also compared to model output.
L. Bopp, L. Resplandy, J. C. Orr, S. C. Doney, J. P. Dunne, M. Gehlen, P. Halloran, C. Heinze, T. Ilyina, R. Séférian, J. Tjiputra, and M. Vichi
Biogeosciences, 10, 6225–6245,
O. D. Andrews, N. L. Bindoff, P. R. Halloran, T. Ilyina, and C. Le Quéré
Biogeosciences, 10, 1799–1813,
J. Segschneider, A. Beitsch, C. Timmreck, V. Brovkin, T. Ilyina, J. Jungclaus, S. J. Lorenz, K. D. Six, and D. Zanchettin
Biogeosciences, 10, 669–687,
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Loes J. A. Gerringa, Martha Gledhill, Indah Ardiningsih, Niels Muntjewerf, and Luis M. Laglera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5265–5289,Short summary
For 3 decades, competitive ligand exchange–adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry was used to estimate the Fe-binding capacity of organic matter in seawater. In this paper the performance of the competing ligands is compared through the analysis of a series of model ligands. The main finding of this paper is that the determined speciation parameters are not independent of the application, making interpretation of Fe speciation data more complex than it was thought before.
Frédéric Gazeau, Céline Ridame, France Van Wambeke, Samir Alliouane, Christian Stolpe, Jean-Olivier Irisson, Sophie Marro, Jean-Michel Grisoni, Guillaume De Liège, Sandra Nunige, Kahina Djaoudi, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, Philippe Catala, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5011–5034,Short summary
This paper shows that the impacts of Saharan dust deposition in different Mediterranean basins are as strong as those observed in coastal waters but differed substantially between the three tested stations, differences attributed to variable initial metabolic states. A stronger impact of warming and acidification on mineralization suggests a decreased capacity of Mediterranean surface communities to sequester CO2 following the deposition of atmospheric particles in the coming decades.
Carolin R. Löscher
Biogeosciences, 18, 4953–4963,Short summary
The Bay of Bengal (BoB) is classically seen as an ocean region with low primary production, which has been predicted to decrease even further. Here, the importance of such a trend is used to explore what could happen to the BoB's low-oxygen core waters if primary production decreases. Lower biological production leads to less oxygen loss in deeper waters by respiration; thus it could be that oxygen will not further decrease and the BoB will not become anoxic, different to other low-oxygen areas.
Neil J. Wyatt, Angela Milne, Eric P. Achterberg, Thomas J. Browning, Heather A. Bouman, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, and Maeve C. Lohan
Biogeosciences, 18, 4265–4280,Short summary
Using data collected during two expeditions to the South Atlantic Ocean, we investigated how the interaction between external sources and biological activity influenced the availability of the trace metals zinc and cobalt. This is important as both metals play essential roles in the metabolism and growth of phytoplankton and thus influence primary productivity of the oceans. We found seasonal changes in both processes that helped explain upper-ocean trace metal cycling.
Hannah L. Bourne, James K. B. Bishop, Elizabeth J. Connors, and Todd J. Wood
Biogeosciences, 18, 3053–3086,Short summary
To learn how the biological carbon pump works in productive coastal upwelling systems, four autonomous carbon flux explorers measured carbon flux through the twilight zone beneath an offshore-flowing filament of biologically productive water. Strikingly different particle classes dominated the carbon fluxes during successive stages of the filament evolution over 30 d. Both flux and transfer efficiency were far greater than expected, suggesting an outsized filament impact in California waters.
Matthieu Roy-Barman, Lorna Foliot, Eric Douville, Nathalie Leblond, Fréderic Gazeau, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Céline Ridame, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 2663–2678,Short summary
The release of insoluble elements such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th) and protactinium (Pa) when Saharan dust falls over the Mediterranean Sea was studied during tank experiments under present and future climate conditions. Each element exhibited different dissolution kinetics and dissolution fractions (always lower than a few percent). Changes in temperature and/or pH under greenhouse conditions lead to a lower Th release and a higher light REE release.
Elvira Pulido-Villena, Karine Desboeufs, Kahina Djaoudi, France Van Wambeke, Stéphanie Barrillon, Andrea Doglioli, Anne Petrenko, Vincent Taillandier, Franck Fu, Tiphanie Gaillard, Sophie Guasco, Sandra Nunige, Sylvain Triquet, and Cécile Guieu
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
High sensitive phosphate measurements in the Mediterranean Sea allowed detecting vertical gradients of phosphate concentration above the phosphacline. Estimated phosphate fluxes from below were comparable to atmospheric deposition except under the influence of rain and Saharan dust. Taken together, external sources of phosphate contributed little to total phosphate requirements which were mainly sustained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the organic phosphorus pool.
Frédéric Gazeau, France Van Wambeke, Emilio Marañón, Maria Pérez-Lorenzo, Samir Alliouane, Christian Stolpe, Thierry Blasco, Nathalie Leblond, Birthe Zäncker, Anja Engel, Barbara Marie, Julie Dinasquet, and Cécile Guieu
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Our study shows that the impact of dust deposition on primary production depends on the initial composition and metabolic state of the tested community and is constrained by the amount of nutrients added, to sustain both the fast response of heterotrophic prokaryotes and the delayed one of phytoplankton. Under future environmental conditions, heterotrophic metabolism will be more impacted than primary production, therefore reducing the capacity of surface waters to sequester anthropogenic CO2.
Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, Dominique Lefèvre, Christian Tamburini, Marc Garel, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Nagib Bhairy, and Sophie Guasco
Biogeosciences, 18, 2205–2212,Short summary
We present new data concerning the relation between biogenic barium (Baxs, a tracer of carbon remineralization at mesopelagic depths), O2 consumption and prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of the relation between Baxs, PHP and O2 and to test the validity of the Dehairs transfer function in the Mediterranean Sea. This relation has never been tested in the Mediterranean Sea.
Natacha Le Grix, Jakob Zscheischler, Charlotte Laufkötter, Cecile S. Rousseaux, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 18, 2119–2137,Short summary
Marine ecosystems could suffer severe damage from the co-occurrence of a marine heat wave with extremely low chlorophyll concentration. Here, we provide a first assessment of compound marine heat wave and low-chlorophyll events in the global ocean from 1998 to 2018. We reveal hotspots of these compound events in the equatorial Pacific and in the Arabian Sea and show that they mostly occur in summer at high latitudes and their frequency is modulated by large-scale modes of climate variability.
Christopher Holder and Anand Gnanadesikan
Biogeosciences, 18, 1941–1970,Short summary
A challenge for marine ecologists in studying phytoplankton is linking small-scale relationships found in a lab to broader relationships observed on large scales in the environment. We investigated whether machine learning (ML) could help connect these small- and large-scale relationships. ML was able to provide qualitative information about the small-scale processes from large-scale information. This method could help identify important relationships from observations in future research.
Paul J. Tréguer, Jill N. Sutton, Mark Brzezinski, Matthew A. Charette, Timothy Devries, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Claudia Ehlert, Jon Hawkings, Aude Leynaert, Su Mei Liu, Natalia Llopis Monferrer, María López-Acosta, Manuel Maldonado, Shaily Rahman, Lihua Ran, and Olivier Rouxel
Biogeosciences, 18, 1269–1289,Short summary
Silicon is the second most abundant element of the Earth's crust. In this review, we show that silicon inputs and outputs, to and from the world ocean, are 57 % and 37 % higher, respectively, than previous estimates. These changes are significant, modifying factors such as the geochemical residence time of silicon, which is now about 8000 years and 2 times faster than previously assumed. We also update the total biogenic silica pelagic production and provide an estimate for sponge production.
Caroline Ulses, Claude Estournel, Marine Fourrier, Laurent Coppola, Fayçal Kessouri, Dominique Lefèvre, and Patrick Marsaleix
Biogeosciences, 18, 937–960,Short summary
We analyse the seasonal cycle of O2 and estimate an annual O2 budget in the north-western Mediterranean deep-convection region, using a numerical model. We show that this region acts as a large sink of atmospheric O2 and as a major source of O2 for the western Mediterranean Sea. The decrease in the deep convection intensity predicted in recent projections may have important consequences on the overall uptake of O2 in the Mediterranean Sea and on the O2 exchanges with the Atlantic Ocean.
Fuminori Hashihama, Hiroaki Saito, Taketoshi Kodama, Saori Yasui-Tamura, Jota Kanda, Iwao Tanita, Hiroshi Ogawa, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Philip W. Boyd, and Ken Furuya
Biogeosciences, 18, 897–915,Short summary
We investigated the nutrient assimilation characteristics of deep-water-induced phytoplankton blooms across the subtropical North and South Pacific Ocean. Nutrient drawdown ratios of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate were anomalously low in the western North Pacific, likely due to the high phosphate uptake capability of low-phosphate-adapted phytoplankton. The anomalous phosphate uptake might influence the maintenance of chronic phosphate depletion in the western North Pacific.
Florian Ricour, Arthur Capet, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Bruno Delille, and Marilaure Grégoire
Biogeosciences, 18, 755–774,Short summary
This paper addresses the phenology of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) in the Black Sea (BS). We show that the DCM forms in March at a density level set by the winter mixed layer. It maintains this location until June, suggesting an influence of the DCM on light and nutrient profiles rather than mere adaptation to external factors. In summer, the DCM concentrates ~55 % of the chlorophyll in a 10 m layer at ~35 m depth and should be considered a major feature of the BS phytoplankton dynamics.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Joanne Hopkins, Raja S. Ganeshram, Louisa Norman, Camille de la Vega, Rachel Jeffreys, and Claire Mahaffey
Biogeosciences, 18, 637–653,Short summary
The Barents Sea is a rapidly changing shallow sea within the Arctic. Here, nitrate, an essential nutrient, is fully consumed by algae in surface waters during summer months. Nitrate is efficiently regenerated in the Barents Sea, and there is no evidence for nitrogen loss from the sediments by denitrification, which is prevalent on other Arctic shelves. This suggests that nitrogen availability in the Barents Sea is largely determined by the supply of nutrients in water masses from the Atlantic.
Léo Berline, Andrea Michelangelo Doglioli, Anne Petrenko, Stéphanie Barrillon, Boris Espinasse, Frederic A. C. Le Moigne, François Simon-Bot, Melilotus Thyssen, and François Carlotti
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
While Ionian Sea is considered as a nutrient depleted and low phytoplankton biomass area, it is a crossroad for water mass circulation. In the central Ionian Sea, we observed a strong contrast in particle distribution across a relatively short distance. Using remote sensing and Lagrangian simulations, we suggest that this contrast originate from long distance transport of particles from the north, west and east of Ionian Sea, where phytoplankton production was more intense.
Biogeosciences, 18, 509–534,Short summary
Biogeochemical-Argo floats are starting to routinely measure ocean chlorophyll, nutrients, oxygen, and pH. This study generated synthetic observations representing two potential Biogeochemical-Argo observing system designs and created a data assimilation scheme to combine them with an ocean model. The proposed system of 1000 floats brought clear benefits to model results, with additional floats giving further benefit. Existing satellite ocean colour observations gave complementary information.
Mark Hague and Marcello Vichi
Biogeosciences, 18, 25–38,Short summary
This paper examines the question of what causes the rapid spring growth of microscopic marine algae (phytoplankton) in the ice-covered ocean surrounding Antarctica. One prominent hypothesis proposes that the melting of sea ice is the primary cause, while our results suggest that this is only part of the explanation. In particular, we show that phytoplankton are able to start growing before the sea ice melts appreciably, much earlier than previously thought.
Arthur Capet, Luc Vandenbulcke, and Marilaure Grégoire
Biogeosciences, 17, 6507–6525,Short summary
The Black Sea is 2000 m deep, but, due to limited ventilation, only about the upper 100 m contains enough oxygen to support marine life such as fish. This oxygenation depth has been shown to be decreasing (1955–2019). Here, we evidence that atmospheric warming induced a clear shift in an important ventilation mechanism. We highlight the impact of this shift on oxygenation. There are important implications for marine life and carbon and nutrient cycling if this new ventilation regime persists.
Tim Rixen, Greg Cowie, Birgit Gaye, Joaquim Goes, Helga do Rosário Gomes, Raleigh R. Hood, Zouhair Lachkar, Henrike Schmidt, Joachim Segschneider, and Arvind Singh
Biogeosciences, 17, 6051–6080,Short summary
The northern Indian Ocean hosts an extensive oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which intensified due to human-induced global changes. This includes the occurrence of anoxic events on the Indian shelf and affects benthic ecosystems and the pelagic ecosystem structure in the Arabian Sea. Consequences for biogeochemical cycles are unknown, which, in addition to the poor representation of mesoscale features, reduces the reliability of predictions of the future OMZ development in the northern Indian Ocean.
France Van Wambeke, Vincent Taillandier, Karine Deboeufs, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Anja Engel, Emilio Marañón, Céline Ridame, and Cécile Guieu
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Simultaneous in situ measurements of (dry and wet) atmospheric deposition, and biogeochemical stocks and fluxes in the sunlight waters of the open Mediterranean Sea revealed complex physical and biological processes. Dry N deposition contributed moderately to the N biological demand in the mixed layer (11 % for primary producers, 27 % for heterotrophic bacteria). The transitory effect observed after a wet dust deposition impacted the microbial food web down to the DCM.
Marion Lagarde, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Hélène Planquette, Mélanie Grenier, Moustafa Belhadj, Pascale Lherminier, and Catherine Jeandel
Biogeosciences, 17, 5539–5561,
Randelle M. Bundy, Alessandro Tagliabue, Nicholas J. Hawco, Peter L. Morton, Benjamin S. Twining, Mariko Hatta, Abigail E. Noble, Mattias R. Cape, Seth G. John, Jay T. Cullen, and Mak A. Saito
Biogeosciences, 17, 4745–4767,Short summary
Cobalt (Co) is an essential nutrient for ocean microbes and is scarce in most areas of the ocean. This study measured Co concentrations in the Arctic Ocean for the first time and found that Co levels are extremely high in the surface waters of the Canadian Arctic. Although the Co primarily originates from the shelf, the high concentrations persist throughout the central Arctic. Co in the Arctic appears to be increasing over time and might be a source of Co to the North Atlantic.
Friedrich A. Burger, Jasmin G. John, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4633–4662,Short summary
Ensemble simulations of an Earth system model reveal that ocean acidity extremes have increased in the past few decades and are projected to increase further in terms of frequency, intensity, duration, and volume extent. The increase is not only caused by the long-term ocean acidification due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2, but also due to changes in short-term variability. The increase in ocean acidity extremes may enhance the risk of detrimental impacts on marine organisms.
Zouhair Lachkar, Michael Mehari, Muchamad Al Azhar, Marina Lévy, and Shafer Smith
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
This study documents and quantifies a significant recent oxygen decline in the upper layers of the Arabian Sea and explores its drivers. Using a modeling approach we show that the fast local warming of sea surface is the main factor causing this oxygen drop. Concomitant summer monsoon intensification contributes to this trend, although to a lesser extent. These changes exacerbate oxygen depletion in the subsurface, threatening marine habitats and altering the local biogeochemistry.
Christopher Gordon, Katja Fennel, Clark Richards, Lynn K. Shay, and Jodi K. Brewster
Biogeosciences, 17, 4119–4134,Short summary
We describe a method for correcting errors in oxygen optode measurements on autonomous platforms in the ocean. The errors result from the relatively slow response time of the sensor. The correction method includes an in situ determination of the effective response time and requires the time stamps of the individual measurements. It is highly relevant for the BGC-Argo program and also applicable to gliders. We also explore if diurnal changes in oxygen can be obtained from profiling floats.
Bin Wang, Katja Fennel, Liuqian Yu, and Christopher Gordon
Biogeosciences, 17, 4059–4074,Short summary
We assess trade-offs between different types of biological observations, specifically satellite ocean color and BGC-Argo profiles and the benefits of combining both for optimizing a biogeochemical model of the Gulf of Mexico. Using all available observations leads to significant improvements in observed and unobserved variables (including primary production and C export). Our results highlight the significant benefits of BGC-Argo measurements for biogeochemical model optimization and validation.
Bruce L. Greaves, Andrew T. Davidson, Alexander D. Fraser, John P. McKinlay, Andrew Martin, Andrew McMinn, and Simon W. Wright
Biogeosciences, 17, 3815–3835,Short summary
We observed that variation in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) over 11 years showed a relationship with the species composition of hard-shelled phytoplankton in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) of the Southern Ocean. Phytoplankton in the SIZ are productive during the southern spring and summer when the area is ice-free, with production feeding most Antarctic life. The SAM is known to be increasing with climate change, and changes in phytoplankton in the SIZ may have implications for higher life forms.
Vincent Taillandier, Louis Prieur, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà, and Elvira Pulido-Villena
Biogeosciences, 17, 3343–3366,Short summary
This study addresses the role played by vertical diffusion in the nutrient enrichment of the Levantine intermediate waters, a process particularly relevant inside thermohaline staircases. Thanks to a high profiling frequency over a 4-year period, BGC-Argo float observations reveal the temporal continuity of the layering patterns encountered during the cruise PEACETIME and their impact on vertical and lateral transfers of nitrate between the deep reservoir and the surface productive zone.
Coraline Leseurre, Claire Lo Monaco, Gilles Reverdin, Nicolas Metzl, Jonathan Fin, Solveig Olafsdottir, and Virginie Racapé
Biogeosciences, 17, 2553–2577,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the evolution of CO2 uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Subpolar surface water. Our results show an important reduction in the capacity of the ocean to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere (1993–2007), due to a rapid increase in the fCO2 and associated with a rapid decrease in pH. Conversely, data obtained during the last decade (2008–2017) show a stagnation of fCO2 (increasing the ocean sink for CO2) and pH.
Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodríguez-Romero, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Franck Fu, Emilio Marañón, María Pérez-Lorenzo, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Sylvain Triquet, Guillaume Siour, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2349–2364,Short summary
Residence times of particulate metals derived from aerosol deposition in the Sea Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea ranged from a couple of minutes (e.g., for Fe) to a few hours (e.g., for Cu). Microbial activity seems to play an important role in in this process and in the concentration and distribution of metals between diferent water layers.
Pieter Demuynck, Toby Tyrrell, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Mark Christopher Moore, and Adrian Peter Martin
Biogeosciences, 17, 2289–2314,Short summary
The availability of macronutrients N and Si is of key importance to sustain life in the Southern Ocean. N and Si are available in abundance at the southern boundary of the Southern Ocean due to constant supply from the deep ocean. In the more northern regions of the Southern Ocean, a decline in macronutrient concentration is noticed, especially strong for Si rather than N. This paper uses a simplified biogeochemical model to investigate processes responsible for this decline in concentration.
Martine Lizotte, Maurice Levasseur, Virginie Galindo, Margaux Gourdal, Michel Gosselin, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Marjolaine Blais, Joannie Charette, and Rachel Hussherr
Biogeosciences, 17, 1557–1581,Short summary
This study brings further support to the premise that the prevalence of younger and thinner icescapes over older and thicker ones in the Canadian High Arctic favors the early development of under-ice microorganisms as well as their production of the climate-relevant gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). Given the rapid rate of climate-driven changes in Arctic sea ice, our results suggest implications for the timing and magnitude of DMS pulses in the Arctic, with ramifications for climate forecasting.
Mark J. Hopwood, Nicolas Sanchez, Despo Polyviou, Øystein Leiknes, Julián Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Eric P. Achterberg, Murat V. Ardelan, Javier Aristegui, Lennart Bach, Sengul Besiktepe, Yohann Heriot, Ioanna Kalantzi, Tuba Terbıyık Kurt, Ioulia Santi, Tatiana M. Tsagaraki, and David Turner
Biogeosciences, 17, 1309–1326,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is formed naturally in sunlight-exposed water by photochemistry. At high concentrations it is undesirable to biological cells because it is a stressor. Here, across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments (Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard), we determine that two factors consistently affect the H2O2 concentrations irrespective of geographical location: bacteria abundance and experiment design.
Manon Tonnard, Hélène Planquette, Andrew R. Bowie, Pier van der Merwe, Morgane Gallinari, Floriane Desprez de Gésincourt, Yoan Germain, Arthur Gourain, Marion Benetti, Gilles Reverdin, Paul Tréguer, Julia Boutorh, Marie Cheize, François Lacan, Jan-Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Leonardo Pereira-Contreira, Rachel Shelley, Pascale Lherminier, and Géraldine Sarthou
Biogeosciences, 17, 917–943,Short summary
We investigated the spatial distribution of dissolved Fe during spring 2014, in order to understand the processes influencing the biogeochemical cycle in the North Atlantic. Our results highlighted elevated Fe close to riverine inputs at the Iberian Margin and glacial inputs at the Newfoundland and Greenland margins. Atmospheric deposition appeared to be a minor source of Fe. Convection was an important source of Fe in the Irminger Sea, which was depleted in Fe relative to nitrate.
Carolin R. Löscher, Wiebke Mohr, Hermann W. Bange, and Donald E. Canfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 851–864,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are ocean areas severely depleted in oxygen as a result of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Biologically, organic material is produced in the sea surface and exported to deeper waters, where it respires. In the Bay of Bengal (BoB), an OMZ is present, but there are traces of oxygen left. Our study now suggests that this is because one key process, nitrogen fixation, is absent in the BoB, thus preventing primary production and consecutive respiration.
Lothar Stramma, Sunke Schmidtko, Steven J. Bograd, Tsuneo Ono, Tetjana Ross, Daisuke Sasano, and Frank A. Whitney
Biogeosciences, 17, 813–831,Short summary
The influence of climate signals in the Pacific, especially the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, as well as El Niño–La Niña and an 18.6-year nodal tidal cycle on oxygen and nutrient trends is investigated. At different locations in the Pacific Ocean different climate signals dominate. Hence, not only trends related to warming but also the influence of climate signals need to be investigated to understand oxygen and nutrient changes in the ocean.
Marie-Hélène Radenac, Julien Jouanno, Christine Carine Tchamabi, Mesmin Awo, Bernard Bourlès, Sabine Arnault, and Olivier Aumont
Biogeosciences, 17, 529–545,Short summary
Satellite data and a remarkable set of in situ measurements show a main bloom of microscopic seaweed, the phytoplankton, in summer and a secondary bloom in December in the central equatorial Atlantic. They are driven by a strong vertical supply of nitrate in May–July and a shorter and moderate supply in November. In between, transport of low-nitrate water from the west explains most nitrate losses in the sunlit layer. Horizontal eddy-induced processes also contribute to seasonal nitrate removal.
Andrés S. Rigual Hernández, Thomas W. Trull, Scott D. Nodder, José A. Flores, Helen Bostock, Fátima Abrantes, Ruth S. Eriksen, Francisco J. Sierro, Diana M. Davies, Anne-Marie Ballegeer, Miguel A. Fuertes, and Lisa C. Northcote
Biogeosciences, 17, 245–263,Short summary
Coccolithophores account for a major fraction of the carbonate produced in the world's oceans. However, their contribution in the subantarctic Southern Ocean remains undocumented. We quantitatively partition calcium carbonate fluxes amongst coccolithophore species in the Australian–New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean. We provide new insights into the importance of species other than Emiliania huxleyi in the carbon cycle and assess their possible response to projected environmental change.
Susana Agustí, Jeffrey W. Krause, Israel A. Marquez, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 35–45,Short summary
We found that 24 % of the total diatoms community in the Arctic water column (450 m depth) was located below the photic layer. Healthy diatom communities in active spring–bloom stages remained in the photic layer. Dying diatom communities exported a large fraction of the biomass to the aphotic zone, fuelling carbon sequestration and benthic ecosystems in the Arctic. The results of the study conform to a conceptual model where diatoms grow during the bloom until silicic acid stocks are depleted.
Xinwei Wang, Feixue Fu, Pingping Qu, Joshua D. Kling, Haibo Jiang, Yahui Gao, and David A. Hutchins
Biogeosciences, 16, 4393–4409,Short summary
In this study, we examine the responses of E. huxleyi to a future warmer and more thermally variable ocean. Elevated temperatures and thermal variation have negative effects on growth rate and physiology that are especially pronounced at high temperatures, but high-frequency thermal variation may reduce the risk of extreme high-temperature events. These findings have potentially large implications for ocean productivity and marine biogeochemical cycles under a future changing climate.
Federico Baltar and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 16, 3793–3799,Short summary
Around half of the global primary production (PP) is produced in the ocean. Here we quantified how much oceanic PP estimates would increase if we included the dark DIC fixation rates (which are usually excluded in the carbon-14 method) into the PP estimation. We found that the inclusion of dark DIC fixation would increase PP estimates by 5–22 %. This represents ca. 1.2 to 11 Pg C yr−1 of newly synthesized organic carbon available for the marine food web.
Renaud Person, Olivier Aumont, Gurvan Madec, Martin Vancoppenolle, Laurent Bopp, and Nacho Merino
Biogeosciences, 16, 3583–3603,Short summary
The Antarctic Ice Sheet is considered a possibly important but largely overlooked source of iron (Fe). Here we explore its fertilization capacity by evaluating the response of marine biogeochemistry to Fe release from icebergs and ice shelves in a global ocean model. Large regional impacts are simulated, leading to only modest primary production and carbon export increases at the scale of the Southern Ocean. Large uncertainties are due to low observational constraints on modeling choices.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Raja S. Ganeshram, Matthew P. Humphreys, Thomas J. Browning, Heather Bouman, and Alexander P. Piotrowski
Biogeosciences, 16, 3621–3635,Short summary
The carbon isotopes in algae can be used to predict food sources and environmental change. We explore how dissolved carbon is taken up by algae in the South Atlantic Ocean and how this affects their carbon isotope signature. We find that cell size controls isotope fractionation. We use our results to investigate how climate change may impact the carbon isotopes in algae. We suggest a shift to smaller algae in this region would decrease the carbon isotope ratio at the base of the food web.
Daniela Niemeyer, Iris Kriest, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 16, 3095–3111,Short summary
Recent studies suggest spatial variations of the marine particle flux length scale. Using a global biogeochemical ocean model, we investigate whether changes in particle size and size-dependent sinking can explain this variation. We address uncertainties by varying aggregate properties and circulation. Both aspects have an impact on the representation of nutrients, oxygen and oxygen minimum zones. The formation and sinking of large aggregates in productive areas lead to deeper flux penetration.
Jamie D. Wilson, Stephen Barker, Neil R. Edwards, Philip B. Holden, and Andy Ridgwell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2923–2936,Short summary
The remains of plankton rain down from the surface ocean to the deep ocean, acting to store CO2 in the deep ocean. We used a model of biology and ocean circulation to explore the importance of this process in different regions of the ocean. The amount of CO2 stored in the deep ocean is most sensitive to changes in the Southern Ocean. As plankton in the Southern Ocean are likely those most impacted by future climate change, the amount of CO2 they store in the deep ocean could also be affected.
Natalie C. Harms, Niko Lahajnar, Birgit Gaye, Tim Rixen, Kirstin Dähnke, Markus Ankele, Ulrich Schwarz-Schampera, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 16, 2715–2732,Short summary
The Indian Ocean subtropical gyre is a large oligotrophic area that is likely to adjust to continued warming by increasing stratification, reduced nutrient supply and decreasing biological production. In this study, we investigated concentrations of nutrients and stable isotopes of nitrate. We determine the lateral influence of water masses entering the gyre from the northern Indian Ocean and from the Southern Ocean and quantify the input of nitrogen by N2 fixation into the surface layer.
Yingxu Wu, Mathis P. Hain, Matthew P. Humphreys, Sue Hartman, and Toby Tyrrell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2661–2681,Short summary
This study takes advantage of the GLODAPv2 database to investigate the processes driving the surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon distribution, with the focus on its latitudinal gradient between the polar oceans and the low-latitude oceans. Based on our quantitative study, we find that temperature-driven CO2 gas exchange and high-latitude upwelling of DIC- and TA-rich deep waters are the two major drivers, with the importance of the latter not having been previously realized.
Qixing Ji, Mark A. Altabet, Hermann W. Bange, Michelle I. Graco, Xiao Ma, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, and Damian S. Grundle
Biogeosciences, 16, 2079–2093,Short summary
A strong El Niño event occurred in the Peruvian coastal region in 2015–2016, during which higher sea surface temperatures co-occurred with significantly lower sea-to-air fluxes of nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse gas and ozone depletion agent. Stratified water column during El Niño retained a larger amount of nitrous oxide that was produced via multiple microbial pathways; and intense nitrous oxide effluxes could occur when normal upwelling is resumed after El Niño.
Böhm, F., Joachimski, M., Lehnert, H., Morgenroth, G., Kretschmer, W., Vacelet, J., and Dullo, W.-C.: Carbon isotope records from extant Caribbean and South Pacific sponges: Evolution of δ13C in surface water DIC, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 139, 291–303, https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(96)00006-4, 1996. a
Boyd, P. W., Watson, A. J., Law, C. S., Abraham, E. R., Trull, T., Murdoch, R., Bakker, D. C. E., Bowie, A. R., Buesseler, K. O., Chang, H., Charette, M., Croot, P., Downing, K., Frew, R., Gall, M., Hadfield, M., Hall, J., Harvey, M., Jameson, G., LaRoche, J., Liddicoat, M., Ling, R., Maldonado, M. T., McKay, R. M., Nodder, S., Pickmere, S., Pridmore, R., Rintoul, S., Safi, K., Sutton, P., Strzepek, R., Tanneberger, K., Turner, S., Waite, A., and Zeldis, J.: A mesoscale phytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization, Nature, 407, 695–702, https://doi.org/10.1038/35037500, 2000. a
Bullister, J. L.: Atmospheric Histories (1765–2015) for CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, SF6 and N2O (NCEI Accession 0164584), NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, https://doi.org/10.3334/CDIAC/otg.CFC_ATM_Hist_2015, 2017. a, b
Dutay, J.-C., Bullister, J. L., Doney, S. C., Orr, J. C., Najjar, R., Caldeira, K., Campin, J.-M., Drange, H., Follows, M., Gao, Y., Gruber, N., Hecht, M. W., Ishida, A., Joos, F., Lindsay, K., Madec, G., Maier-Reimer, E., Marshall, J. C., Matear, R. J., Monfray, P., Mouchet, A., Plattner, G.-K., Sarmiento, J., Schlitzer, R., Slater, R., Totterdell, I. J., Weirig, M.-F., Yamanaka, Y., and Yool, A.: Evaluation of ocean model ventilation with CFC-11: comparison of 13 global ocean models, Ocean Model., 4, 89–120, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1463-5003(01)00013-0, 2002. a
Eide, M., Olsen, A., Ninnemann, U. S., and Eldevik, T.: A global estimate of the full oceanic 13C Suess effect since the preindustrial, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 31, 492–514, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GB005472, 2017a. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z, aa, ab
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We incorporate a new representation of the stable carbon isotope 13C in a global ocean biogeochemistry model. The model well reproduces the present-day 13C observations. We find a recent observation-based estimate of the oceanic 13C Suess effect (the decrease in 13C/12C ratio due to uptake of anthropogenic CO2; 13CSE) possibly underestimates 13CSE by 0.1–0.26 per mil. The new model will aid in better understanding the past ocean state via comparison to 13C/12C measurements from sediment cores.
We incorporate a new representation of the stable carbon isotope 13C in a global ocean...