Net sea–air CO2 flux uncertainties in the Bay of Biscay based on the choice of wind speed products and gas transfer parameterizations
- 1Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de A Coruña, Apdo. 130, 15080, A Coruña, Spain
- 2Instituto de Investigacións Mariñas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, c/ Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208, Vigo, Spain
Abstract. The estimation of sea–air CO2 fluxes is largely dependent on wind speed through the gas transfer velocity parameterization. In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from the use of different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR 1, NCEP/DOE 2 and ERA-Interim), one high-resolution regional forecast model (HIRLAM-AEMet), winds derived under the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) project, and QuikSCAT winds in combination with some of the most widely used gas transfer velocity parameterizations. Results show that net CO2 flux estimations during an entire seasonal cycle (September 2002–September 2003) may vary by a factor of ~ 3 depending on the selected wind speed product and the gas exchange parameterization, with the highest impact due to the last one. The comparison of satellite- and model-derived winds with observations at buoys advises against the systematic overestimation of NCEP-2 and the underestimation of NCEP-1. In the coastal region, the presence of land and the time resolution are the main constraints of QuikSCAT, which turns CCMP and ERA-Interim in the preferred options.