Articles | Volume 18, issue 14
Research article
28 Jul 2021
Research article |  | 28 Jul 2021

Ice nucleation by viruses and their potential for cloud glaciation

Michael P. Adams, Nina S. Atanasova, Svetlana Sofieva, Janne Ravantti, Aino Heikkinen, Zoé Brasseur, Jonathan Duplissy, Dennis H. Bamford, and Benjamin J. Murray


Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on bg-2020-474', Anonymous Referee #1, 03 Mar 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Benjamin Murray, 14 Apr 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on bg-2020-474', Anonymous Referee #2, 09 Mar 2021
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC2', Benjamin Murray, 14 Apr 2021

Peer review completion

AR: Author's response | RR: Referee report | ED: Editor decision | EF: Editorial file upload
ED: Reconsider after major revisions (18 Apr 2021) by Paul Stoy
AR by Benjamin Murray on behalf of the Authors (26 Apr 2021)  Author's response   Author's tracked changes   Manuscript 
ED: Referee Nomination & Report Request started (30 Apr 2021) by Paul Stoy
RR by Anonymous Referee #2 (15 May 2021)
ED: Publish as is (01 Jun 2021) by Paul Stoy
AR by Benjamin Murray on behalf of the Authors (07 Jun 2021)  Manuscript 
Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds is critically important for the planet's climate. Hence, we need to know which aerosol types nucleate ice and how effectively they do so. Here we show that virus particles, with a range of architectures, nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled water. However, we also show that they only make a minor contribution to the ice-nucleating particle population in the terrestrial atmosphere, but we cannot rule them out as being important in the marine environment.
Final-revised paper