Articles | Volume 16, issue 6
01 Apr 2019
Research article | 01 Apr 2019
Plant responses to volcanically elevated CO2 in two Costa Rican forests
Robert R. Bogue et al.
No articles found.
Vineet Yadav, Subhomoy Ghosh, and Charles E. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
Measuring the performance of inversions in linear Bayesian problems is crucial in real-life applications. In this work, we provide analytical forms of the local and global sensitivities of the estimated fluxes with respect to various inputs. We provide methods to uniquely map the observational signal to spatio-temporal domains. Utilizing this, we also show techniques to assess correlations between the jacobians that naturally translate to nonstationary covariance matrix components.
Dien Wu, John C. Lin, Henrique F. Duarte, Vineet Yadav, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, and Eric A. Kort
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3633–3661,Short summary
A model (SMUrF) is presented that estimates biogenic CO2 fluxes over cities around the globe to separate out biogenic fluxes from anthropogenic emissions. The model leverages satellite-based solar-induced fluorescence data and a machine-learning technique. We evaluate the biogenic fluxes against flux observations and show contrasts between biogenic and anthropogenic fluxes over cities, revealing urban–rural flux gradients, diurnal cycles, and the resulting imprints on atmospheric-column CO2.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Annmarie Eldering, Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, and Ryan Pavlick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2341–2370,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3) is scheduled for a 2019 launch to the International Space Station (ISS). It is expected to continue the record of column carbon dioxide (XCO2) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measurements from space used to study and constrain the Earth's carbon cycle. This work highlights the measurement objectives and uses simulated data to show that the expected instrument performance is on par with that of OCO-2.
Mingjie Shi, Joshua B. Fisher, Richard P. Phillips, and Edward R. Brzostek
Biogeosciences, 16, 457–465,Short summary
The ability of plants to slow climate change by taking up carbon hinges in part on there being ample soil nitrogen. We used a model that accounts for the carbon cost to plants of supporting nitrogen-acquiring microbes to explore how nitrogen limitation affects climate. Our model predicted that nitrogen limitation will enhance temperature and decrease precipitation; thus, our results suggest that carbon spent to support nitrogen-acquiring microbes is a critical component of the Earth's climate.
Kerry Cawse-Nicholson, Joshua B. Fisher, Caroline A. Famiglietti, Amy Braverman, Florian M. Schwandner, Jennifer L. Lewicki, Philip A. Townsend, David S. Schimel, Ryan Pavlick, Kathryn J. Bormann, Antonio Ferraz, Emily L. Kang, Pulong Ma, Robert R. Bogue, Thomas Youmans, and David C. Pieri
Biogeosciences, 15, 7403–7418,Short summary
Carbon dioxide levels are rising globally, and it is important to understand how this rise will affect plants over long time periods. Volcanoes such as Mammoth Mountain, California, have been releasing CO2 from their flanks for decades, and this provides a test environment in order to study the way plants respond to long-term CO2 exposure. We combined several airborne measurements to show that plants may have fewer, more productive leaves in areas with increasing CO2.
Carlos Jiménez, Brecht Martens, Diego M. Miralles, Joshua B. Fisher, Hylke E. Beck, and Diego Fernández-Prieto
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4513–4533,Short summary
Observing the amount of water evaporated in nature is not easy, and we need to combine accurate local measurements with estimates from satellites, more uncertain but covering larger areas. This is the main topic of our paper, in which local observations are compared with global land evaporation estimates, followed by a weighting of the global observations based on this comparison to attempt derive a more accurate evaporation product.
Scot M. Miller, Anna M. Michalak, Vineet Yadav, and Jovan M. Tadić
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6785–6799,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite observes CO2 in the atmosphere globally. We evaluate the extent to which current OCO-2 observations can inform scientific understanding of the biospheric carbon balance. We find that current observations are best-equipped to constrain the biospheric carbon balance across continental or hemispheric regions and provide limited information on smaller regions.
Kristal R. Verhulst, Anna Karion, Jooil Kim, Peter K. Salameh, Ralph F. Keeling, Sally Newman, John Miller, Christopher Sloop, Thomas Pongetti, Preeti Rao, Clare Wong, Francesca M. Hopkins, Vineet Yadav, Ray F. Weiss, Riley M. Duren, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8313–8341,Short summary
We present the first carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements from an extensive surface network as part of the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project. We describe methods that are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from complex urban environments. CO2 and CH4 levels are spatially and temporally variable, with urban sites showing significant enhancements relative to background. In 2015, the median afternoon enhancement near downtown Los Angeles was ~15 ppm CO2 and ~80 ppb CH4.
Annmarie Eldering, Chris W. O'Dell, Paul O. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Gunson, Camille Viatte, Charles Avis, Amy Braverman, Rebecca Castano, Albert Chang, Lars Chapsky, Cecilia Cheng, Brian Connor, Lan Dang, Gary Doran, Brendan Fisher, Christian Frankenberg, Dejian Fu, Robert Granat, Jonathan Hobbs, Richard A. M. Lee, Lukas Mandrake, James McDuffie, Charles E. Miller, Vicky Myers, Vijay Natraj, Denis O'Brien, Gregory B. Osterman, Fabiano Oyafuso, Vivienne H. Payne, Harold R. Pollock, Igor Polonsky, Coleen M. Roehl, Robert Rosenberg, Florian Schwandner, Mike Smyth, Vivian Tang, Thomas E. Taylor, Cathy To, Debra Wunch, and Jan Yoshimizu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 549–563,Short summary
This paper describes the measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide collected in the first 18 months of the satellite mission known as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). The paper shows maps of the carbon dioxide data, data density, and other data fields that illustrate the data quality. This mission has collected a more precise, more dense dataset of carbon dioxide then we have ever had previously.
David Crisp, Harold R. Pollock, Robert Rosenberg, Lars Chapsky, Richard A. M. Lee, Fabiano A. Oyafuso, Christian Frankenberg, Christopher W. O'Dell, Carol J. Bruegge, Gary B. Doran, Annmarie Eldering, Brendan M. Fisher, Dejian Fu, Michael R. Gunson, Lukas Mandrake, Gregory B. Osterman, Florian M. Schwandner, Kang Sun, Tommy E. Taylor, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 59–81,Short summary
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 carries and points a three-channel imaging grating spectrometer designed to collect high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight within the molecular oxygen A-band at 0.765 microns and the carbon dioxide bands at 1.61 and 2.06 microns. Here, we describe the OCO-2 instrument, its data products, and its performance during its first 18 months in orbit.
A. Anthony Bloom, Thomas Lauvaux, John Worden, Vineet Yadav, Riley Duren, Stanley P. Sander, and David S. Schimel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15199–15218,Short summary
Understanding terrestrial carbon processes is a major challenge in climate science. We define the satellite system required to understand greenhouse gas biogeochemistry: our study is focused on Amazon wetland CH4 emissions. We find that future geostationary satellites will provide the CH4 measurements required to understand wetland CH4 processes. Low-earth orbit satellites will be unable to resolve wetland CH4 processes due to a low number of cloud-free CH4 measurements over the Amazon basin.
Vineet Yadav and Anna M. Michalak
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Multiplication of two matrices that consists of few non-zero entries is a fundamental operation in problems that involve estimation of greenhouse gas fluxes from atmospheric measurements. To increase computational efficiency of estimating these quantities, modification of the standard matrix multiplication algorithm for multiplying these matrices is proposed in this research.
Joshua B. Fisher, Munish Sikka, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Christopher Schwalm, and Junjie Liu
Biogeosciences, 13, 4271–4277,Short summary
Atmospheric models of CO2 require estimates of land CO2 fluxes at relatively high temporal resolutions because of the high rate of atmospheric mixing and wind heterogeneity. However, land CO2 fluxes are often provided at monthly time steps. Here, we describe a new dataset created from 15 global land models and 4 combined products in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), which we have converted from monthly to 3-hourly output.
K. E. Clark, M. A. Torres, A. J. West, R. G. Hilton, M. New, A. B. Horwath, J. B. Fisher, J. M. Rapp, A. Robles Caceres, and Y. Malhi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 5377–5397,Short summary
This paper presents measurements of the balance of water inputs and outputs over 1 year for a river basin in the Andes of Peru. Our results show that the annual water budget is balanced within a few percent uncertainty; that is to say, the amount of water entering the basin was the same as the amount leaving, providing important information for understanding the water cycle. We also show that seasonal storage of water is important in sustaining the flow of water during the dry season.
Related subject area
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Janne Rinne, Patryk Łakomiec, Patrik Vestin, Joel D. White, Per Weslien, Julia Kelly, Natascha Kljun, Lena Ström, and Leif Klemedtsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 4331–4349,Short summary
The study uses the stable isotope 13C of carbon in methane to investigate the origins of spatial and temporal variation in methane emitted by a temperate wetland ecosystem. The results indicate that methane production is more important for spatial variation than methane consumption by micro-organisms. Temporal variation on a seasonal timescale is most likely affected by more than one driver simultaneously.
Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Roderick Dewar, Gianluca Tramontana, Aleksanteri Mauranen, Pasi Kolari, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Dario Papale, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 19, 4067–4088,Short summary
Four different methods for quantifying photosynthesis (GPP) at ecosystem scale were tested, of which two are based on carbon dioxide (CO2) and two on carbonyl sulfide (COS) flux measurements. CO2-based methods are traditional partitioning, and a new method uses machine learning. We introduce a novel method for calculating GPP from COS fluxes, with potentially better applicability than the former methods. Both COS-based methods gave on average higher GPP estimates than the CO2-based estimates.
Lutz Beckebanze, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Josefine Walz, Christian Wille, David Holl, Manuel Helbig, Julia Boike, Torsten Sachs, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 19, 3863–3876,Short summary
In this study, we present observations of lateral and vertical carbon fluxes from a permafrost-affected study site in the Russian Arctic. From this dataset we estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance for this study site. We show that lateral carbon export has a low impact on the net ecosystem carbon balance during the complete study period (3 months). Nevertheless, our results also show that lateral carbon export can exceed vertical carbon uptake at the beginning of the growing season.
Shahar Baram, Asher Bar-Tal, Alon Gal, Shmulik P. Friedman, and David Russo
Biogeosciences, 19, 3699–3711,Short summary
Static chambers are the most common tool used to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. We tested the impact of such chambers on nitrous oxide emissions in drip irrigation. Field measurements and 3-D simulations show that the chamber base drastically affects the water and nutrient distribution in the soil and hence the measured GHG fluxes. A nomogram is suggested to determine the optimal diameter of a cylindrical chamber that ensures minimal disturbance.
Tracy E. Rankin, Nigel T. Roulet, and Tim R. Moore
Biogeosciences, 19, 3285–3303,Short summary
Peatland respiration is made up of plant and peat sources. How to separate these sources is not well known as peat respiration is not straightforward and is more influenced by vegetation dynamics than previously thought. Results of plot level measurements from shrubs and sparse grasses in a woody bog show that plants' respiration response to changes in climate is related to their different root structures, implying a difference in the mechanisms by which they obtain water resources.
Alison Bressler and Jennifer Blesh
Biogeosciences, 19, 3169–3184,Short summary
Our field experiment tested if a mixture of a nitrogen-fixing legume and non-legume cover crop could reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions following tillage, compared to the legume grown alone. We found higher N2O following both legume treatments, compared to those without, and lower emissions from the cover crop mixture at one of the two test sites, suggesting that interactions between cover crop types and soil quality influence N2O emissions.
Sari Juutinen, Mika Aurela, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Viktor Ivakhov, Maiju Linkosalmi, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Juha Mikola, Johanna Nyman, Emmi Vähä, Marina Loskutova, Alexander Makshtas, and Tuomas Laurila
Biogeosciences, 19, 3151–3167,Short summary
We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in heterogenous Arctic tundra in eastern Siberia. We found that tundra wetlands with sedge and grass vegetation contributed disproportionately to the landscape's ecosystem CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Moreover, we observed high CH4 consumption in dry tundra, particularly in barren areas, offsetting part of the CH4 emissions from the wetlands.
Jessica Plein, Rulon W. Clark, Kyle A. Arndt, Walter C. Oechel, Douglas Stow, and Donatella Zona
Biogeosciences, 19, 2779–2794,Short summary
Tundra vegetation and the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems can be substantially impacted by herbivory. We tested how herbivory by brown lemmings in individual enclosure plots have impacted carbon exchange of tundra ecosystems via altering carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Lemmings significantly decreased net CO2 uptake while not affecting CH4 emissions. There was no significant difference in the subsequent growing season due to recovery of the vegetation.
Jenie Gil, Maija E. Marushchak, Tobias Rütting, Elizabeth M. Baggs, Tibisay Pérez, Alexander Novakovskiy, Tatiana Trubnikova, Dmitry Kaverin, Pertti J. Martikainen, and Christina Biasi
Biogeosciences, 19, 2683–2698,Short summary
N2O emissions from permafrost soils represent up to 11.6 % of total N2O emissions from natural soils, and their contribution to the global N2O budget will likely increase due to climate change. A better understanding of N2O production from permafrost soil is needed to evaluate the role of arctic ecosystems in the global N2O budget. By studying microbial N2O production processes in N2O hotspots in permafrost peatlands, we identified denitrification as the dominant source of N2O in these surfaces.
Christian Rödenbeck, Tim DeVries, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, and Ralph F. Keeling
Biogeosciences, 19, 2627–2652,Short summary
The ocean is an important part of the global carbon cycle, taking up about a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted by burning of fossil fuels and thus slowing down climate change. However, the CO2 uptake by the ocean is, in turn, affected by variability and trends in climate. Here we use carbon measurements in the surface ocean to quantify the response of the oceanic CO2 exchange to environmental conditions and discuss possible mechanisms underlying this response.
Margaret Capooci and Rodrigo Vargas
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Tidal salt marshes soils emit greenhouse gases, as well as sulfur-based gases, which play roles in global climate, but are not well studied since they are difficult to measure in wet soils. We found that traditional methods of measuring these gases worked well for carbon dioxide, but less so for methane, nitrous oxide, carbon disulfide, and dimethylsulfide. The unpredictability of these gases complicates scientists’ ability to accurate calculate gas budgets for scientific and policy purposes.
Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Yuanyuan Huang, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 19, 2245–2262,Short summary
The relative ratio of wetland methane (CH4) emission pathways determines how much CH4 is oxidized before leaving the soil. We found an ebullition modeling approach that has a better performance in deep layer pore water CH4 concentration. We suggest using this approach in land surface models to accurately represent CH4 emission dynamics and response to climate change. Our results also highlight that both CH4 flux and belowground concentration data are important to constrain model parameters.
Mika Korkiakoski, Tiia Määttä, Krista Peltoniemi, Timo Penttilä, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 19, 2025–2041,Short summary
We measured CH4 fluxes and production and oxidation potentials from irrigated and non-irrigated podzolic soil in a boreal forest. CH4 sink was smaller at the irrigated site but did not cause CH4 emission, with one exception. We also showed that under laboratory conditions, not only wet conditions, but also fresh carbon, are needed to make podzolic soil into a CH4 source. Our study provides important data for improving the process models describing the upland soil CH4 dynamics.
Sarah Shakil, Suzanne E. Tank, Jorien E. Vonk, and Scott Zolkos
Biogeosciences, 19, 1871–1890,Short summary
Permafrost thaw-driven landslides in the western Arctic are increasing organic carbon delivered to headwaters of drainage networks in the western Canadian Arctic by orders of magnitude. Through a series of laboratory experiments, we show that less than 10 % of this organic carbon is likely to be mineralized to greenhouse gases during transport in these networks. Rather most of the organic carbon is likely destined for burial and sequestration for centuries to millennia.
Wolfgang Fischer, Christoph K. Thomas, Nikita Zimov, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 19, 1611–1633,Short summary
Arctic permafrost ecosystems may release large amounts of carbon under warmer future climates and may therefore accelerate global climate change. Our study investigated how long-term grazing by large animals influenced ecosystem characteristics and carbon budgets at a Siberian permafrost site. Our results demonstrate that such management can contribute to stabilizing ecosystems to keep carbon in the ground, particularly through drying soils and reducing methane emissions.
Dong-Gill Kim, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Youngryel Ryu, Bumsuk Seo, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 19, 1435–1450,Short summary
As carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) research has adopted appropriate technology and approach (AT&A), low-cost instruments, open-source software, and participatory research and their results were well accepted by scientific communities. In terms of cost, feasibility, and performance, the integration of low-cost and low-technology, participatory and networking-based research approaches can be AT&A for enhancing C and GHG research in developing countries.
Lutz Beckebanze, Zoé Rehder, David Holl, Christian Wille, Charlotta Mirbach, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 19, 1225–1244,Short summary
Arctic permafrost landscapes feature many water bodies. In contrast to the terrestrial parts of the landscape, the water bodies release carbon to the atmosphere. We compare carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from small water bodies to the surrounding tundra and find not accounting for the carbon dioxide emissions leads to an overestimation of the tundra uptake by 11 %. Consequently, changes in hydrology and water body distribution may substantially impact the overall carbon budget of the Arctic.
Brian Scott, Andrew H. Baldwin, and Stephanie A. Yarwood
Biogeosciences, 19, 1151–1164,Short summary
Carbon dioxide and methane contribute to global warming. What can we do? We can build wetlands: they store carbon dioxide and should cause global cooling. But when first built they produce excess methane. Eventually built wetlands will cause cooling, but it may take decades or even centuries. How we build wetlands matters. We show that a common practice, using organic matter, such as manure, can make a big difference whether or not the wetlands we build start global cooling within our lifetime.
Jan Knappe, Celia Somlai, and Laurence W. Gill
Biogeosciences, 19, 1067–1085,Short summary
Two domestic on-site wastewater treatment systems have been monitored for greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) emissions coming from the process units, soil and vent pipes. This has enabled the net greenhouse gas per person to be quantified for the first time, as well as the impact of pre-treatment on the effluent before being discharged to soil. These decentralised wastewater treatment systems serve approx. 20 % of the population in both Europe and the United States.
Yanan Zhao, Dennis Booge, Christa A. Marandino, Cathleen Schlundt, Astrid Bracher, Elliot L. Atlas, Jonathan Williams, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 19, 701–714,Short summary
We present here, for the first time, simultaneously measured dimethylsulfide (DMS) seawater concentrations and DMS atmospheric mole fractions from the Peruvian upwelling region during two cruises in December 2012 and October 2015. Our results indicate low oceanic DMS concentrations and atmospheric DMS molar fractions in surface waters and the atmosphere, respectively. In addition, the Peruvian upwelling region was identified as an insignificant source of DMS emissions during both periods.
Moussa Moustapha, Loris Deirmendjian, David Sebag, Jean-Jacques Braun, Stéphane Audry, Henriette Ateba Bessa, Thierry Adatte, Carole Causserand, Ibrahima Adamou, Benjamin Ngounou Ngatcha, and Frédéric Guérin
Biogeosciences, 19, 137–163,Short summary
We monitor the spatio-temporal variability of organic and inorganic carbon (C) species in the tropical Nyong River (Cameroon), across groundwater and increasing stream orders. We show the significant contribution of wetland as a C source for tropical rivers. Thus, ignoring the river–wetland connectivity might lead to the misrepresentation of C dynamics in tropical watersheds. Finally, total fluvial carbon losses might offset ~10 % of the net C sink estimated for the whole Nyong watershed.
Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Troy S. Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6579–6588,Short summary
This work builds a high-resolution estimate (500 m) of gross primary productivity (GPP) over the US using satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) between 2018 and 2020. We identify ecosystem-specific scaling factors for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) from TROPOMI SIF. Extreme precipitation events drive four regional GPP anomalies that account for 28 % of year-to-year GPP differences across the US.
Paul Laris, Moussa Koné, Fadiala Dembélé, Christine M. Rodrigue, Lilian Yang, Rebecca Jacobs, and Quincy Laris
Biogeosciences, 18, 6229–6244,Short summary
Savanna fires play a key role in the global carbon cycle because they release methane. Although it burns the most, there are few studies from West Africa. We conducted 36 experimental fires according to local practice to collect smoke samples. We found that fires set early in the season had higher methane emissions than those set later, and head fires had double the emissions of backfires. We conclude policies to reduce emissions will not have the desired effects if fire type is not considered.
Johan H. Scheller, Mikhail Mastepanov, Hanne H. Christiansen, and Torben R. Christensen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6093–6114,Short summary
Our study presents a time series of methane emissions in a high-Arctic-tundra landscape over 14 summers, which shows large variations between years. The methane emissions from the valley are expected to more than double in the late 21st century. This warming increases permafrost thaw, which could increase surface erosion in the valley. Increased erosion could offset some of the rise in methane fluxes from the valley, but this would require large-scale impacts on vegetated surfaces.
Patryk Łakomiec, Jutta Holst, Thomas Friborg, Patrick Crill, Niklas Rakos, Natascha Kljun, Per-Ola Olsson, Lars Eklundh, Andreas Persson, and Janne Rinne
Biogeosciences, 18, 5811–5830,Short summary
Methane emission from the subarctic mire with heterogeneous permafrost status was measured for the years 2014–2016. Lower methane emission was measured from the palsa mire sector while the thawing wet sector emitted more. Both sectors have a similar annual pattern with a gentle rise during spring and a decrease during autumn. The highest emission was observed in the late summer. Winter emissions were positive during the measurement period and have a significant impact on the annual budgets.
Balázs Grosz, Reinhard Well, Rene Dechow, Jan Reent Köster, Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil, Simone Merl, Andreas Rode, Bianca Ziehmer, Amanda Matson, and Hongxing He
Biogeosciences, 18, 5681–5697,Short summary
To assure quality predictions biogeochemical models must be current. We use data measured using novel incubation methods to test the denitrification sub-modules of three models. We aim to identify limitations in the denitrification modeling to inform next steps for development. Several areas are identified, most urgently improved denitrification control parameters and further testing with high-temporal-resolution datasets. Addressing these would significantly improve denitrification modeling.
Sarah Waldo, Jake J. Beaulieu, William Barnett, D. Adam Balz, Michael J. Vanni, Tanner Williamson, and John T. Walker
Biogeosciences, 18, 5291–5311,Short summary
Human-made reservoirs impact the carbon cycle. In particular, the breakdown of organic matter in reservoir sediments can result in large emissions of greenhouse gases (especially methane) to the atmosphere. This study takes an intensive look at the patterns in greenhouse gas emissions from a single reservoir in Ohio (United States) and the role of water temperature, precipitation, and algal blooms in emissions. We saw a "spring burst" of elevated emissions that challenged our assumptions.
Xinyu Liu, Xixi Lu, Ruihong Yu, Heyang Sun, Hao Xue, Zhen Qi, Zhengxu Cao, Zhuangzhuang Zhang, and Tingxi Liu
Biogeosciences, 18, 4855–4872,Short summary
Gradual riparian wetland drying is increasingly sensitive to global warming and contributes to climate change. We analyzed the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from riparian wetlands in the Xilin River basin to understand the role of these ecosystems in greenhouse gas emissions. Our study showed that anthropogenic activities have extensively changed the hydrological characteristics of the riparian wetlands and might accelerate carbon loss, which could further affect greenhouse gas emissions.
Zhaohui Chen, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Andrew J. Watson, Ute Schuster, Jiang Zhu, and Ning Zeng
Biogeosciences, 18, 4549–4570,Short summary
As the global temperature continues to increase, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major driver of this global warming. The increased CO2 is mainly caused by emissions from fossil fuel use and land use. At the same time, the ocean is a significant sink in the carbon cycle. The North Atlantic is a critical ocean region in reducing CO2 concentration. We estimate the CO2 uptake in this region based on a carbon inverse system and atmospheric CO2 observations.
Sirwan Yamulki, Jack Forster, Georgios Xenakis, Adam Ash, Jacqui Brunt, Mike Perks, and James I. L. Morison
Biogeosciences, 18, 4227–4241,Short summary
The effect of clear-felling on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes was assessed in a Sitka spruce forest. Measurements over 4 years showed that CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes responded differently to clear-felling due to significant changes in soil biotic and abiotic factors and showed large variations between years. Over 3 years since felling, the soil GHG flux was reduced by 45% due to a much larger reduction in CO2 efflux than increases in N2O (up to 20%) and CH4 (changed from sink to source) fluxes.
Stefan Theodorus Johannes Weideveld, Weier Liu, Merit van den Berg, Leon Peter Maria Lamers, and Christian Fritz
Biogeosciences, 18, 3881–3902,Short summary
Raising the groundwater table (GWT) trough subsoil irrigation does not lead to a reduction of carbon emissions from drained peat meadows, even though there was a clear increase in the GWT during summer. Most likely, the largest part of the peat oxidation takes place in the top 70 cm of the soil, which stays above the GWT with the use of subsoil irrigation. We conclude that the use of subsoil irrigation is ineffective as a mitigation measure to sufficiently lower peat oxidation rates.
Yanming Gong, Ping Yue, Kaihui Li, Anwar Mohammat, and Yanyan Liu
Biogeosciences, 18, 3529–3537,Short summary
At present, data on the influence of asymmetric warming on the GHG flux on a temporal scale are scarce. GHG fluxes were measured using static chambers and a gas chromatograph. Our study showed that the effect of seasonally asymmetrical warming on CO2 flux was obvious, with the GHG flux being able to adapt to continuous warming. Warming in the non-growing season increased the temperature dependence of GHG flux.
Hella van Asperen, João Rafael Alves-Oliveira, Thorsten Warneke, Bruce Forsberg, Alessandro Carioca de Araújo, and Justus Notholt
Biogeosciences, 18, 2609–2625,Short summary
Termites are insects that are highly abundant in tropical ecosystems. It is known that termites emit CH4, an important greenhouse gas, but their absolute emission remains uncertain. In the Amazon rainforest, we measured CH4 emissions from termite nests and groups of termites. In addition, we tested a fast and non-destructive field method to estimate termite nest colony size. We found that termites play a significant role in an ecosystem's CH4 budget and probably emit more than currently assumed.
Genevieve L. Noyce and J. Patrick Megonigal
Biogeosciences, 18, 2449–2463,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to global radiative forcing. A mechanistic understanding of how wetland CH4 cycling will respond to global warming is crucial for improving prognostic models. We present results from the first 4 years of a novel whole-ecosystem warming experiment in a coastal wetland, showing that warming increases CH4 emissions and identifying four potential mechanisms that can be added to future modeling efforts.
Yanan Zhao, Cathleen Schlundt, Dennis Booge, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 18, 2161–2179,Short summary
We present a unique and comprehensive time-series study of biogenic sulfur compounds in the southwestern Baltic Sea, from 2009 to 2018. Dimethyl sulfide is one of the key players regulating global climate change, as well as dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethyl sulfoxide. Their decadal trends did not follow increasing temperature but followed some algae group abundances at the Boknis Eck Time Series Station.
Ingeborg Bussmann, Irina Fedorova, Bennet Juhls, Pier Paul Overduin, and Matthias Winkel
Biogeosciences, 18, 2047–2061,Short summary
Arctic rivers, lakes, and bays are affected by a warming climate. We measured the amount and consumption of methane in waters from Siberia under ice cover and in open water. In the lake, methane concentrations under ice cover were much higher than in summer, and methane consumption was highest. The ice cover leads to higher methane concentration under ice. In a warmer Arctic, there will be more time with open water when methane is consumed by bacteria, and less methane will escape into the air.
Elisa Vainio, Olli Peltola, Ville Kasurinen, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, and Mari Pihlatie
Biogeosciences, 18, 2003–2025,Short summary
We studied forest floor methane exchange over an area of 10 ha in a boreal pine forest. The results demonstrate high spatial variability in soil moisture and consequently in the methane flux. We detected wet patches emitting high amounts of methane in the early summer; however, these patches turned to methane uptake in the autumn. We concluded that the small-scale spatial variability of the boreal forest methane flux highlights the importance of soil chamber placement in similar studies.
Matthias Koschorreck, Yves T. Prairie, Jihyeon Kim, and Rafael Marcé
Biogeosciences, 18, 1619–1627,Short summary
The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in water samples is often measured using a gas chromatograph. Depending on the chemical composition of the water, this method can produce wrong results. We quantified the possible error and how it depends on water composition and the analytical procedure. We propose a method to correct wrong results by additionally analysing alkalinity in the samples. We provide an easily usable computer code to perform the correction calculations.
Julia Drewer, Melissa M. Leduning, Robert I. Griffiths, Tim Goodall, Peter E. Levy, Nicholas Cowan, Edward Comynn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Justin Sentian, Noreen Majalap, and Ute M. Skiba
Biogeosciences, 18, 1559–1575,Short summary
In Southeast Asia, oil palm plantations have largely replaced tropical forests. The impact of this shift in land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil microbial communities remains uncertain. We have found emission rates of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide on mineral soil to be higher from oil palm plantations than logged forest over a 2-year study and concluded that emissions have increased over the last 42 years in Sabah, with the proportion of emissions from plantations increasing.
Lutz Merbold, Charlotte Decock, Werner Eugster, Kathrin Fuchs, Benjamin Wolf, Nina Buchmann, and Lukas Hörtnagl
Biogeosciences, 18, 1481–1498,Short summary
Our study investigated the exchange of the three major greenhouse gases (GHGs) over a temperate grassland prior to and after restoration through tillage in central Switzerland. Our results show that irregular management events, such as tillage, have considerable effects on GHG emissions in the year of tillage while leading to enhanced carbon uptake and similar nitrogen losses via nitrous oxide in the years following tillage to those observed prior to tillage.
Roland Vernooij, Marcos Giongo, Marco Assis Borges, Máximo Menezes Costa, Ana Carolina Sena Barradas, and Guido R. van der Werf
Biogeosciences, 18, 1375–1393,Short summary
We used drones to measure greenhouse gas emission factors from fires in the Brazilian Cerrado. We compared early-dry-season management fires and late-dry-season fires to determine if fire management can be a tool for abating emissions. Although we found some evidence of increased CO and CH4 emission factors, the seasonal effect was smaller than that found in previous studies. For N2O, the third most important greenhouse gas, we found opposite trends in grass- and shrub-dominated areas.
Filippo Vingiani, Nicola Durighetto, Marcus Klaus, Jakob Schelker, Thierry Labasque, and Gianluca Botter
Biogeosciences, 18, 1223–1240,Short summary
Flexible foil chamber design and the anchored deployment might be useful techniques to enhance the robustness and the accuracy of CO2 measurements in low-order streams. Moreover, the study demonstrates the value of analytical and numerical techniques for the estimation of gas exchange velocities. These results may contribute to the development of novel procedures for chamber data analysis which might improve the robustness and reliability of chamber-based CO2 measurements in first-order streams.
Lauri Heiskanen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Sari Juutinen, Annalea Lohila, Timo Penttilä, Maiju Linkosalmi, Juha Mikola, Tuomas Laurila, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 18, 873–896,Short summary
We studied ecosystem- and plant-community-level carbon (C) exchange between subarctic mire and the atmosphere during 2017–2018. We found strong spatial variation in CO2 and CH4 dynamics between the main plant communities. The earlier onset of growing season in 2018 strengthened the CO2 sink of the ecosystem, but this gain was counterbalanced by a later drought period. Variation in water table level, soil temperature and vegetation explained most of the variation in ecosystem-level C exchange.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Maria Tsivlidou, A. Anthony Bloom, Benjamin Poulter, Zhen Zhang, and Ilse Aben
Biogeosciences, 18, 557–572,Short summary
We use atmospheric methane observations from the novel TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI; Sentinel-5p) to estimate methane emissions from South Sudan's wetlands. Our emission estimates are an order of magnitude larger than the estimate of process-based wetland models. We find that this underestimation by the models is likely due to their misrepresentation of the wetlands' inundation extent and temperature dependences.
Paula Alejandra Lamprea Pineda, Marijn Bauters, Hans Verbeeck, Selene Baez, Matti Barthel, Samuel Bodé, and Pascal Boeckx
Biogeosciences, 18, 413–421,Short summary
Tropical forest soils are an important source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHGs) with tropical montane forests having been poorly studied. In this pilot study, we explored soil fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O in an Ecuadorian neotropical montane forest, where a net consumption of N2O at higher altitudes was observed. Our results highlight the importance of short-term variations in N2O and provide arguments and insights for future, more detailed studies on GHG fluxes from montane forest soils.
Bruna R. F. Oliveira, Carsten Schaller, J. Jacob Keizer, and Thomas Foken
Biogeosciences, 18, 285–302,Short summary
Forest fires have a significant impact on carbon dioxide emissions. The present study from a pine forest in Portugal is one of the few where measurements of CO2 fluxes were started immediately (1.5 months) after the forest fire. Carbon dioxide emissions were linked to soil humidity. Therefore, they started after the beginning of the rainfall in autumn. Due to the beginning of vegetation, the site was already a carbon dioxide sink the following year.
Hui Zhang, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Aino Korrensalo, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Mika Aurela, Timo Penttilä, Tuomas Laurila, Stephanie Gerin, Viivi Lindholm, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 17, 6247–6270,Short summary
We studied the impact of a stream on peatland microhabitats and CH4 emissions in a northern boreal fen. We found that there were higher water levels, lower peat temperatures, and greater oxygen concentrations close to the stream; these supported the highest biomass production but resulted in the lowest CH4 emissions. Further from the stream, the conditions were drier and CH4 emissions were also low. CH4 emissions were highest at an intermediate distance from the stream.
Simon Baumgartner, Matti Barthel, Travis William Drake, Marijn Bauters, Isaac Ahanamungu Makelele, John Kalume Mugula, Laura Summerauer, Nora Gallarotti, Landry Cizungu Ntaboba, Kristof Van Oost, Pascal Boeckx, Sebastian Doetterl, Roland Anton Werner, and Johan Six
Biogeosciences, 17, 6207–6218,Short summary
Soil respiration is an important carbon flux and key process determining the net ecosystem production of terrestrial ecosystems. The Congo Basin lacks studies quantifying carbon fluxes. We measured soil CO2 fluxes from different forest types in the Congo Basin and were able to show that, even though soil CO2 fluxes are similarly high in lowland and montane forests, the drivers were different: soil moisture in montane forests and C availability in the lowland forests.
Bettina K. Gier, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Peter M. Cox, Pierre Friedlingstein, and Veronika Eyring
Biogeosciences, 17, 6115–6144,Short summary
Models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) phases 5 and 6 are compared to a satellite data product of column-averaged CO2 mole fractions (XCO2). The previously believed discrepancy of the negative trend in seasonal cycle amplitude in the satellite product, which is not seen in in situ data nor in the models, is attributed to a sampling characteristic. Furthermore, CMIP6 models are shown to have made progress in reproducing the observed XCO2 time series compared to CMIP5.
Samuel T. Wilson, Alia N. Al-Haj, Annie Bourbonnais, Claudia Frey, Robinson W. Fulweiler, John D. Kessler, Hannah K. Marchant, Jana Milucka, Nicholas E. Ray, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Brett F. Thornton, Robert C. Upstill-Goddard, Thomas S. Weber, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Hermann W. Bange, Heather M. Benway, Daniele Bianchi, Alberto V. Borges, Bonnie X. Chang, Patrick M. Crill, Daniela A. del Valle, Laura Farías, Samantha B. Joye, Annette Kock, Jabrane Labidi, Cara C. Manning, John W. Pohlman, Gregor Rehder, Katy J. Sparrow, Philippe D. Tortell, Tina Treude, David L. Valentine, Bess B. Ward, Simon Yang, and Leonid N. Yurganov
Biogeosciences, 17, 5809–5828,Short summary
The oceans are a net source of the major greenhouse gases; however there has been little coordination of oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements. The scientific community has recently embarked on a series of capacity-building exercises to improve the interoperability of dissolved methane and nitrous oxide measurements. This paper derives from a workshop which discussed the challenges and opportunities for oceanic methane and nitrous oxide research in the near future.
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This study examined rainforest responses to elevated CO2 coming from volcanoes in Costa Rica. Comparing tree species, we found that leaf function responded when exposed to increasing CO2 levels. The chemical signature of volcanic CO2 is different than background CO2. Trees exposed to volcanic CO2 also had chemical signatures which showed the influence of volcanic CO2: trees not only
breathe inand are made of volcanic CO2 but also retain that exposure history for decades.
This study examined rainforest responses to elevated CO2 coming from volcanoes in Costa Rica....