Articles | Volume 16, issue 6
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Plant responses to volcanically elevated CO2 in two Costa Rican forests
Robert R. Bogue
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Geology Department, Occidental College, 1600 Campus Road, Los Angeles, CA 90041, USA
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 845 Sherbrooke Street, Montréal, QC H3A 0G4, Canada
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Joshua B. Fisher
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Troy S. Magney
Caroline A. Famiglietti
Department of Earth System Science, Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Justin P. Linick
Gretchen B. North
Biology Department, Occidental College, 1600 Campus Road, Los Angeles, CA 90041, USA
Observatory of Volcanology and Seismology (OVSICORI), Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, 2386-3000 Heredia, Costa Rica
No articles found.
Vineet Yadav, Subhomoy Ghosh, and Charles E. Miller
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 5219–5236,Short summary
Measuring the performance of inversions in linear Bayesian problems is crucial in real-life applications. In this work, we provide analytical forms of the local and global sensitivities of the estimated fluxes with respect to various inputs. We provide methods to uniquely map the observational signal to spatiotemporal domains. Utilizing this, we also show techniques to assess correlations between the Jacobians that naturally translate to nonstationary covariance matrix components.
Jinsol Kim, John B. Miller, Charles E. Miller, Scott J. Lehman, Sylvia E. Michel, Vineet Yadav, Nick E. Rollins, and William M. Berelson
In this study, we present the partitioning of CO2 signals from biogenic, petroleum and natural gas sources by combining CO, δ13CO2, and Δ14CO2 measurements. Using measurements from flask air samples at three sites in the greater Los Angels region, we find larger and positive contributions of biogenic signals in winter and smaller and negative contributions in summer. Largest contribution of natural gas combustion generally occurs in summer.
Jonathan Hobbs, Matthias Katzfuss, Hai Nguyen, Vineet Yadav, and Junjie Liu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
The cycling of carbon among the land, oceans, and atmosphere is a closely monitored process in the global climate system. These exchanges between the atmosphere and the surface can be quantified using a combination of atmospheric carbon dioxide observations and computer models. This study presents a statistical method for investigating the similarities and differences in the estimated surface/atmosphere carbon exchange when different computer model assumptions are invoked.
Dien Wu, John C. Lin, Henrique F. Duarte, Vineet Yadav, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Tomohiro Oda, and Eric A. Kort
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3633–3661,Short summary
A model (SMUrF) is presented that estimates biogenic CO2 fluxes over cities around the globe to separate out biogenic fluxes from anthropogenic emissions. The model leverages satellite-based solar-induced fluorescence data and a machine-learning technique. We evaluate the biogenic fluxes against flux observations and show contrasts between biogenic and anthropogenic fluxes over cities, revealing urban–rural flux gradients, diurnal cycles, and the resulting imprints on atmospheric-column CO2.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Annmarie Eldering, Thomas E. Taylor, Christopher W. O'Dell, and Ryan Pavlick
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2341–2370,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3 (OCO-3) is scheduled for a 2019 launch to the International Space Station (ISS). It is expected to continue the record of column carbon dioxide (XCO2) and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measurements from space used to study and constrain the Earth's carbon cycle. This work highlights the measurement objectives and uses simulated data to show that the expected instrument performance is on par with that of OCO-2.
Mingjie Shi, Joshua B. Fisher, Richard P. Phillips, and Edward R. Brzostek
Biogeosciences, 16, 457–465,Short summary
The ability of plants to slow climate change by taking up carbon hinges in part on there being ample soil nitrogen. We used a model that accounts for the carbon cost to plants of supporting nitrogen-acquiring microbes to explore how nitrogen limitation affects climate. Our model predicted that nitrogen limitation will enhance temperature and decrease precipitation; thus, our results suggest that carbon spent to support nitrogen-acquiring microbes is a critical component of the Earth's climate.
Kerry Cawse-Nicholson, Joshua B. Fisher, Caroline A. Famiglietti, Amy Braverman, Florian M. Schwandner, Jennifer L. Lewicki, Philip A. Townsend, David S. Schimel, Ryan Pavlick, Kathryn J. Bormann, Antonio Ferraz, Emily L. Kang, Pulong Ma, Robert R. Bogue, Thomas Youmans, and David C. Pieri
Biogeosciences, 15, 7403–7418,Short summary
Carbon dioxide levels are rising globally, and it is important to understand how this rise will affect plants over long time periods. Volcanoes such as Mammoth Mountain, California, have been releasing CO2 from their flanks for decades, and this provides a test environment in order to study the way plants respond to long-term CO2 exposure. We combined several airborne measurements to show that plants may have fewer, more productive leaves in areas with increasing CO2.
Carlos Jiménez, Brecht Martens, Diego M. Miralles, Joshua B. Fisher, Hylke E. Beck, and Diego Fernández-Prieto
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4513–4533,Short summary
Observing the amount of water evaporated in nature is not easy, and we need to combine accurate local measurements with estimates from satellites, more uncertain but covering larger areas. This is the main topic of our paper, in which local observations are compared with global land evaporation estimates, followed by a weighting of the global observations based on this comparison to attempt derive a more accurate evaporation product.
Scot M. Miller, Anna M. Michalak, Vineet Yadav, and Jovan M. Tadić
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6785–6799,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite observes CO2 in the atmosphere globally. We evaluate the extent to which current OCO-2 observations can inform scientific understanding of the biospheric carbon balance. We find that current observations are best-equipped to constrain the biospheric carbon balance across continental or hemispheric regions and provide limited information on smaller regions.
Kristal R. Verhulst, Anna Karion, Jooil Kim, Peter K. Salameh, Ralph F. Keeling, Sally Newman, John Miller, Christopher Sloop, Thomas Pongetti, Preeti Rao, Clare Wong, Francesca M. Hopkins, Vineet Yadav, Ray F. Weiss, Riley M. Duren, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8313–8341,Short summary
We present the first carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements from an extensive surface network as part of the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project. We describe methods that are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from complex urban environments. CO2 and CH4 levels are spatially and temporally variable, with urban sites showing significant enhancements relative to background. In 2015, the median afternoon enhancement near downtown Los Angeles was ~15 ppm CO2 and ~80 ppb CH4.
Annmarie Eldering, Chris W. O'Dell, Paul O. Wennberg, David Crisp, Michael R. Gunson, Camille Viatte, Charles Avis, Amy Braverman, Rebecca Castano, Albert Chang, Lars Chapsky, Cecilia Cheng, Brian Connor, Lan Dang, Gary Doran, Brendan Fisher, Christian Frankenberg, Dejian Fu, Robert Granat, Jonathan Hobbs, Richard A. M. Lee, Lukas Mandrake, James McDuffie, Charles E. Miller, Vicky Myers, Vijay Natraj, Denis O'Brien, Gregory B. Osterman, Fabiano Oyafuso, Vivienne H. Payne, Harold R. Pollock, Igor Polonsky, Coleen M. Roehl, Robert Rosenberg, Florian Schwandner, Mike Smyth, Vivian Tang, Thomas E. Taylor, Cathy To, Debra Wunch, and Jan Yoshimizu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 549–563,Short summary
This paper describes the measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide collected in the first 18 months of the satellite mission known as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). The paper shows maps of the carbon dioxide data, data density, and other data fields that illustrate the data quality. This mission has collected a more precise, more dense dataset of carbon dioxide then we have ever had previously.
David Crisp, Harold R. Pollock, Robert Rosenberg, Lars Chapsky, Richard A. M. Lee, Fabiano A. Oyafuso, Christian Frankenberg, Christopher W. O'Dell, Carol J. Bruegge, Gary B. Doran, Annmarie Eldering, Brendan M. Fisher, Dejian Fu, Michael R. Gunson, Lukas Mandrake, Gregory B. Osterman, Florian M. Schwandner, Kang Sun, Tommy E. Taylor, Paul O. Wennberg, and Debra Wunch
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 59–81,Short summary
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 carries and points a three-channel imaging grating spectrometer designed to collect high-resolution spectra of reflected sunlight within the molecular oxygen A-band at 0.765 microns and the carbon dioxide bands at 1.61 and 2.06 microns. Here, we describe the OCO-2 instrument, its data products, and its performance during its first 18 months in orbit.
A. Anthony Bloom, Thomas Lauvaux, John Worden, Vineet Yadav, Riley Duren, Stanley P. Sander, and David S. Schimel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15199–15218,Short summary
Understanding terrestrial carbon processes is a major challenge in climate science. We define the satellite system required to understand greenhouse gas biogeochemistry: our study is focused on Amazon wetland CH4 emissions. We find that future geostationary satellites will provide the CH4 measurements required to understand wetland CH4 processes. Low-earth orbit satellites will be unable to resolve wetland CH4 processes due to a low number of cloud-free CH4 measurements over the Amazon basin.
Vineet Yadav and Anna M. Michalak
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Multiplication of two matrices that consists of few non-zero entries is a fundamental operation in problems that involve estimation of greenhouse gas fluxes from atmospheric measurements. To increase computational efficiency of estimating these quantities, modification of the standard matrix multiplication algorithm for multiplying these matrices is proposed in this research.
Joshua B. Fisher, Munish Sikka, Deborah N. Huntzinger, Christopher Schwalm, and Junjie Liu
Biogeosciences, 13, 4271–4277,Short summary
Atmospheric models of CO2 require estimates of land CO2 fluxes at relatively high temporal resolutions because of the high rate of atmospheric mixing and wind heterogeneity. However, land CO2 fluxes are often provided at monthly time steps. Here, we describe a new dataset created from 15 global land models and 4 combined products in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), which we have converted from monthly to 3-hourly output.
K. E. Clark, M. A. Torres, A. J. West, R. G. Hilton, M. New, A. B. Horwath, J. B. Fisher, J. M. Rapp, A. Robles Caceres, and Y. Malhi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 5377–5397,Short summary
This paper presents measurements of the balance of water inputs and outputs over 1 year for a river basin in the Andes of Peru. Our results show that the annual water budget is balanced within a few percent uncertainty; that is to say, the amount of water entering the basin was the same as the amount leaving, providing important information for understanding the water cycle. We also show that seasonal storage of water is important in sustaining the flow of water during the dry season.
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Greenhouse GasesTechnical note: Skirt chamber – an open dynamic method for the rapid and minimally intrusive measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from peatlandsSeasonal variability of nitrous oxide concentrations and emissions in a temperate estuaryReviews and syntheses: Recent advances in microwave remote sensing in support of terrestrial carbon cycle science in Arctic–boreal regionsSimulated methane emissions from Arctic ponds are highly sensitive to warmingWater-table-driven greenhouse gas emission estimates guide peatland restoration at national scaleRelationships between greenhouse gas production and landscape position during short-term permafrost thaw under anaerobic conditions in the Lena DeltaDiel and seasonal methane dynamics in the shallow and turbulent Wadden SeaCarbon emissions and radiative forcings from tundra wildfires in the Yukon–Kuskokwim River Delta, AlaskaCarbon monoxide (CO) cycling in the Fram Strait, Arctic OceanPost-flooding disturbance recovery promotes carbon capture in riparian zonesAssessing CO2 and CH4 fluxes from mounds of African fungus-growing termitesMethane emissions due to reservoir flushing: a significant emission pathway?Capabilities of optical and radar Earth observation data for up-scaling methane emissions linked to subsidence and permafrost degradation in sub-Arctic peatlandsMeteorological responses of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of a subarctic landscapeHerbivore-shrub interactions influence ecosystem respiration and BVOC composition in the subarcticSpatial and temporal variability of methane emissions and environmental conditions in a hyper-eutrophic fishpondCarbon emission and export from the Ket River, western SiberiaEvaluation of wetland CH4 in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model using satellite observationsGreenhouse gas fluxes in mangrove forest soil in an Amazon estuaryTemporal patterns and drivers of CO2 emission from dry sediments in a groyne field of a large riverEffects of water table level and nitrogen deposition on methane and nitrous oxide emissions in an alpine peatlandHighest methane concentrations in an Arctic river linked to local terrestrial inputsSeasonal study of the small-scale variability in dissolved methane in the western Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea) during the European heatwave in 2018Trace gas fluxes from tidal salt marsh soils: implications for carbon–sulfur biogeochemistrySpatial and temporal variation in δ13C values of methane emitted from a hemiboreal mire: methanogenesis, methanotrophy, and hysteresisIntercomparison of methods to estimate gross primary production based on CO2 and COS flux measurementsLateral carbon export has low impact on the net ecosystem carbon balance of a polygonal tundra catchmentThe effect of static chamber base on N2O flux in drip irrigationControls on autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in an ombrotrophic bogEpisodic N2O emissions following tillage of a legume–grass cover crop mixtureVariation in CO2 and CH4 fluxes among land cover types in heterogeneous Arctic tundra in northeastern SiberiaResponse of vegetation and carbon fluxes to brown lemming herbivory in northern AlaskaSources of nitrous oxide and the fate of mineral nitrogen in subarctic permafrost peat soilsData-based estimates of interannual sea–air CO2 flux variations 1957–2020 and their relation to environmental driversEvaluating alternative ebullition models for predicting peatland methane emission and its pathways via data–model fusionExcess soil moisture and fresh carbon input are prerequisites for methane production in podzolic soilLow biodegradability of particulate organic carbon mobilized from thaw slumps on the Peel Plateau, NT, and possible chemosynthesis and sorption effectsGrazing enhances carbon cycling but reduces methane emission during peak growing season in the Siberian Pleistocene Park tundra siteIdeas and perspectives: Enhancing research and monitoring of carbon pools and land-to-atmosphere greenhouse gases exchange in developing countriesIgnoring carbon emissions from thermokarst ponds results in overestimation of tundra net carbon uptakeQuantification of potential methane emissions associated with organic matter amendments following oxic-soil inundationAssessing the spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from different configurations of on-site wastewater treatment system using discrete and continuous gas flux measurementDimethylated sulfur compounds in the Peruvian upwelling systemPartitioning carbon sources between wetland and well-drained ecosystems to a tropical first-order stream – implications for carbon cycling at the watershed scale (Nyong, Cameroon)Extreme events driving year-to-year differences in gross primary productivity across the USMethane gas emissions from savanna fires: what analysis of local burning regimes in a working West African landscape tell usMethane in Zackenberg Valley, NE Greenland: multidecadal growing season fluxes of a high-Arctic tundraField-scale CH4 emission at a subarctic mire with heterogeneous permafrost thaw statusEvaluation of denitrification and decomposition from three biogeochemical models using laboratory measurements of N2, N2O and CO2Temporal trends in methane emissions from a small eutrophic reservoir: the key role of a spring burst
Frederic Thalasso, Brenda Riquelme, Andrés Gómez, Roy Mackenzie, Francisco Javier Aguirre, Jorge Hoyos-Santillan, Ricardo Rozzi, and Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui
Biogeosciences, 20, 3737–3749,Short summary
A robust skirt-chamber design to capture and quantify greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands is presented. Compared to standard methods, this design improves the spatial resolution of field studies in remote locations while minimizing intrusion.
Gesa Schulz, Tina Sanders, Yoana G. Voynova, Hermann W. Bange, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 20, 3229–3247,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas. However, N2O emissions from estuaries underlie significant uncertainties due to limited data availability and high spatiotemporal variability. We found the Elbe Estuary (Germany) to be a year-round source of N2O, with the highest emissions in winter along with high nitrogen loads. However, in spring and summer, N2O emissions did not decrease alongside lower nitrogen loads because organic matter fueled in situ N2O production along the estuary.
Alex Mavrovic, Oliver Sonnentag, Juha Lemmetyinen, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Christophe Kinnard, and Alexandre Roy
Biogeosciences, 20, 2941–2970,Short summary
This review supports the integration of microwave spaceborne information into carbon cycle science for Arctic–boreal regions. The microwave data record spans multiple decades with frequent global observations of soil moisture and temperature, surface freeze–thaw cycles, vegetation water storage, snowpack properties, and land cover. This record holds substantial unexploited potential to better understand carbon cycle processes.
Zoé Rehder, Thomas Kleinen, Lars Kutzbach, Victor Stepanenko, Moritz Langer, and Victor Brovkin
Biogeosciences, 20, 2837–2855,Short summary
We use a new model to investigate how methane emissions from Arctic ponds change with warming. We find that emissions increase substantially. Under annual temperatures 5 °C above present temperatures, pond methane emissions are more than 3 times higher than now. Most of this increase is caused by an increase in plant productivity as plants provide the substrate microbes used to produce methane. We conclude that vegetation changes need to be included in predictions of pond methane emissions.
Julian Koch, Lars Elsgaard, Mogens H. Greve, Steen Gyldenkærne, Cecilie Hermansen, Gregor Levin, Shubiao Wu, and Simon Stisen
Biogeosciences, 20, 2387–2403,Short summary
Utilizing peatlands for agriculture leads to large emissions of greenhouse gases worldwide. The emissions are triggered by lowering the water table, which is a necessary step in order to make peatlands arable. Many countries aim at reducing their emissions by restoring peatlands, which can be achieved by stopping agricultural activities and thereby raising the water table. We estimate a total emission of 2.6 Mt CO2-eq for organic-rich peatlands in Denmark and a potential reduction of 77 %.
Mélissa Laurent, Matthias Fuchs, Tanja Herbst, Alexandra Runge, Susanne Liebner, and Claire C. Treat
Biogeosciences, 20, 2049–2064,Short summary
In this study we investigated the effect of different parameters (temperature, landscape position) on the production of greenhouse gases during a 1-year permafrost thaw experiment. For very similar carbon and nitrogen contents, our results show a strong heterogeneity in CH4 production, as well as in microbial abundance. According to our study, these differences are mainly due to the landscape position and the hydrological conditions established as a result of the topography.
Tim René de Groot, Anne Margriet Mol, Katherine Mesdag, Pierre Ramond, Rachel Ndhlovu, Julia Catherine Engelmann, Thomas Röckmann, and Helge Niemann
This study investigates methane dynamics in the Wadden Sea. Our measurements revealed distinct variations triggered by seasonality and tidal forcing. Methane budget was higher in warmer seasons, but remained surprisingly high in colder seasons. Methane dynamics were amplified during low tides, flushing the majority of methane into the North Sea or released to the atmosphere. Methanotrophic activity was also elevated during low tide but mitigated only a small fraction of the methane efflux.
Michael Moubarak, Seeta Sistla, Stefano Potter, Susan M. Natali, and Brendan M. Rogers
Biogeosciences, 20, 1537–1557,Short summary
Tundra wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity with climate change. We show using a combination of field measurements and computational modeling that tundra wildfires result in a positive feedback to climate change by emitting significant amounts of long-lived greenhouse gasses. With these effects, attention to tundra fires is necessary for mitigating climate change.
Hanna I. Campen, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 20, 1371–1379,Short summary
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a climate-relevant trace gas emitted from the ocean. However, oceanic CO cycling is understudied. Results from incubation experiments conducted in the Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) indicated that (i) pH did not affect CO cycling and (ii) enhanced CO production and consumption were positively correlated with coloured dissolved organic matter and nitrate concentrations. This suggests microbial CO uptake to be the driving factor for CO cycling in the Arctic Ocean.
Yihong Zhu, Ruihua Liu, Huai Zhang, Shaoda Liu, Zhengfeng Zhang, Fei-Hai Yu, and Timothy G. Gregoire
Biogeosciences, 20, 1357–1370,Short summary
With global warming, the risk of flooding is rising, but the response of the carbon cycle of aquatic and associated riparian systems to flooding is still unclear. Based on the data collected in the Lijiang, we found that flooding would lead to significant carbon emissions of fluvial areas and riparian areas during flooding, but carbon capture may happen after flooding. In the riparian areas, the surviving vegetation, especially clonal plants, played a vital role in this transformation.
Matti Räsänen, Risto Vesala, Petri Rönnholm, Laura Arppe, Petra Manninen, Markus Jylhä, Jouko Rikkinen, Petri Pellikka, and Janne Rinne
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Fungus-growing termites recycle large part of dead plant material in African savannas and are significant sources of greenhouse gases. We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes from their mounds and surrounding soils at open and closed habitats. The fluxes scale with mound volume. The results show that emissions from mounds of fungus-growing termites are more stable than those from other termites. The soil fluxes around the mound are affected by the termite colonies up to 2 m distance from the mound.
Ole Lessmann, Jorge Encinas Fernández, Karla Martínez-Cruz, and Frank Peeters
In our study, we assess the significance of methane (CH4) emissions due to reservoir flushing. We generated a large dataset of CH4 pore water concentrations in a reservoir's sediment to resolve seasonal CH4 distributions in the sediment. Our results show that in the studied reservoir, CH4 emissions caused by one flushing operation can represent 7–14 % of the annual CH4 emissions and that timing and frequency of the flushing operations affect the amount of released CH4.
Sofie Sjogersten, Martha Ledger, Matthias Siewert, Betsabé de la Barreda-Bautista, Andrew Sowter, David Gee, Giles Foody, and Doreen S. Boyd
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Permafrost thaw in Arctic regions is increasing methane emissions but quantification is difficult given the large and remote areas impacted. We show that drone data together with satellite data can be used to extrapolate emissions across the wider landscape as well as detecting areas at risk of higher emissions. A transition of currently degrading areas to fen type vegetation can increase emission with several orders of magnitude highlighting the importance of quantifying areas at risk.
Lauri Heiskanen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Henriikka Vekuri, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Sari Juutinen, Annalea Lohila, Juha Mikola, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 20, 545–572,Short summary
We measured and modelled the CO2 and CH4 fluxes of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the subarctic landscape for 2 years. The landscape was an annual CO2 sink and a CH4 source. The forest had the largest contribution to the landscape-level CO2 sink and the peatland to the CH4 emissions. The lakes released 24 % of the annual net C uptake of the landscape back to the atmosphere. The C fluxes were affected most by the rainy peak growing season of 2017 and the drought event in July 2018.
Cole G. Brachmann, Tage Vowles, Riikka Rinnan, Mats P. Björkman, Anna Ekberg, and Robert G. Björk
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Herbivores change plant communities through grazing, altering the amount of CO2 and plant-specific chemicals (termed VOCs) emitted. We tested this effect by excluding herbivores and studying the CO2 and VOC emissions. Herbivores reduced CO2 emissions from a meadow community and altered VOC composition, however community type had the strongest effect on the amount of CO2 and VOCs released. Herbivores can mediate greenhouse gas emissions, but the effect is marginal and community dependent.
Petr Znachor, Jiří Nedoma, Vojtech Kolar, and Anna Matoušů
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We conducted intensive spatial sampling of the hypertrophic fishpond to better understand the spatial dynamics of methane fluxes and environmental heterogeneity in fishponds. The diffusive fluxes of methane accounted for only a minor fraction of the total fluxes, and both varied pronouncedly within the pond and over the studied summer season, which could be explained only by the water depth. Wind substantially affected temperature, oxygen and chlorophyll-a distribution in the pond.
Artem G. Lim, Ivan V. Krickov, Sergey N. Vorobyev, Mikhail A. Korets, Sergey Kopysov, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Jan Karlsson, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 19, 5859–5877,Short summary
In order to quantify C transport and emission and main environmental factors controlling the C cycle in Siberian rivers, we investigated the largest tributary of the Ob River, the Ket River basin, by measuring spatial and seasonal variations in carbon CO2 and CH4 concentrations and emissions together with hydrochemical analyses. The obtained results are useful for large-scale modeling of C emission and export fluxes from permafrost-free boreal rivers of an underrepresented region of the world.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Toby R. Marthews, A. Anthony Bloom, Mark F. Lunt, Nicola Gedney, Simon J. Dadson, Joe McNorton, Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Paul I. Palmer, and Dai Yamazaki
Biogeosciences, 19, 5779–5805,Short summary
Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane, one of the most important climate gases. The JULES land surface model simulates these emissions. We use satellite data to evaluate how well JULES reproduces the methane seasonal cycle over different tropical wetlands. It performs well for most regions; however, it struggles for some African wetlands influenced heavily by river flooding. We explain the reasons for these deficiencies and highlight how future development will improve these areas.
Saúl Edgardo Martínez Castellón, José Henrique Cattanio, José Francisco Berrêdo, Marcelo Rollnic, Maria de Lourdes Ruivo, and Carlos Noriega
Biogeosciences, 19, 5483–5497,Short summary
We seek to understand the influence of climatic seasonality and microtopography on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in an Amazonian mangrove. Topography and seasonality had a contrasting influence when comparing the two gas fluxes: CO2 fluxes were greater in high topography in the dry period, and CH4 fluxes were greater in the rainy season in low topography. Only CO2 fluxes were correlated with soil organic matter, the proportion of carbon and nitrogen, and redox potential.
Matthias Koschorreck, Klaus Holger Knorr, and Lelaina Teichert
Biogeosciences, 19, 5221–5236,Short summary
At low water levels, parts of the bottom of rivers fall dry. These beaches or mudflats emit the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. We found that those emissions are caused by microbial reactions in the sediment and that they change with time. Emissions were influenced by many factors like temperature, water level, rain, plants, and light.
Wantong Zhang, Zhengyi Hu, Joachim Audet, Thomas A. Davidson, Enze Kang, Xiaoming Kang, Yong Li, Xiaodong Zhang, and Jinzhi Wang
Biogeosciences, 19, 5187–5197,Short summary
This work focused on the CH4 and N2O emissions from alpine peatlands in response to the interactive effects of altered water table levels and increased nitrogen deposition. Across the 2-year mesocosm experiment, nitrogen deposition showed nonlinear effects on CH4 emissions and linear effects on N2O emissions, and these N effects were associated with the water table levels. Our results imply the future scenario of strengthened CH4 and N2O emissions from an alpine peatland.
Karel Castro-Morales, Anna Canning, Sophie Arzberger, Will A. Overholt, Kirsten Küsel, Olaf Kolle, Mathias Göckede, Nikita Zimov, and Arne Körtzinger
Biogeosciences, 19, 5059–5077,Short summary
Permafrost thaw releases methane that can be emitted into the atmosphere or transported by Arctic rivers. Methane measurements are lacking in large Arctic river regions. In the Kolyma River (northeast Siberia), we measured dissolved methane to map its distribution with great spatial detail. The river’s edge and river junctions had the highest methane concentrations compared to other river areas. Microbial communities in the river showed that the river’s methane likely is from the adjacent land.
Sonja Gindorf, Hermann W. Bange, Dennis Booge, and Annette Kock
Biogeosciences, 19, 4993–5006,Short summary
Methane is a climate-relevant greenhouse gas which is emitted to the atmosphere from coastal areas such as the Baltic Sea. We measured the methane concentration in the water column of the western Kiel Bight. Methane concentrations were higher in September than in June. We found no relationship between the 2018 European heatwave and methane concentrations. Our results show that the methane distribution in the water column is strongly affected by temporal and spatial variabilities.
Margaret Capooci and Rodrigo Vargas
Biogeosciences, 19, 4655–4670,Short summary
Tidal salt marsh soil emits greenhouse gases, as well as sulfur-based gases, which play roles in global climate but are not well studied as they are difficult to measure. Traditional methods of measuring these gases worked relatively well for carbon dioxide, but less so for methane, nitrous oxide, carbon disulfide, and dimethylsulfide. High variability of trace gases complicates the ability to accurately calculate gas budgets and new approaches are needed for monitoring protocols.
Janne Rinne, Patryk Łakomiec, Patrik Vestin, Joel D. White, Per Weslien, Julia Kelly, Natascha Kljun, Lena Ström, and Leif Klemedtsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 4331–4349,Short summary
The study uses the stable isotope 13C of carbon in methane to investigate the origins of spatial and temporal variation in methane emitted by a temperate wetland ecosystem. The results indicate that methane production is more important for spatial variation than methane consumption by micro-organisms. Temporal variation on a seasonal timescale is most likely affected by more than one driver simultaneously.
Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Roderick Dewar, Gianluca Tramontana, Aleksanteri Mauranen, Pasi Kolari, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Dario Papale, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 19, 4067–4088,Short summary
Four different methods for quantifying photosynthesis (GPP) at ecosystem scale were tested, of which two are based on carbon dioxide (CO2) and two on carbonyl sulfide (COS) flux measurements. CO2-based methods are traditional partitioning, and a new method uses machine learning. We introduce a novel method for calculating GPP from COS fluxes, with potentially better applicability than the former methods. Both COS-based methods gave on average higher GPP estimates than the CO2-based estimates.
Lutz Beckebanze, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Josefine Walz, Christian Wille, David Holl, Manuel Helbig, Julia Boike, Torsten Sachs, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 19, 3863–3876,Short summary
In this study, we present observations of lateral and vertical carbon fluxes from a permafrost-affected study site in the Russian Arctic. From this dataset we estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance for this study site. We show that lateral carbon export has a low impact on the net ecosystem carbon balance during the complete study period (3 months). Nevertheless, our results also show that lateral carbon export can exceed vertical carbon uptake at the beginning of the growing season.
Shahar Baram, Asher Bar-Tal, Alon Gal, Shmulik P. Friedman, and David Russo
Biogeosciences, 19, 3699–3711,Short summary
Static chambers are the most common tool used to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. We tested the impact of such chambers on nitrous oxide emissions in drip irrigation. Field measurements and 3-D simulations show that the chamber base drastically affects the water and nutrient distribution in the soil and hence the measured GHG fluxes. A nomogram is suggested to determine the optimal diameter of a cylindrical chamber that ensures minimal disturbance.
Tracy E. Rankin, Nigel T. Roulet, and Tim R. Moore
Biogeosciences, 19, 3285–3303,Short summary
Peatland respiration is made up of plant and peat sources. How to separate these sources is not well known as peat respiration is not straightforward and is more influenced by vegetation dynamics than previously thought. Results of plot level measurements from shrubs and sparse grasses in a woody bog show that plants' respiration response to changes in climate is related to their different root structures, implying a difference in the mechanisms by which they obtain water resources.
Alison Bressler and Jennifer Blesh
Biogeosciences, 19, 3169–3184,Short summary
Our field experiment tested if a mixture of a nitrogen-fixing legume and non-legume cover crop could reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions following tillage, compared to the legume grown alone. We found higher N2O following both legume treatments, compared to those without, and lower emissions from the cover crop mixture at one of the two test sites, suggesting that interactions between cover crop types and soil quality influence N2O emissions.
Sari Juutinen, Mika Aurela, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Viktor Ivakhov, Maiju Linkosalmi, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Juha Mikola, Johanna Nyman, Emmi Vähä, Marina Loskutova, Alexander Makshtas, and Tuomas Laurila
Biogeosciences, 19, 3151–3167,Short summary
We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in heterogenous Arctic tundra in eastern Siberia. We found that tundra wetlands with sedge and grass vegetation contributed disproportionately to the landscape's ecosystem CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Moreover, we observed high CH4 consumption in dry tundra, particularly in barren areas, offsetting part of the CH4 emissions from the wetlands.
Jessica Plein, Rulon W. Clark, Kyle A. Arndt, Walter C. Oechel, Douglas Stow, and Donatella Zona
Biogeosciences, 19, 2779–2794,Short summary
Tundra vegetation and the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems can be substantially impacted by herbivory. We tested how herbivory by brown lemmings in individual enclosure plots have impacted carbon exchange of tundra ecosystems via altering carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Lemmings significantly decreased net CO2 uptake while not affecting CH4 emissions. There was no significant difference in the subsequent growing season due to recovery of the vegetation.
Jenie Gil, Maija E. Marushchak, Tobias Rütting, Elizabeth M. Baggs, Tibisay Pérez, Alexander Novakovskiy, Tatiana Trubnikova, Dmitry Kaverin, Pertti J. Martikainen, and Christina Biasi
Biogeosciences, 19, 2683–2698,Short summary
N2O emissions from permafrost soils represent up to 11.6 % of total N2O emissions from natural soils, and their contribution to the global N2O budget will likely increase due to climate change. A better understanding of N2O production from permafrost soil is needed to evaluate the role of arctic ecosystems in the global N2O budget. By studying microbial N2O production processes in N2O hotspots in permafrost peatlands, we identified denitrification as the dominant source of N2O in these surfaces.
Christian Rödenbeck, Tim DeVries, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, and Ralph F. Keeling
Biogeosciences, 19, 2627–2652,Short summary
The ocean is an important part of the global carbon cycle, taking up about a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted by burning of fossil fuels and thus slowing down climate change. However, the CO2 uptake by the ocean is, in turn, affected by variability and trends in climate. Here we use carbon measurements in the surface ocean to quantify the response of the oceanic CO2 exchange to environmental conditions and discuss possible mechanisms underlying this response.
Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Yuanyuan Huang, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 19, 2245–2262,Short summary
The relative ratio of wetland methane (CH4) emission pathways determines how much CH4 is oxidized before leaving the soil. We found an ebullition modeling approach that has a better performance in deep layer pore water CH4 concentration. We suggest using this approach in land surface models to accurately represent CH4 emission dynamics and response to climate change. Our results also highlight that both CH4 flux and belowground concentration data are important to constrain model parameters.
Mika Korkiakoski, Tiia Määttä, Krista Peltoniemi, Timo Penttilä, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 19, 2025–2041,Short summary
We measured CH4 fluxes and production and oxidation potentials from irrigated and non-irrigated podzolic soil in a boreal forest. CH4 sink was smaller at the irrigated site but did not cause CH4 emission, with one exception. We also showed that under laboratory conditions, not only wet conditions, but also fresh carbon, are needed to make podzolic soil into a CH4 source. Our study provides important data for improving the process models describing the upland soil CH4 dynamics.
Sarah Shakil, Suzanne E. Tank, Jorien E. Vonk, and Scott Zolkos
Biogeosciences, 19, 1871–1890,Short summary
Permafrost thaw-driven landslides in the western Arctic are increasing organic carbon delivered to headwaters of drainage networks in the western Canadian Arctic by orders of magnitude. Through a series of laboratory experiments, we show that less than 10 % of this organic carbon is likely to be mineralized to greenhouse gases during transport in these networks. Rather most of the organic carbon is likely destined for burial and sequestration for centuries to millennia.
Wolfgang Fischer, Christoph K. Thomas, Nikita Zimov, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 19, 1611–1633,Short summary
Arctic permafrost ecosystems may release large amounts of carbon under warmer future climates and may therefore accelerate global climate change. Our study investigated how long-term grazing by large animals influenced ecosystem characteristics and carbon budgets at a Siberian permafrost site. Our results demonstrate that such management can contribute to stabilizing ecosystems to keep carbon in the ground, particularly through drying soils and reducing methane emissions.
Dong-Gill Kim, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Youngryel Ryu, Bumsuk Seo, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 19, 1435–1450,Short summary
As carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) research has adopted appropriate technology and approach (AT&A), low-cost instruments, open-source software, and participatory research and their results were well accepted by scientific communities. In terms of cost, feasibility, and performance, the integration of low-cost and low-technology, participatory and networking-based research approaches can be AT&A for enhancing C and GHG research in developing countries.
Lutz Beckebanze, Zoé Rehder, David Holl, Christian Wille, Charlotta Mirbach, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 19, 1225–1244,Short summary
Arctic permafrost landscapes feature many water bodies. In contrast to the terrestrial parts of the landscape, the water bodies release carbon to the atmosphere. We compare carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from small water bodies to the surrounding tundra and find not accounting for the carbon dioxide emissions leads to an overestimation of the tundra uptake by 11 %. Consequently, changes in hydrology and water body distribution may substantially impact the overall carbon budget of the Arctic.
Brian Scott, Andrew H. Baldwin, and Stephanie A. Yarwood
Biogeosciences, 19, 1151–1164,Short summary
Carbon dioxide and methane contribute to global warming. What can we do? We can build wetlands: they store carbon dioxide and should cause global cooling. But when first built they produce excess methane. Eventually built wetlands will cause cooling, but it may take decades or even centuries. How we build wetlands matters. We show that a common practice, using organic matter, such as manure, can make a big difference whether or not the wetlands we build start global cooling within our lifetime.
Jan Knappe, Celia Somlai, and Laurence W. Gill
Biogeosciences, 19, 1067–1085,Short summary
Two domestic on-site wastewater treatment systems have been monitored for greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) emissions coming from the process units, soil and vent pipes. This has enabled the net greenhouse gas per person to be quantified for the first time, as well as the impact of pre-treatment on the effluent before being discharged to soil. These decentralised wastewater treatment systems serve approx. 20 % of the population in both Europe and the United States.
Yanan Zhao, Dennis Booge, Christa A. Marandino, Cathleen Schlundt, Astrid Bracher, Elliot L. Atlas, Jonathan Williams, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 19, 701–714,Short summary
We present here, for the first time, simultaneously measured dimethylsulfide (DMS) seawater concentrations and DMS atmospheric mole fractions from the Peruvian upwelling region during two cruises in December 2012 and October 2015. Our results indicate low oceanic DMS concentrations and atmospheric DMS molar fractions in surface waters and the atmosphere, respectively. In addition, the Peruvian upwelling region was identified as an insignificant source of DMS emissions during both periods.
Moussa Moustapha, Loris Deirmendjian, David Sebag, Jean-Jacques Braun, Stéphane Audry, Henriette Ateba Bessa, Thierry Adatte, Carole Causserand, Ibrahima Adamou, Benjamin Ngounou Ngatcha, and Frédéric Guérin
Biogeosciences, 19, 137–163,Short summary
We monitor the spatio-temporal variability of organic and inorganic carbon (C) species in the tropical Nyong River (Cameroon), across groundwater and increasing stream orders. We show the significant contribution of wetland as a C source for tropical rivers. Thus, ignoring the river–wetland connectivity might lead to the misrepresentation of C dynamics in tropical watersheds. Finally, total fluvial carbon losses might offset ~10 % of the net C sink estimated for the whole Nyong watershed.
Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Troy S. Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6579–6588,Short summary
This work builds a high-resolution estimate (500 m) of gross primary productivity (GPP) over the US using satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) between 2018 and 2020. We identify ecosystem-specific scaling factors for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) from TROPOMI SIF. Extreme precipitation events drive four regional GPP anomalies that account for 28 % of year-to-year GPP differences across the US.
Paul Laris, Moussa Koné, Fadiala Dembélé, Christine M. Rodrigue, Lilian Yang, Rebecca Jacobs, and Quincy Laris
Biogeosciences, 18, 6229–6244,Short summary
Savanna fires play a key role in the global carbon cycle because they release methane. Although it burns the most, there are few studies from West Africa. We conducted 36 experimental fires according to local practice to collect smoke samples. We found that fires set early in the season had higher methane emissions than those set later, and head fires had double the emissions of backfires. We conclude policies to reduce emissions will not have the desired effects if fire type is not considered.
Johan H. Scheller, Mikhail Mastepanov, Hanne H. Christiansen, and Torben R. Christensen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6093–6114,Short summary
Our study presents a time series of methane emissions in a high-Arctic-tundra landscape over 14 summers, which shows large variations between years. The methane emissions from the valley are expected to more than double in the late 21st century. This warming increases permafrost thaw, which could increase surface erosion in the valley. Increased erosion could offset some of the rise in methane fluxes from the valley, but this would require large-scale impacts on vegetated surfaces.
Patryk Łakomiec, Jutta Holst, Thomas Friborg, Patrick Crill, Niklas Rakos, Natascha Kljun, Per-Ola Olsson, Lars Eklundh, Andreas Persson, and Janne Rinne
Biogeosciences, 18, 5811–5830,Short summary
Methane emission from the subarctic mire with heterogeneous permafrost status was measured for the years 2014–2016. Lower methane emission was measured from the palsa mire sector while the thawing wet sector emitted more. Both sectors have a similar annual pattern with a gentle rise during spring and a decrease during autumn. The highest emission was observed in the late summer. Winter emissions were positive during the measurement period and have a significant impact on the annual budgets.
Balázs Grosz, Reinhard Well, Rene Dechow, Jan Reent Köster, Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil, Simone Merl, Andreas Rode, Bianca Ziehmer, Amanda Matson, and Hongxing He
Biogeosciences, 18, 5681–5697,Short summary
To assure quality predictions biogeochemical models must be current. We use data measured using novel incubation methods to test the denitrification sub-modules of three models. We aim to identify limitations in the denitrification modeling to inform next steps for development. Several areas are identified, most urgently improved denitrification control parameters and further testing with high-temporal-resolution datasets. Addressing these would significantly improve denitrification modeling.
Sarah Waldo, Jake J. Beaulieu, William Barnett, D. Adam Balz, Michael J. Vanni, Tanner Williamson, and John T. Walker
Biogeosciences, 18, 5291–5311,Short summary
Human-made reservoirs impact the carbon cycle. In particular, the breakdown of organic matter in reservoir sediments can result in large emissions of greenhouse gases (especially methane) to the atmosphere. This study takes an intensive look at the patterns in greenhouse gas emissions from a single reservoir in Ohio (United States) and the role of water temperature, precipitation, and algal blooms in emissions. We saw a "spring burst" of elevated emissions that challenged our assumptions.
Abrams, M., Tsu, H., Hulley, G., Iwao, K., Pieri, D., Cudahy, T., and Kargel, J.: 2015. The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) after fifteen years: review of global products, Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs., 38, 292–301, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2015.01.013, 2015.
Ainsworth, E. A. and Long, S. P.: What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2, New Phytol., 165, 351–372, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01224.x, 2005.
Aiuppa, A., Caleca, A., Federico, C., Gurrieri, S., and Valenza, M.: Diffuse degassing of carbon dioxide at Somma–Vesuvius volcanic complex (Southern Italy) and its relation with regional tectonics, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 133, 55–79, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00391-3, 2004.
Alvarado, G. E., Carr, M. J., Turrin, B. D., Swisher, C. C., Schmincke, H.-U., and Hudnut, K. W.: Recent volcanic history of Irazú volcano, Costa Rica: Alternation and mixing of two magma batches, and pervasive mixing, in: Special Paper 412, Volcanic Hazards in Central America, vol. 412, Geological Society of America, 259–276, 2006.
Baker, N. R. and Oxborough, K.: Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Probe of Photosynthetic Productivity, in: Chlorophyll a Fluorescence, Springer, Dordrecht, 65–82, 2004.
Barquero, R., Lesage, P., Metaxian, J. P., Creusot, A., and Fernández, M.: La crisis sísmica en el volcán Irazú en 1991 (Costa Rica), Rev. Geológica América Cent., 18, 5–18, https://doi.org/10.15517/rgac.v0i18.13494, 1995.
Belikov, D. A., Maksyutov, S., Yaremchuk, A., Ganshin, A., Kaminski, T., Blessing, S., Sasakawa, M., Gomez-Pelaez, A. J., and Starchenko, A.: Adjoint of the global Eulerian–Lagrangian coupled atmospheric transport model (A-GELCA v1.0): development and validation, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 749–764, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-9-749-2016, 2016.
Biondi, F. and Fessenden, J. E.: Response of lodgepole pine growth to CO2 degassing at Mammoth Mountain, California, Ecol. Brooklyn, 80, 2420–2426, 1999.
Burton, M. R., Sawyer, G. M., and Granieri, D.: Deep Carbon Emissions from Volcanoes, Rev. Mineral. Geochem., 75, 323–354, https://doi.org/10.2138/rmg.2013.75.11, 2013.
Camarda, M., Gurrieri, S., and Valenza, M.: CO2 flux measurements in volcanic areas using the dynamic concentration method: Influence of soil permeability, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 111, B05202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003898, 2006.
Camarda, M., De Gregorio, S., and Gurrieri, S.: Magma-ascent processes during 2005–2009 at Mt Etna inferred by soil CO2 emissions in peripheral areas of the volcano, Chem. Geol., 330/331, 218–227, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.08.024, 2012.
Campion, R., Salerno, G. G., Coheur, P.-F., Hurtmans, D., Clarisse, L., Kazahaya, K., Burton, M., Caltabiano, T., Clerbaux, C., and Bernard, A.: Measuring volcanic degassing of SO2 in the lower troposphere with ASTER band ratios, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 194, 42–54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.04.010, 2010.
Cardellini, C., Chiodini, G., and Frondini, F.: Application of stochastic simulation to CO2 flux from soil: Mapping and quantification of gas release, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 108, 2425, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JB002165, 2003.
Cawse-Nicholson, K., Fisher, J. B., Famiglietti, C. A., Braverman, A., Schwandner, F. M., Lewicki, J. L., Townsend, P. A., Schimel, D. S., Pavlick, R., Bormann, K. J., Ferraz, A., Kang, E. L., Ma, P., Bogue, R. R., Youmans, T., and Pieri, D. C.: Ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 using airborne remote sensing at Mammoth Mountain, California, Biogeosciences, 15, 7403–7418, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-7403-2018, 2018.
Chiodini, G., Cioni, R., Guidi, M., Raco, B., and Marini, L.: Soil CO2 flux measurements in volcanic and geothermal areas, Appl. Geochem., 13, 543–552, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(97)00076-0, 1998.
Cook, A. C., Hainsworth, L. J., Sorey, M. L., Evans, W. C., and Southon, J. R.: Radiocarbon studies of plant leaves and tree rings from Mammoth Mountain, CA: a long-term record of magmatic CO2 release, Chem. Geol., 177, 117–131, 2001.
Cox, P., Pearson, D., B Booth, B., Friedlingstein, P., Huntingford, C., Jones, C., and M Luke, C.: Sensitivity of tropical carbon to climate change constrained by carbon dioxide variability, Nature, 494, 341–344, 2013.
D'Arcy, F., Stix, J., de Moor, J., Rüdiger, J., Diaz, J., Alan, A., and Corrales, E.: Drones Swoop in to Measure Gas Belched from Volcanoes, Eos, 99, doi:10.1029/2018EO102329, 2018.
Delmelle, P. and Stix, J.: Volcanic Gases, edited by: Sigurdsson, H., Houghton, B., Rymer, H., Stix, J., and McNutt, S.: Encylopedia Volcanoes, 1st Edn., Academic Press, San Diego, ISBN: 9780126431407, 803–815, 2000.
Dietrich, V. J., Fiebig, J., Chiodini, G., and Schwandner, F. M.: Fluid Geochemistry of the Hydrothermal System, in: Nisyros Volcano, edited by: Dietrich, V. J., Lagios, E., and Bachmann, O., Springer, Berlin, p. 339, 2016.
Eatough, D. J., Caka, F. M. and Farber, R. J.: The Conversion of SO2 to Sulfate in the Atmosphere, Israel J. Chem., 34, 301–314, https://doi.org/10.1002/ijch.199400034, 1994.
Eckhardt, S., Cassiani, M., Evangeliou, N., Sollum, E., Pisso, I., and Stohl, A.: Source–receptor matrix calculation for deposited mass with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART v10.2 in backward mode, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4605–4618, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-4605-2017, 2017.
Epiard, M., Avard, G., de Moor, J. M., Martínez Cruz, M., Barrantes Castillo, G., and Bakkar, H.: Relationship between Diffuse CO2 Degassing and Volcanic Activity. Case Study of the Poás, Irazú, and Turrialba Volcanoes, Costa Rica, Front. Earth Sci., 5, 14 pp., https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2017.00071, 2017.
Evans, W. C., Bergfeld, D., McGeehin, J. P., King, J. C., and Heasler, H.: Tree-ring 14C links seismic swarm to CO2 spike at Yellowstone, USA, Geology, 38, 1075–1078, 2010.
Farrar, C. D., Sorey, M. L., Evans, W. C., Howle, J. F., Kerr, B. D., Kennedy, B. M., King, C.-Y., and Southon, J. R.: Forest-killing diffuse CO2 emission at Mammoth Mountain as a sign of magmatic unrest, Nature, 376, 675–678, https://doi.org/10.1038/376675a0, 1995.
Friedlingstein, P., Meinshausen, M., Arora, V. K., Jones, C. D., Anav, A., Liddicoat, S. K., and Knutti, R.: Uncertainties in CMIP5 Climate Projections due to Carbon Cycle Feedbacks, J. Clim., 27, 511–526, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00579.1, 2013.
Garten, C. T., Iversen, C. M., and Norby, R. J.: Litterfall 15N abundance indicates declining soil nitrogen availability in a free-air CO2 enrichment experiment, Ecology, 92, 133–139, https://doi.org/10.1890/10-0293.1, 2011.
Giammanco, S., Gurrieri, S., and Valenza, M.: Soil CO2 degassing along tectonic structures of Mount Etna (Sicily): the Pernicana fault, Appl. Geochem., 12, 429–436, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(97)00011-5, 1997.
Global Volcanism Program: Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.7.6., edited by: Venzke, E., Smithson. Inst., https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013 (last accessed: 20 February 2018), 2013.
Gregory, J. M., Jones, C. D., Cadule, P., and Friedlingstein, P.: Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks, J. Clim., 22, 5232–5250, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2949.1, 2009.
Hattenschwiler, S., Miglietta, F., Raschi, A., and Körner, C.: Thirty years of in situ tree growth under elevated CO2: a model for future forest responses?, Glob. Change Biol., 3, 463–471, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.1997.00105.x, 1997.
Hebeisen, T., Lüscher, A., Zanetti, S., Fischer, B., Hartwig, U., Frehner, M., Hendrey, G., Blum, H., and Nösberger, J.: Growth response of Trifolium repens L. and Lolium perenne L. as monocultures and bi-species mixture to free air CO2 enrichment and management, Glob. Change Biol., 3, 149–160, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.1997.00073.x, 1997.
Helle, G. and Schleser, G. H.: Beyond CO2-fixation by Rubisco – an interpretation of 13C/12C variations in tree rings from novel intra-seasonal studies on broad-leaf trees, Plant Cell Environ., 27, 367–380, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0016-8025.2003.01159.x, 2004.
Houlié, N., Komorowski, J. C., de Michele, M., Kasereka, M., and Ciraba, H.: Early detection of eruptive dykes revealed by normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) on Mt. Etna and Mt. Nyiragongo, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 246, 231–240, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2006.03.039, 2006.
Jenkins, M. W., Krofcheck, D. J., Teasdale, R., Houpis, J., and Pushnik, J.: Exploring the edge of a natural disaster, Open Journal of Ecology, 2, 222–232, https://doi.org/10.4236/oje.2012.24026, 2012.
Kappelle, M., Geuze, T., Leal, M. E., and Cleef, A. M.: Successional age and forest structure in a Costa Rican upper montane Quercus forest, J. Trop. Ecol., 12, 681–698, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467400009871, 1996.
Kauwe, M. G. D., Keenan, T. F., Medlyn, B. E., Prentice, I. C., and Terrer, C.: Satellite based estimates underestimate the effect of CO2 fertilization on net primary productivity, Nat. Clim. Change, 6, 892–893, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3105, 2016.
Keeling, C. D.: The Carbon Dioxide Cycle: Reservoir Models to Depict the Exchange of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide with the Oceans and Land Plants, in: Chemistry of the Lower Atmosphere, edited by: Rasool, S. I., Springer US, Boston, MA, 251–329, 1973.
Körner, C.: Carbon Flux and Growth in Mature Deciduous Forest Trees Exposed to Elevated CO2, Science, 309, 1360–1362, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1113977, 2005.
Körner, C. and Miglietta, F.: Long term effects of naturally elevated CO2 on mediterranean grassland and forest trees, Oecologia, 99, 343–351, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00627748, 1994.
Lefevre, J.-C., Gillot, P.-Y., Cardellini, C., Gresse, M., Lesage, L., Chiodini, G., and Oberlin, C.: Use of the Radiocarbon Activity Deficit in Vegetation as a Sensor of CO2 Soil Degassing: Example from La Solfatara (Naples, Southern Italy), Radiocarbon, 60, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2017.76, 2017.
Leigh, E. G., Losos, E. C., and Research, N. B. E.: Tropical forest diversity and dynamism: findings from a large-scale network, Chicago, London, The University of Chicago Press, available at: http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/12851528 (last access: 25 September 2017), 2004.
Lewicki, J. L. and Hilley, G. E.: Multi-scale observations of the variability of magmatic CO2 emissions, Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 284, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.07.011, 2014.
Lewicki, J. L., Hilley, G. E., Shelly, D. R., King, J. C., McGeehin, J. P., Mangan, M., and Evans, W. C.: Crustal migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids recorded by tree-ring radiocarbon and seismicity at Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 390, 52–58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.12.035, 2014.
Lüscher, A., Hartwig, U. A., Suter, D., and Nösberger, J.: Direct evidence that symbiotic N2 fixation in fertile grassland is an important trait for a strong response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2, Glob. Change Biol., 6, 655–662, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2000.00345.x, 2000.
Malowany, K. S., Stix, J., de Moor, J. M., Chu, K., Lacrampe-Couloume, G., and Sherwood Lollar, B.: Carbon isotope systematics of Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica, using a portable cavity ring-down spectrometer, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 18, 2769–2784, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GC006856, 2017.
Martini, F., Tassi, F., Vaselli, O., Del Potro, R., Martinez, M., del Laat, R. V., and Fernandez, E.: Geophysical, geochemical and geodetical signals of reawakening at Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) after almost 150 years of quiescence, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 198, 416–432, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.09.021, 2010.
Mason, E., Edmonds, M., and Turchyn, A. V.: Remobilization of crustal carbon may dominate volcanic arc emissions, Science, 357, 290–294, 2017.
McGee, K. A. and Gerlach, T. M.: Annual cycle of magmatic CO2 in a tree-kill soil at Mammoth Mountain, California: Implications for soil acidification, Geology, 26, 463–466, 1998.
de Moor, J. M., Aiuppa, A., Avard, G., Wehrmann, H., Dunbar, N., Muller, C., Tamburello, G., Giudice, G., Liuzzo, M., Moretti, R., Conde, V., and Galle, B.: Turmoil at Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica): Degassing and eruptive processes inferred from high-frequency gas monitoring, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 121, 2016JB013150, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JB013150, 2016.
Newhall, C. G., Costa, F., Ratdomopurbo, A., Venezky, D. Y., Widiwijayanti, C., Win, N. T. Z., Tan, K., and Fajiculay, E.: WOVOdat – An online, growing library of worldwide volcanic unrest, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 345, 184–199, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2017.08.003, 2017.
Nicholson, E.: Volcanology: An Introduction, Larsen and Keller Education, 2017.
Norby, R. J., Warren, J. M., Iversen, C. M., Medlyn, B. E., and McMurtrie, R. E.: CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 19368–19373, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1006463107, 2010.
Norby, R. J., De Kauwe, M. G., Domingues, T. F., Duursma, R. A., Ellsworth, D. S., Goll, D. S., Lapola, D. M., Luus, K. A., MacKenzie, A. R., Medlyn, B. E., Pavlick, R., Rammig, A., Smith, B., Thomas, R., Thonicke, K., Walker, A. P., Yang, X., and Zaehle, S.: Model–data synthesis for the next generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, New Phytol., 209, 17–28, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13593, 2016.
Norman, E. M.: Buddlejaceae (Flora Neotropica Monograph No. 81), The New York Botanical Garden Press, 2000.
Oda, T. and Maksyutov, S.: A very high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) global fossil fuel CO2 emission inventory derived using a point source database and satellite observations of nighttime lights, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 543–556, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-543-2011, 2011.
Oppenheimer, C. and Stevenson, D.: Liquid sulphur lakes at Poás volcano, Nature, 342, 790–793, https://doi.org/10.1038/342790a0, 1989.
Ortega-Pieck, A., López-Barrera, F., Ramírez-Marcial, N., and García-Franco, J. G.: Early seedling establishment of two tropical montane cloud forest tree species: The role of native and exotic grasses, Forest Ecol. Manag., 261, 1336–1343, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.01.013, 2011.
Paoletti, E., Seufert, G., Della Rocca, G., and Thomsen, H.: Photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 and O3 in Quercus ilex leaves at a natural CO2 spring, Environ. Pollut., 147, 516–524, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.08.039, 2007.
Parry, C., Blonquist, J. M., and Bugbee, B.: In situ measurement of leaf chlorophyll concentration: analysis of the optical/absolute relationship, Plant Cell Environ., 37, 2508–2520, https://doi.org/10.1111/pce.12324, 2014.
Pasquier-Cardin, A., Allard, P., Ferreira, T., Hatte, C., Coutinho, R., Fontugne, M., and Jaudon, M.: Magma-derived CO2 emissions recorded in 14C and 13C content of plants growing in Furnas caldera, Azores, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 92, 195–207, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00076-1, 1999.
Peiffer, L., Wanner, C., and Lewicki, J. L.: Unraveling the dynamics of magmatic CO2 degassing at Mammoth Mountain, California, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 484, 318–328, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2017.12.038, 2018.
Pérez, N. M., Hernández, P. A., Padilla, G., Nolasco, D., Barrancos, J., Melían, G., Padrón, E., Dionis, S., Calvo, D., Rodríguez, F., Notsu, K., Mori, T., Kusakabe, M., Arpa, M. C., Reniva, P., and Ibarra, M.: Global CO2 emission from volcanic lakes, Geology, 39, 235–238, https://doi.org/10.1130/G31586.1, 2011.
Pieri, D., Schwandner, F. M., Realmuto, V. J., Lundgren, P. R., Hook, S., Anderson, K., Buongiorno, M. F., Diaz, J. A., Gillespie, A., Miklius, A., Mothes, P., Mouginis-Mark, P., Pallister, M., Poland, M., Palgar, L. L., Pata, F., Pritchard, M., Self, S., Sigmundsson, F., de Silva, S., and Webley, P.: Enabling a global perspective for deterministic modeling of volcanic unrest, available at: https://hyspiri.jpl.nasa.gov/downloads/ (last access: 20 February 2018), 2016.
Pinkard, E. A., Beadle, C. L., Mendham, D. S., Carter, J., and Glen, M.: Determining photosynthetic responses of forest species to elevated CO2: alternatives to FACE, Forest Ecol. Manag., 260, 1251–1261, 2010.
Pyle, D. M.: What Can We Learn from Records of Past Eruptions to Better Prepare for the Future?, in: SpringerLink, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1–18, 2017.
Quintana-Ascencio, P. F., Ramírez-Marcial, N., González-Espinosa, M., and Martínez-Icó, M.: Sapling survival and growth of coniferous and broad-leaved trees in successional highland habitats in Mexico, Appl. Veg. Sci., 7, 81–88, 2004.
Rizzo, A. L., Di Piazza, A., de Moor, J. M., Alvarado, G. E., Avard, G., Carapezza, M. L., and Mora, M. M.: Eruptive activity at Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica): Inferences from 3He∕4He in fumarole gases and chemistry of the products ejected during 2014 and 2015, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 17, 4478–4494, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GC006525, 2016.
Saban, J. M., Chapman, M. A., and Taylor, G.: FACE facts hold for multiple generations, Evidence from natural CO2 springs, Glob. Change Biol., 25, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14437, 2019.
Saha, S., Moorthi, S., Pan, H.-L., Wu, X., Wang, J., Nadiga, S., Tripp, P., Kistler, R., Woollen, J., Behringer, D., Liu, H., Stokes, D., Grumbine, R., Gayno, G., Wang, J., Hou, Y.-T., Chuang, H., Juang, H.-M. H., Sela, J., Iredell, M., Treadon, R., Kleist, D., Van Delst, P., Keyser, D., Derber, J., Ek, M., Meng, J., Wei, H., Yang, R., Lord, S., van den Dool, H., Kumar, A., Wang, W., Long, C., Chelliah, M., Xue, Y., Huang, B., Schemm, J.-K., Ebisuzaki, W., Lin, R., Xie, P., Chen, M., Zhou, S., Higgins, W., Zou, C.-Z., Liu, Q., Chen, Y., Han, Y., Cucurull, L., Reynolds, R. W., Rutledge, G., and Goldberg, M.: NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) 6-hourly Products, January 1979 to December 2010, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 91, 1015–1058, https://doi.org/10.5065/D69K487J, 2010a.
Saha, S., Moorthi, S., Pan, H.-L., Wu, X., Wang, J., Nadiga, S., Tripp, P., Kistler, R., Woollen, J., Behringer, D., Liu, H., Stokes, D., Grumbine, R., Gayno, G., Wang, J., Hou, Y.-T., Chuang, H., Juang, H.-M. H., Sela, J., Iredell, M., Treadon, R., Kleist, D., Van Delst, P., Keyser, D., Derber, J., Ek, M., Meng, J., Wei, H., Yang, R., Lord, S., van den Dool, H., Kumar, A., Wang, W., Long, C., Chelliah, M., Xue, Y., Huang, B., Schemm, J.-K., Ebisuzaki, W., Lin, R., Xie, P., Chen, M., Zhou, S., Higgins, W., Zou, C.-Z., Liu, Q., Chen, Y., Han, Y., Cucurull, L., Reynolds, R. W., Rutledge, G., and Goldberg, M.: The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 91, 1015–1058, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010BAMS3001.1, 2010b.
Saurer, M., Cherubini, P., Bonani, G., and Siegwolf, R.: Tracing carbon uptake from a natural CO2 spring into tree rings: an isotope approach, Tree Physiol., 23, 997–1004, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/23.14.997, 2003.
Schimel, D., Stephens, B. B., and Fisher, J. B.: Effect of increasing CO2 on the terrestrial carbon cycle, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 436–441, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1407302112, 2015.
Schwandner, F. M., Seward, T. M., Gize, A. P., Hall, P. A., and Dietrich, V. J.: Diffuse emission of organic trace gases from the flank and crater of a quiescent active volcano (Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D04301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003890, 2004.
Schwandner, F. M., Gunson, M. R., Miller, C. E., Carn, S. A., Eldering, A., Krings, T., Verhulst, K. R., Schimel, D. S., Nguyen, H. M., Crisp, D., O'Dell, C. W., Osterman, G. B., Iraci, L. T., and Podolske, J. R.: Spaceborne detection of localized carbon dioxide sources, Science, 358, eaam5782, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam5782, 2017.
Seiler, R., Kirchner, J. W., Krusic, P. J., Tognetti, R., Houlié, N., Andronico, D., Cullotta, S., Egli, M., D'Arrigo, R., and Cherubini, P.: Insensitivity of Tree-Ring Growth to Temperature and Precipitation Sharpens the Puzzle of Enhanced Pre-Eruption NDVI on Mt. Etna (Italy), PLOS ONE, 12, e0169297, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169297, 2017.
Sharma, S. and Williams, D.: Carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of leaf biomass reveals contrasting photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 near geologic vents in Yellowstone National Park, Biogeosciences, 6, 25–31, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-25-2009, 2009.
Shinohara, H., Aiuppa, A., Giudice, G., Gurrieri, S., and Liuzzo, M.: Variation of H2O/CO2 and CO2/SO2 ratios of volcanic gases discharged by continuous degassing of Mount Etna volcano, Italy, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 113, B09203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JB005185, 2008.
Sinclair, A. J.: Selection of threshold values in geochemical data using probability graphs, J. Geochem. Explor., 3, 129–149, https://doi.org/10.1016/0375-6742(74)90030-2, 1974.
Sorey, M. L., Evans, W. C., Kennedy, B. M., Farrar, C. D., Hainsworth, L. J., and Hausback, B.: Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 103, 15303–15323, https://doi.org/10.1029/98JB01389, 1998.
Sparks, R. S. J., Biggs, J., and Neuberg, J. W.: Monitoring Volcanoes, Science, 335, 1310–1311, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1219485, 2012.
Staebler, R. M. and Fitzjarrald, D. R.: Observing subcanopy CO2 advection, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 122, 139–156, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2003.09.011, 2004.
Stine, C. M. and Banks, N. G.: Costa Rica Volcano Profile, USGS Numbered Series, US Geological Survey, available at: https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr91591 (last access: 20 February 2019), 1991.
Stohl, A. and Thomson, D. J.: A Density Correction for Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Models, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 90, 155–167, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1001741110696, 1999.
Stohl, A., Hittenberger, M., and Wotawa, G.: Validation of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART against large-scale tracer experiment data, Atmos. Environ., 32, 4245–4264, 1998.
Stohl, A., Forster, C., Frank, A., Seibert, P., and Wotawa, G.: Technical note: The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART version 6.2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2461–2474, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-2461-2005, 2005.
Symonds, R. B., Gerlach, T. M., and Reed, M. H.: Magmatic gas scrubbing: implications for volcano monitoring, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 108, 303–341, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(00)00292-4, 2001.
Tanner, E. V. J., Vitousek, P. M., and Cuevas, E.: Experimental Investigation of Nutrient Limitation of Forest Growth on Wet Tropical Mountains, Ecology, 79, 10–22, 1998.
Tercek, M. T., Al-Niemi, T. S., and Stout, R. G.: Plants Exposed to High Levels of Carbon Dioxide in Yellowstone National Park: A Glimpse into the Future?, Yellowstone Sci., 16, 12–19, 2008.
Thomas, C. K.: Variability of Sub-Canopy Flow, Temperature, and Horizontal Advection in Moderately Complex Terrain, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 139, 61–81, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-010-9578-9, 2011.
Tognetti, R., Cherubini, P., and Innes, J. L.: Comparative stem-growth rates of Mediterranean trees under background and naturally enhanced ambient CO2 concentrations, New Phytol., 146, 59–74, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00620.x, 2000.
Townsend, A. R., Cleveland, C. C., Houlton, B. Z., Alden, C. B., and White, J. W.: Multi-element regulation of the tropical forest carbon cycle, Front. Ecol. Environ., 9, 9–17, https://doi.org/10.1890/100047, 2011.
Verheyden, A., Helle, G., Schleser, G. H., Dehairs, F., Beeckman, H., and Koedam, N.: Annual cyclicity in high-resolution stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in the wood of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mucronata, Plant Cell Environ., 27, 1525–1536, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01258.x, 2004.
Viveiros, F., Ferreira, T., Silva, C., and Gaspar, J.: Meteorological factors controlling soil gases and indoor CO2 concentration: A permanent risk in degassing areas, Sci. Total Environ., 407, 1362–1372, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.10.009, 2009.
Vodnik, D., Thomalla, A., Ferlan, M., Levanič, T., Eler, K., Ogrinc, N., Wittmann, C., and Pfanz, H.: Atmospheric and geogenic CO2 within the crown and root of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) growing in a mofette area, Atmos. Environ., 182, 286–295, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.03.043, 2018.
Weng, C., Bush, M. B., and Chepstow-Lusty, A. J.: Holocene changes of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata) in highland Ecuador and Peru, J. Quat. Sci., 19, 685–691, https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.882, 2004.
Werner, C., Kelly, P. J., Doukas, M., Lopez, T., Pfeffer, M., McGimsey, R., and Neal, C.: Degassing of CO2, SO2, and H2S associated with the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 259, 270–284, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.04.012, 2013.
Werner, C., Bergfeld, D., Farrar, C. D., Doukas, M. P., Kelly, P. J., and Kern, C.: Decadal-scale variability of diffuse CO2 emissions and seismicity revealed from long-term monitoring (1995–2013) at Mammoth Mountain, California, USA, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 289, 51–63, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.10.020, 2014.
Williams-Jones, G., Stix, J., Heiligmann, M., Charland, A., Lollar, B. S., Arner, N., Garzón, G. V., Barquero, J., and Fernandez, E.: A model of diffuse degassing at three subduction-related volcanoes, Bull. Volcanol., 62, 130–142, 2000.
This study examined rainforest responses to elevated CO2 coming from volcanoes in Costa Rica. Comparing tree species, we found that leaf function responded when exposed to increasing CO2 levels. The chemical signature of volcanic CO2 is different than background CO2. Trees exposed to volcanic CO2 also had chemical signatures which showed the influence of volcanic CO2: trees not only
breathe inand are made of volcanic CO2 but also retain that exposure history for decades.
This study examined rainforest responses to elevated CO2 coming from volcanoes in Costa Rica....