Articles | Volume 18, issue 12
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-3903-2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-3903-2021
Research article
 | 
30 Jun 2021
Research article |  | 30 Jun 2021

Permanent ectoplasmic structures in deep-sea Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa – long-term observations at in situ pressure

Jutta E. Wollenburg, Jelle Bijma, Charlotte Cremer, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Zora Mila Colomba Zittier

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Latest update: 19 Jun 2024
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Short summary
Cultured at in situ high-pressure conditions Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa develop lasting ectoplasmic structures that cannot be retracted or resorbed. An ectoplasmic envelope surrounds their test and may protect the shell, e.g. versus carbonate aggressive bottom water conditions. Ectoplasmic roots likely anchor the specimens in areas of strong bottom water currents, trees enable them to elevate themselves above ground, and twigs stabilize and guide the retractable pseudopodial network.
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