Articles | Volume 10, issue 10
Biogeosciences, 10, 6215–6223, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 02 Oct 2013
Research article | 02 Oct 2013
Export of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the Fukushima river systems at heavy rains by Typhoon Roke in September 2011
S. Nagao et al.
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Land - Sea CouplingEnrichment of trace metals from acid sulfate soils in sediments of the Kvarken Archipelago, eastern Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic SeaSpatio-temporal variations of lateral and atmospheric carbon fluxes from the Danube DeltaTechnical note: Seamless gas measurements across Land-Ocean Aquatic Continuum – corrections and evaluation of sensor data for CO2, CH4 and O2 from field deployments in contrasting environmentsOrganic iron complexes enhance iron transport capacity along estuarine salinity gradients of Baltic estuariesParticulate organic matter controls benthic microbial N retention and N removal in contrasting estuaries of the Baltic SeaExport fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon to the northern Indian Ocean from the Indian monsoonal riversThe ballast effect of lithogenic matter and its influences on the carbon fluxes in the Indian OceanIntegrating multimedia models to assess nitrogen losses from the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of MexicoReconciling drainage and receiving basin signatures of the Godavari River systemImpacts of flocculation on the distribution and diagenesis of iron in boreal estuarine sedimentsSources, fluxes, and behaviors of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the Nakdong River Estuary, KoreaEffects of changes in nutrient loading and composition on hypoxia dynamics and internal nutrient cycling of a stratified coastal lagoonCarbon degradation in agricultural soils flooded with seawater after managed coastal realignmentA global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British ColumbiaNitrogen transformations along a shallow subterranean estuaryModelling nutrient retention in the coastal zone of an eutrophic seaPatterns and persistence of hydrologic carbon and nutrient export from collapsing upland permafrostModelling the impact of riverine DON removal by marine bacterioplankton on primary production in the Arctic OceanSeasonal response of air–water CO2 exchange along the land–ocean aquatic continuum of the northeast North American coast.Quantification of iron-rich volcanogenic dust emissions and deposition over the ocean from Icelandic dust sourcesEffects of seabird nitrogen input on biomass and carbon accumulation after 50 years of primary succession on a young volcanic island, SurtseyImpact of river discharge, upwelling and vertical mixing on the nutrient loading and productivity of the Canadian Beaufort ShelfSeasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchmentsAntarctic ice sheet fertilises the Southern OceanNutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China SeaBioavailability of riverine dissolved organic matter in three Baltic Sea estuaries and the effect of catchment land useSeasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for two sub-tropical estuaries in south Florida, USAThe fate of riverine nutrients on Arctic shelvesExternal forcings, oceanographic processes and particle flux dynamics in Cap de Creus submarine canyon, NW Mediterranean SeaRadium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidentTracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea ecosystemThe role of alkalinity generation in controlling the fluxes of CO2 during exposure and inundation on tidal flatsCoupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environmentSpatialized N budgets in a large agricultural Mediterranean watershed: high loading and low transferEffects of water discharge and sediment load on evolution of modern Yellow River Delta, China, over the period from 1976 to 2009Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarker investigation of sources, transport and degradation of terrestrial organic matter in the Buor-Khaya Bay, SE Laptev SeaContribution of riverine nutrients to the silicon biogeochemistry of the global ocean – a model studyMolecular and radiocarbon constraints on sources and degradation of terrestrial organic carbon along the Kolyma paleoriver transect, East Siberian SeaImpact of changes in river fluxes of silica on the global marine silicon cycle: a model comparison
Joonas J. Virtasalo, Peter Österholm, Aarno T. Kotilainen, and Mats E. Åström
Biogeosciences, 17, 6097–6113,Short summary
Rivers draining the acid sulphate soils of western Finland deliver large amounts of metals (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, and Zn) to the coastal sea. To better understand metal enrichment in the sea floor, we analysed metal contents and grain size distribution in nine sediment cores, which increased in the 1960s and 1970s and stayed at high levels afterwards. The enrichment is visible more than 25 km out from the river mouths. Organic aggregates are suggested as the key seaward metal carriers.
Marie-Sophie Maier, Cristian R. Teodoru, and Bernhard Wehrli
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Based on a 2-year monitoring study, we found that the freshwater system of the Danube Delta, Romania, releases carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. The amount of carbon released depends on the freshwater feature (river branches, channels, lakes), season and hydrologic condition, affecting the exchange with the wetland. Spatial upscaling should therefore consider these factors. Furthermore, the Danube Delta increases the amount of carbon reaching the Black Sea via the Danube River.
Anna Canning, Arne Körtzinger, Peer Fietzek, and Gregor Rehder
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
The manuscript describes a novel, fully autonomous, multi-gas flow-through setup for multiple gases that combines established high-quality oceanographic sensors in a small and robust system, designed to use across all salinities from all types of platforms. We describe the system and its performance in all relevant detail, including corrections, which improve the accuracy of these sensors. Illustrating how simultaneous multi-gas set up can provide extremely high spatiotemporal resolution.
Simon David Herzog, Per Persson, Kristina Kvashnina, and Emma Sofia Kritzberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 331–344,Short summary
Fe concentrations in boreal rivers are increasing strongly in several regions in Northern Europe. This study focuses on how Fe speciation and interaction with organic matter affect stability of Fe across estuarine salinity gradients. The results confirm a positive relationship between the relative contribution of organically complexed Fe and stability. Moreover, organically complexed Fe was more prevalent at high flow conditions and more dominant further upstream in a catchment.
Ines Bartl, Dana Hellemann, Christophe Rabouille, Kirstin Schulz, Petra Tallberg, Susanna Hietanen, and Maren Voss
Biogeosciences, 16, 3543–3564,Short summary
Irrespective of variable environmental settings in estuaries, the quality of organic particles is an important factor controlling microbial processes that facilitate a reduction of land-derived nitrogen loads to the open sea. Through the interplay of biogeochemical processing, geomorphology, and hydrodynamics, organic particles may function as a carrier and temporary reservoir of nitrogen, which has a major impact on the efficiency of nitrogen load reduction.
Moturi S. Krishna, Rongali Viswanadham, Mamidala H. K. Prasad, Vuravakonda R. Kumari, and Vedula V. S. S. Sarma
Biogeosciences, 16, 505–519,Short summary
An order-of-magnitude variability in DIC was found within the Indian estuaries due to significant variability in size of rivers, precipitation pattern and lithology in the catchments. Indian monsoonal estuaries annually export ∼ 10.3 Tg of DIC to the northern Indian Ocean, of which 75 % enters into the Bay of Bengal. Our results indicated that chemical weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals by soil CO2 is the major source of DIC in the Indian monsoonal rivers.
Tim Rixen, Birgit Gaye, Kay-Christian Emeis, and Venkitasubramani Ramaswamy
Biogeosciences, 16, 485–503,Short summary
Data obtained from sediment trap experiments in the Indian Ocean indicate that lithogenic matter ballast increases organic carbon flux rates on average by 45 % and by up to 62 % at trap locations in the river-influenced regions of the Indian Ocean. Such a strong lithogenic matter ballast effect implies that land use changes and the associated enhanced transport of lithogenic matter may significantly affect the CO2 uptake of the organic carbon pump in the receiving ocean areas.
Yongping Yuan, Ruoyu Wang, Ellen Cooter, Limei Ran, Prasad Daggupati, Dongmei Yang, Raghavan Srinivasan, and Anna Jalowska
Biogeosciences, 15, 7059–7076,Short summary
Elevated levels of nutrients in surface water, which originate from deposition of atmospheric N, drainage from agricultural fields, and discharges from sewage treatment plants, cause explosive algal blooms that impair water quality. The complex cycling of nutrients through the land, air, and water requires an integrated multimedia modeling system linking air, land surface, and stream processes to assess their sources, transport, and transformation in large river basins for decision making.
Muhammed Ojoshogu Usman, Frédérique Marie Sophie Anne Kirkels, Huub Michel Zwart, Sayak Basu, Camilo Ponton, Thomas Michael Blattmann, Michael Ploetze, Negar Haghipour, Cameron McIntyre, Francien Peterse, Maarten Lupker, Liviu Giosan, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 15, 3357–3375,
Tom Jilbert, Eero Asmala, Christian Schröder, Rosa Tiihonen, Jukka-Pekka Myllykangas, Joonas J. Virtasalo, Aarno Kotilainen, Pasi Peltola, Päivi Ekholm, and Susanna Hietanen
Biogeosciences, 15, 1243–1271,Short summary
Iron is a common dissolved element in river water, recognizable by its orange-brown colour. Here we show that when rivers reach the ocean much of this iron settles to the sediments by a process known as flocculation. The iron is then used by microbes in coastal sediments, which are important hotspots in the global carbon cycle.
Shin-Ah Lee and Guebuem Kim
Biogeosciences, 15, 1115–1122,Short summary
The fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) delivered from riverine discharges significantly affects carbon and biogeochemical cycles in coastal waters. Our results show that the terrestrial concentrations of humic-like FDOM in river water were 60–80 % higher in the summer and fall, while the in situ production of protein-like FDOM was 70–80 % higher in the spring. Our results suggest that there are large seasonal changes in riverine fluxes of FDOM components to the ocean.
Yafei Zhu, Andrew McCowan, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 14, 4423–4433,Short summary
We used a 3-D coupled hydrodynamic–biogeochemical water quality model to investigate the effects of changes in catchment nutrient loading and composition on the phytoplankton dynamics, development of hypoxia and internal nutrient dynamics in a stratified coastal lagoon system. The results highlighted the need to reduce both total nitrogen and total phosphorus for water quality improvement in estuarine systems.
Kamilla S. Sjøgaard, Alexander H. Treusch, and Thomas B. Valdemarsen
Biogeosciences, 14, 4375–4389,Short summary
Permanent flooding of low-lying coastal areas is a growing threat due to climate-change-related sea-level rise. To reduce coastal damage, buffer zones can be created by managed coastal realignment where existing dykes are breached and new dykes are built further inland. We studied the impacts on organic matter degradation in soils flooded with seawater by managed coastal realignment and suggest that most of the organic carbon present in coastal soils will be permanently preserved after flooding.
Allison A. Oliver, Suzanne E. Tank, Ian Giesbrecht, Maartje C. Korver, William C. Floyd, Paul Sanborn, Chuck Bulmer, and Ken P. Lertzman
Biogeosciences, 14, 3743–3762,Short summary
Rivers draining small watersheds of the outer coastal Pacific temperate rainforest export some of the highest yields of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the world directly to the ocean. This DOC is largely derived from soils and terrestrial plants. Rainfall, temperature, and watershed characteristics such as wetlands and lakes are important controls on DOC export. This region may be significant for carbon export and linking terrestrial carbon to marine ecosystems.
Mathilde Couturier, Gwendoline Tommi-Morin, Maude Sirois, Alexandra Rao, Christian Nozais, and Gwénaëlle Chaillou
Biogeosciences, 14, 3321–3336,Short summary
At the land–ocean interface, subterranean estuaries (STEs) are a critical transition pathway of nitrogen. Environmental conditions in the groundwater lead to nitrogen transformation, altering the nitrogen species and concentrations exported to the coastal ocean. This study highlights the role of a STE in processing groundwater-derived N in a shallow boreal STE, far from anthropogenic pressures. Biogeochemical transformations provide new N species from terrestrial origin to the coastal ocean.
Elin Almroth-Rosell, Moa Edman, Kari Eilola, H. E. Markus Meier, and Jörgen Sahlberg
Biogeosciences, 13, 5753–5769,Short summary
Nutrients from land have been discussed to increase eutrophication in the open sea. This model study shows that the coastal zone works as an efficient filter. Water depth and residence time regulate the retention that occurs mostly in the sediment due to processes such as burial and denitrification. On shorter timescales the retention capacity might seem less effective when the land load of nutrients decreases, but with time the coastal zone can import nutrients from the open sea.
B. W. Abbott, J. B. Jones, S. E. Godsey, J. R. Larouche, and W. B. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 12, 3725–3740,Short summary
As high latitudes warm, carbon and nitrogen stored in permafrost soil will be vulnerable to erosion and transport to Arctic streams and rivers. We sampled outflow from 83 permafrost collapse features in Alaska. Permafrost collapse caused substantial increases in dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen but decreased methane concentration by 90%. Upland thermokarst may be a dominant linkage transferring carbon and nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems as the Arctic warms.
V. Le Fouest, M. Manizza, B. Tremblay, and M. Babin
Biogeosciences, 12, 3385–3402,
G. G. Laruelle, R. Lauerwald, J. Rotschi, P. A. Raymond, J. Hartmann, and P. Regnier
Biogeosciences, 12, 1447–1458,Short summary
This study quantifies the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the land-ocean aquatic continuum (LOAC) of the northeast North American coast, which consists of rivers, estuaries, and the coastal ocean. Our analysis reveals significant variations of the flux intensity both in time and space across the study area. Ice cover, snowmelt, and the intensity of the estuarine filter are identified as important control factors of the CO2 exchange along the LOAC.
O. Arnalds, H. Olafsson, and P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova
Biogeosciences, 11, 6623–6632,Short summary
Iceland is one of the largest dust sources on Earth. Based on two separate methods, we estimate dust emissions to range between 30 and 40 million tons annually. Ocean deposition ranges between 5.5 and 13.8 million tons. Calculated iron deposition in oceans around Iceland ranges between 0.56 to 1.4 million tons, which are distributed over wide areas. Iron is a limiting nutrient for primary production in these waters, and dust is likely to affect oceanic Fe levels around Iceland.
N. I. W. Leblans, B. D. Sigurdsson, P. Roefs, R. Thuys, B. Magnússon, and I. A. Janssens
Biogeosciences, 11, 6237–6250,Short summary
We studied the influence of allochthonous N inputs on primary succession and soil development of a 50-year-old volcanic island, Surtsey. Seabirds increased the ecosystem N accumulation rate inside their colony to ~47 kg ha-1 y-1, compared to 0.7 kg ha-1 y-1 outside it. A strong relationship was found between total ecosystem N stock and both total above- and belowground biomass and SOC stock, which shows how fast external N input can boost primary succession and soil formation.
J.-É. Tremblay, P. Raimbault, N. Garcia, B. Lansard, M. Babin, and J. Gagnon
Biogeosciences, 11, 4853–4868,
H. E. Reader, C. A. Stedmon, and E. S. Kritzberg
Biogeosciences, 11, 3409–3419,
R. Death, J. L. Wadham, F. Monteiro, A. M. Le Brocq, M. Tranter, A. Ridgwell, S. Dutkiewicz, and R. Raiswell
Biogeosciences, 11, 2635–2643,
R. H. Li, S. M. Liu, Y. W. Li, G. L. Zhang, J. L. Ren, and J. Zhang
Biogeosciences, 11, 481–506,
E. Asmala, R. Autio, H. Kaartokallio, L. Pitkänen, C. A. Stedmon, and D. N. Thomas
Biogeosciences, 10, 6969–6986,
C. Buzzelli, Y. Wan, P. H. Doering, and J. N. Boyer
Biogeosciences, 10, 6721–6736,
V. Le Fouest, M. Babin, and J.-É. Tremblay
Biogeosciences, 10, 3661–3677,
A. Rumín-Caparrós, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. Calafat, M. Canals, J. Martín, P. Puig, and R. Pedrosa-Pàmies
Biogeosciences, 10, 3493–3505,
M. A. Charette, C. F. Breier, P. B. Henderson, S. M. Pike, I. I. Rypina, S. R. Jayne, and K. O. Buesseler
Biogeosciences, 10, 2159–2167,
B. Deutsch, V. Alling, C. Humborg, F. Korth, and C. M. Mörth
Biogeosciences, 9, 4465–4475,
P. A. Faber, A. J. Kessler, J. K. Bull, I. D. McKelvie, F. J. R. Meysman, and P. L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 9, 4087–4097,
M. E. Dueker, G. D. O'Mullan, K. C. Weathers, A. R. Juhl, and M. Uriarte
Biogeosciences, 9, 803–813,
L. Lassaletta, E. Romero, G. Billen, J. Garnier, H. García-Gómez, and J. V. Rovira
Biogeosciences, 9, 57–70,
J. Yu, Y. Fu, Y. Li, G. Han, Y. Wang, D. Zhou, W. Sun, Y. Gao, and F. X. Meixner
Biogeosciences, 8, 2427–2435,
E. S. Karlsson, A. Charkin, O. Dudarev, I. Semiletov, J. E. Vonk, L. Sánchez-García, A. Andersson, and Ö. Gustafsson
Biogeosciences, 8, 1865–1879,
C. Y. Bernard, H. H. Dürr, C. Heinze, J. Segschneider, and E. Maier-Reimer
Biogeosciences, 8, 551–564,
J. E. Vonk, L. Sánchez-García, I. Semiletov, O. Dudarev, T. Eglinton, A. Andersson, and Ö. Gustafsson
Biogeosciences, 7, 3153–3166,
C. Y. Bernard, G. G. Laruelle, C. P. Slomp, and C. Heinze
Biogeosciences, 7, 441–453,
Brouwer, E., Baeyens, B., Maes, A., and Cremers, A. J.: Cesium and rubidium ion equilibria in illite clay, Phys. Chem., 87, 1213–1219, 1983.
Chino, M., Nakayama, H., Nagai, H., Terada, H., Katata, G., and Yamazawa, H.: Preliminary estimation of release amounts of 131I and 137Cs accidentally discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the atmosphere, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 48, 1129–1134, 2011.
Facchinelli, A., Gallinia, L., Barberisb, E., Magnonic, M., and Hursthouse, A. S.: The influence of clay mineralogy on the mobility of radiocaesium in upland soils of NW Italy, J. Environ. Radioact., 56, 299–307, 2001.
Fujita, R., Kumagaya, T., Sato, S., Isobe, M., and Kajimura, T.: In-situ measurements of wave-current and suspended solids transport in Nakoso coastal area. Proceedings of Coastal Engineering, Japan Society of Civil Engineers, 48, 651–655, 2001 (in Japanese).
Fukushima Prefectural Government: Data on water discharge of the Natsui River and Same River in 2011, 2012 (in Japanese).
Fukuyama, T., Onda, Y., Gomi, T., Yamamoto, K., Kondo, N., Miyata, S., Kosugi, K., Mizugaki, S., and Tsubonuma, N.: Quantifying the impact of forest management practice on the runoff of the surface-derived suspended sediment using fallout radionuclides, Hydrol. Process., 24, 596–607, 2010.
Gomi, T., Asano, Y., Uchida, T., Onda, Y., Sidle, R. C., Miyata, S., Kosugi, K., Mizugaki, M., Fukuyama, T., and Fukushima, T.: Evaluation of storm runoff pathways in steep nested catchments draining a Japanese cypress forest in central Japan: a geochemical approach, Hydrol. Process., 24, 550–566, 2008.
Hamajima, Y. and Komura, K.: Low level counting in Ogoya Underground Laboratory, in: Proc. Int. Workshop on Low-level Measurement of Radionuclides and its Application to Earth and Environmental Sciences, Nomi, Japan, 5–6 September 2010, 1–8, 2010.
Hirose, K., Aoyama, M., and Sugimura, Y.: Plutonium and cesium isotopes in river waters in Japan, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Ch., 141, 191–202, 1990.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident and Their Remediation: Twenty Years of Experience, Vienna, Austria, 2006a.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): Radiological Conditions in the Dnieper River Basin: Assessment by an International Expert Team and Recommendations for as Action Plan, Vienna, Austria, 2006b.
Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA): Preliminary Report of Storm and Heavy Rain by Typhoon 15, 2011, available at: http://www.data.jma.go.jp/obd/stats/data/bosai/report/new/jyun_sokuji20110915-0922.pdf, 2011.
Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA): Information on statistics data, available at: http://www.data.jma.go.jp/obd/stats/etrn/view/nml_sfc_10d.php?prec_no=36 &block_no=47598&year=&month=&day=&view=, 2012.
Japanese Government: Report of Japanese Government to the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety – The Accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations, 2011, available at: http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/kan/topics/201106/iaea_houkokusho_e.html, 2011 (in Japanese).
Knighton, D.: Fluvial Forms and Processes: A New Prospective, Arnold, London, 1998.
Koarashi, J., Atarashi-Andoh, M., Matsunaga, T., Sato, T., Nagao, S., and Nagai, H.: Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions, Sci. Total Environ., 431, 392–401, 2012.
Korobova, E. M. and Chizhikova, N. P.: Distribution and mobility of radiocesium in relation to the clay fraction mineralogy and soil properties in the Iput River floodplain, Eurasian Soil Sci., 40, 1062–1075, 2007.
Matsunaga, T., Amano, H., and Yanase, N.: Discharge of dissolved and particulate 137Cs in the Kuji River Japan, Appl. Geochem., 6, 159–167, 1991.
Matsunaga, T., Ueno, T., Amano, H., Tkachenko, Y., Kovalyov, A., Watanabe, M., and Onuma, Y.: Characteristics of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in particulate form in surface waters in the exclusion zone around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, J. Contam. Hydrol., 35, 101–113, 1998.
Matsunaga, T., Koarashi, J., Atarashi-Andoh, M.-A., Nagao, S., Sato, T., and Nagai, H.: Comparison of the vertical distributions of Fukushima nuclear accident radiocesium in soil before and after the first rainy season, with physicochemical and mineralogical interpretations, Sci. Total Environ., 447, 301–314, 2013.
Ministry of Education, Culture Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (MEXT), available at: http://radioactivity.mext.go.jp/en/contents/4000/3179/24/1270_1216.pdf, 2011.
Ministry of Education, Culture Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (MEXT): Report of research with distribution map of radiation dose, available at: http://radioactivity.mext.go.jp/old/ja/distribution_map_around_FukushimaNPP/5600_201203131000_report2-1.pdf, 2012a.
Ministry of Education, Culture Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (MEXT): Monitoring information of environmental radioactivity level, available at: http://radioactivity.mext.go.jp/en, 2012b.
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in Japan (MLIT): Report on water resources in Japan, available at: http://www.mlit.go.jp/river/pamphlet_jirei/bousai/saigai/kiroku/suigai/suigai_3-1-1.html, 2012.
Ministry of the Environment in Japan, available at: http://www.env.go.jp/jishin/monitoring/results_r-pw.html##fukushima, 2012 (in Japanese).
Miyata, S., Kosugi, K., Gomi, T., Onda, Y., and Mizuyama, T.: Occurrence of surface runoff affected by soil water repellency at a hillslope covered with Japanese cypress Chamaecyparis obtusa, Hydrol. Process., 21, 2365–2376, 2007.
Morino, Y., Ohara, T., and Nishizawa, M.: Atmospheric behavior, deposition, and budget of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L00G11, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048689, 2011.
Nagano, T., Yanase, N., Tsutsuki, K., and Nagao, S.: Particulate and dissolved loads in the Kuji River related to discharge rate, Environ. Int., 28, 649–658, 2003.
Ritter, D. F., Kochel, R. C., and Miller, J. R.: Process Geomorphology, 4 Edn., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002.
Sakaguchi, A., Kadokura, A., Steier, P., Tanaka, K., Takahashi, Y., Chiga, H., Matsushima, A., Nakashima, S., and Onda, Y.: Isotopic determination of U, Pu and Cs in environmental waters following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Geochem. J., 46, 355–360, 2012.
Saxén, R. and Ilus, E.: Discharge of 137Cs and 90Sr by Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea in 1986–1996, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 54, 275–291, 2001.
Spezzano, P., Bortoluzzi, S., Giacomelli, R., and Massironi, L.: Seasonal variations of 137Cs activities in the Dora Baltea River (northwest Italy) after the Chernobyl accident, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 22, 77–88, 1994.
Staunton, S. and Roubaud, M.: Adsorption of 137Cs on montmorillonite and illite: effect of charge compensating cation, ionic strength, concentration of Cs, K and fulvic acid, Clay Clay Miner., 45, 251–260, 1997.
Suetsugu, T.: River Science, Natsume, Tokyo, 2005 (in Japanese).
Tanaka, K., Inoue, M., Misono, J., and Komura, K.: Vertical profiles of 226Ra, 228Ra and 137Cs activities in seawater around the Yamamoto Ridge and coastal areas of the Sea of Japan, Chikyu Kagaku, Geochemistry, 40, 167–176, 2006 (in Japanese).
Ukrainian Hydro-Meteorological Institute: Database of radiation measurements of aquatic samples, 2004.
Voitsekhovich, O. V., Nasvit, O., Los, I., and Berkovski, V.: Present thoughts on aquatic countermeasures applied to regions of the Dnieper River catchment contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident, in: Freshwater and Estuarine Radioecology, edited by: Desmet, G., Blust, R., Comans, R. N. J., Fernandez, J. A., Hilton, J., and de Bettencourt, A., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 75–86, 1997.
Yamamoto, M., Takada, T., Nagao, S., Koike, T., Shimada, K., Hoshi, M., Zhumgdilov, K., Shima, T., Fukuoka, M., Imanaka, T., Endo, S., Sakaguchi, A., and Kimura, S.: An early survey of the radioactive contamination of soil due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident with emphasis on plutonium analysis, Geochem. J., 46, 341–353, 2012.
Yoshida, N. and Takahashi, Y.: Land-surface contamination by radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Elements, 8, 201–206, 2012.