Articles | Volume 15, issue 19
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Coastal primary productivity changes over the last millennium: a case study from the Skagerrak (North Sea)
Uni Research Climate, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
Irina Polovodova Asteman
Uni Research Climate, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
currently at: Marin Mätteknik (MMT) Sweden AB, Gothenburg, Sweden
Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Warnemünde, Germany
Uni Research Climate, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
Uni Research Climate, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Norway
Faculty of Geosciences, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
No articles found.
Bjørg Risebrobakken, Mari F. Jensen, Helene R. Langehaug, Tor Eldevik, Anne Britt Sandø, Camille Li, Andreas Born, Erin Louise McClymont, Ulrich Salzmann, and Stijn De Schepper
Clim. Past, 19, 1101–1123,Short summary
In the observational period, spatially coherent sea surface temperatures characterize the northern North Atlantic at multidecadal timescales. We show that spatially non-coherent temperature patterns are seen both in further projections and a past warm climate period with a CO2 level comparable to the future low-emission scenario. Buoyancy forcing is shown to be important for northern North Atlantic temperature patterns.
Claire Waelbroeck, Jerry Tjiputra, Chuncheng Guo, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Eystein Jansen, Natalia Vázquez Riveiros, Samuel Toucanne, Frédérique Eynaud, Linda Rossignol, Fabien Dewilde, Elodie Marchès, Susana Lebreiro, and Silvia Nave
Clim. Past, 19, 901–913,Short summary
The precise geometry and extent of Atlantic circulation changes that accompanied rapid climate changes of the last glacial period are still unknown. Here, we combine carbon isotopic records from 18 Atlantic sediment cores with numerical simulations and decompose the carbon isotopic change across a cold-to-warm transition into remineralization and circulation components. Our results show that the replacement of southern-sourced by northern-sourced water plays a dominant role below ~ 3000 m depth.
Markus Czymzik, Rik Tjallingii, Birgit Plessen, Peter Feldens, Martin Theuerkauf, Matthias Moros, Markus J. Schwab, Carla K. M. Nantke, Silvia Pinkerneil, Achim Brauer, and Helge W. Arz
Clim. Past, 19, 233–248,Short summary
Productivity increases in Lake Kälksjön sediments during the last 9600 years are likely driven by the progressive millennial-scale winter warming in northwestern Europe, following the increasing Northern Hemisphere winter insolation and decadal to centennial periods of a more positive NAO polarity. Strengthened productivity variability since ∼5450 cal yr BP is hypothesized to reflect a reinforcement of NAO-like atmospheric circulation.
Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Lisa A. Warden, Carlo Berg, Klaus Jürgens, and Matthias Moros
Clim. Past, 18, 2271–2288,Short summary
Reconstruction of past climate conditions is important for understanding current climate change. These reconstructions are derived from proxies, enabling reconstructions of, e.g., past temperature, precipitation, vegetation, and sea surface temperature (SST). Here we investigate a recently developed SST proxy based on membrane lipids of ammonium-oxidizing archaea in the ocean. We show that low salinities substantially affect the proxy calibration by examining Holocene Baltic Sea sediments.
Matt O'Regan, Thomas M. Cronin, Brendan Reilly, Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Laura Gemery, Anna Golub, Larry A. Mayer, Mathieu Morlighem, Matthias Moros, Ole L. Munk, Johan Nilsson, Christof Pearce, Henrieka Detlef, Christian Stranne, Flor Vermassen, Gabriel West, and Martin Jakobsson
The Cryosphere, 15, 4073–4097,Short summary
Ryder Glacier is a marine-terminating glacier in north Greenland discharging ice into the Lincoln Sea. Here we use marine sediment cores to reconstruct its retreat and advance behavior through the Holocene. We show that while Sherard Osborn Fjord has a physiography conducive to glacier and ice tongue stability, Ryder still retreated more than 40 km inland from its current position by the Middle Holocene. This highlights the sensitivity of north Greenland's marine glaciers to climate change.
Erin L. McClymont, Heather L. Ford, Sze Ling Ho, Julia C. Tindall, Alan M. Haywood, Montserrat Alonso-Garcia, Ian Bailey, Melissa A. Berke, Kate Littler, Molly O. Patterson, Benjamin Petrick, Francien Peterse, A. Christina Ravelo, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Stijn De Schepper, George E. A. Swann, Kaustubh Thirumalai, Jessica E. Tierney, Carolien van der Weijst, Sarah White, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Michiel L. J. Baatsen, Esther C. Brady, Wing-Le Chan, Deepak Chandan, Ran Feng, Chuncheng Guo, Anna S. von der Heydt, Stephen Hunter, Xiangyi Li, Gerrit Lohmann, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, W. Richard Peltier, Christian Stepanek, and Zhongshi Zhang
Clim. Past, 16, 1599–1615,Short summary
We examine the sea-surface temperature response to an interval of climate ~ 3.2 million years ago, when CO2 concentrations were similar to today and the near future. Our geological data and climate models show that global mean sea-surface temperatures were 2.3 to 3.2 ºC warmer than pre-industrial climate, that the mid-latitudes and high latitudes warmed more than the tropics, and that the warming was particularly enhanced in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Thomas Neumann, Herbert Siegel, Matthias Moros, Monika Gerth, Madline Kniebusch, and Daniel Heydebreck
Ocean Sci., 16, 767–780,Short summary
The bottom water of the northern Baltic Sea usually is well oxygenated. We used a combined approach of numerical model simulations and in situ observations to investigate processes responsible for a regular ventilation of the Bothnian Bay. Surface water masses from the Bothnian Sea and the Bothnian Bay mix at the link between both regions. In winter, when water temperature is low, the resulting density is large enough that the water descends and replaces old bottom water.
Jérôme Kaiser, Norbert Wasmund, Mati Kahru, Anna K. Wittenborn, Regina Hansen, Katharina Häusler, Matthias Moros, Detlef Schulz-Bull, and Helge W. Arz
Biogeosciences, 17, 2579–2591,Short summary
Cyanobacterial blooms represent a threat to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, causing deoxygenation of the bottom water. In order to understand the natural versus anthropogenic factors driving these blooms, it is necessary to study long-term trends beyond observations. We have produced a record of cyanobacterial blooms since 1860 using organic molecules (biomarkers) preserved in sediments. Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are likely mainly related to temperature variability.
Irina Polovodova Asteman, Helena L. Filipsson, and Kjell Nordberg
Clim. Past, 14, 1097–1118,Short summary
We present 2500 years of winter temperatures, using a sediment record from Gullmar Fjord analyzed for stable oxygen isotopes in benthic foraminifera. Reconstructed temperatures are within the annual temperature variability recorded in the fjord since the 1890s. Results show the warm Roman and Medieval periods and the cold Little Ice Age. The record also shows the recent warming, which does not stand out in the 2500-year perspective and is comparable to the Roman and Medieval climate anomalies.
Mari F. Jensen, Aleksi Nummelin, Søren B. Nielsen, Henrik Sadatzki, Evangeline Sessford, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Carin Andersson, Antje Voelker, William H. G. Roberts, Joel Pedro, and Andreas Born
Clim. Past, 14, 901–922,Short summary
We combine North Atlantic sea-surface temperature reconstructions and global climate model simulations to study rapid glacial climate shifts (30–40 000 years ago). Pre-industrial climate boosts similar, albeit weaker, sea-surface temperature variability as the glacial period. However, in order to reproduce most of the amplitude of this variability, and to see temperature variability in Greenland similar to the ice-core record, although with a smaller amplitude, we need forced simulations.
Martina Sollai, Ellen C. Hopmans, Nicole J. Bale, Anchelique Mets, Lisa Warden, Matthias Moros, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 14, 5789–5804,Short summary
The Baltic Sea is characterized by recurring summer phytoplankton blooms, dominated by a few cyanobacterial species. These bacteria are able to use dinitrogen gas as the source for nitrogen and produce very specific lipids. We analyzed these lipids in a sediment core to study their presence over the past 7000 years. This reveals that cyanobacterial blooms have not only occurred in the last decades but were common at times when the Baltic was connected to the North Sea.
Paul E. Bachem, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Stijn De Schepper, and Erin L. McClymont
Clim. Past, 13, 1153–1168,Short summary
We present a high-resolution multi-proxy study of the Norwegian Sea, covering the 5.33 to 3.14 Ma time window within the Pliocene. We show that large-scale climate transitions took place during this warmer than modern time, most likely in response to ocean gateway transformations. Strong warming at 4.0 Ma in the Norwegian Sea, when regions closer to Greenland cooled, indicate that increased northward ocean heat transport may be compatible with expanding glaciation and Arctic sea ice growth.
Sina Panitz, Ulrich Salzmann, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Stijn De Schepper, and Matthew J. Pound
Clim. Past, 12, 1043–1060,Short summary
This paper presents the first late Pliocene high-resolution pollen record for the Norwegian Arctic, covering the time period 3.60 to 3.14 million years ago (Ma). The climate of the late Pliocene has been widely regarded as relatively stable. Our results suggest a high climate variability with alternating cool temperate forests during warmer-than-presen periods and boreal forests similar to today during cooler intervals. A spread of peatlands at the expense of forest indicates long-term cooling.
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Walid Naciri, Arnoud Boom, Matthew Payne, Nicola Browne, Noreen J. Evans, Philip Holdship, Kai Rankenburg, Ramasamy Nagarajan, Bradley J. McDonald, Jennifer McIlwain, and Jens Zinke
Biogeosciences, 20, 1587–1604,Short summary
In this study, we tested the ability of massive boulder-like corals to act as archives of land use in Malaysian Borneo to palliate the lack of accurate instrumental data on deforestation before the 1980s. We used mass spectrometry to measure trace element ratios in coral cores to use as a proxy for sediment in river discharge. Results showed an extremely similar increase between our proxy and the river discharge instrumental record, demonstrating the use of these corals as reliable archives.
Thibauld M. Béjard, Andrés S. Rigual-Hernández, José A. Flores, Javier P. Tarruella, Xavier Durrieu de Madron, Isabel Cacho, Neghar Haghipour, Aidan Hunter, and Francisco J. Sierro
Biogeosciences, 20, 1505–1528,Short summary
The Mediterranean Sea is undergoing a rapid and unprecedented environmental change. Planktic foraminifera calcification is affected on different timescales. On seasonal and interannual scales, calcification trends differ according to the species and are linked mainly to sea surface temperatures and carbonate system parameters, while comparison with pre/post-industrial assemblages shows that all three species have reduced their calcification between 10 % to 35 % according to the species.
Pauline Cornuault, Thomas Westerhold, Heiko Pälike, Torsten Bickert, Karl-Heinz Baumann, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 20, 597–618,Short summary
We generated high-resolution records of carbonate accumulation rate from the Miocene to the Quaternary in the tropical Atlantic Ocean to characterize the variability in pelagic carbonate production during warm climates. It follows orbital cycles, responding to local changes in tropical conditions, as well as to long-term shifts in climate and ocean chemistry. These changes were sufficiently large to play a role in the carbon cycle and global climate evolution.
José Guitián, Miguel Ángel Fuertes, José-Abel Flores, Iván Hernández-Almeida, and Heather Stoll
Biogeosciences, 19, 5007–5019,Short summary
The effect of environmental conditions on the degree of calcification of marine phytoplankton remains unclear. This study implements a new microscopic approach to quantify the calcification of ancient coccolithophores, using North Atlantic sediments. Results show significant differences in the thickness and shape factor of coccoliths for samples with minimum dissolution, providing the first evaluation of phytoplankton physiology adaptation to million-year-scale variable environmental conditions.
Jeremy N. Bentley, Gregory T. Ventura, Clifford C. Walters, Stefan M. Sievert, and Jeffrey S. Seewald
Biogeosciences, 19, 4459–4477,Short summary
We demonstrate the TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of 86 carbon atoms) paleoclimate proxy can become heavily impacted by the ocean floor archaeal community. The impact results from source inputs, their diagenetic and catagenetic alteration, and further overprint by the additions of lipids from the ocean floor sedimentary archaeal community. We then present a method to correct the overprints by using IPLs (intact polar lipids) extracted from both water column and subsurface archaeal communities.
Bryan C. Lougheed and Brett Metcalfe
Biogeosciences, 19, 1195–1209,Short summary
Measurements on sea-dwelling shelled organisms called foraminifera retrieved from deep-sea sediment cores have been used to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) variation. To evaluate the method, we use a computer model to simulate millions of single foraminifera and how they become mixed in the sediment after being deposited on the seafloor. We compare the SST inferred from the single foraminifera in the sediment core to the true SST in the water, thus quantifying method uncertainties.
Biogeosciences, 19, 777–805,Short summary
Size measurements of the planktonic foraminifer Globorotalia menardii and related forms are used to investigate the shell-size evolution for the last 8 million years in the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. Long-term changes in the shell size coincide with major climatic, palaeogeographic and palaeoceanographic changes and suggest the occurrence of a new G. menardii type in the Atlantic Ocean ca. 2 million years ago.
Nele Manon Vollmar, Karl-Heinz Baumann, Mariem Saavedra-Pellitero, and Iván Hernández-Almeida
Biogeosciences, 19, 585–612,Short summary
We studied recent (sub-)fossil remains of a type of algae (coccolithophores) off southernmost Chile and across the Drake Passage, adding to the scarce knowledge that exists in the Southern Ocean, a rapidly changing environment. We found that those can be used to reconstruct the surface ocean conditions in the north but not in the south. We also found variations in shape in the dominant species Emiliania huxleyi depending on the location, indicating subtle adaptations to environmental conditions.
Catherine V. Davis, Karen Wishner, Willem Renema, and Pincelli M. Hull
Biogeosciences, 18, 977–992,
Práxedes Muñoz, Lorena Rebolledo, Laurent Dezileau, Antonio Maldonado, Christoph Mayr, Paola Cárdenas, Carina B. Lange, Katherine Lalangui, Gloria Sanchez, Marco Salamanca, Karen Araya, Ignacio Jara, Gabriel Easton, and Marcel Ramos
Biogeosciences, 17, 5763–5785,Short summary
We analyze marine sedimentary records to study temporal changes in oxygen and productivity in marine waters of central Chile. We observed increasing oxygenation and decreasing productivity from 6000 kyr ago to the modern era that seem to respond to El Niño–Southern Oscillation activity. In the past centuries, deoxygenation and higher productivity are re-established, mainly in the northern zones of Chile and Peru. Meanwhile, in north-central Chile the deoxygenation trend is maintained.
Luka Šupraha and Jorijntje Henderiks
Biogeosciences, 17, 2955–2969,Short summary
The cell size, degree of calcification and growth rates of coccolithophores impact their role in the carbon cycle and may also influence their adaptation to environmental change. Combining insights from culture experiments and the fossil record, we show that the selection for smaller cells over the past 15 Myr has been a common adaptive trait among different lineages. However, heavily calcified species maintained a more stable biogeochemical output than the ancestral lineage of E. huxleyi.
Niels J. de Winter, Clemens V. Ullmann, Anne M. Sørensen, Nicolas Thibault, Steven Goderis, Stijn J. M. Van Malderen, Christophe Snoeck, Stijn Goolaerts, Frank Vanhaecke, and Philippe Claeys
Biogeosciences, 17, 2897–2922,Short summary
In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the chemical composition of 12 specimens of very well preserved, 78-million-year-old oyster shells from southern Sweden. The chemical data show how the oysters grew, the environment in which they lived and how old they became and also provide valuable information about which chemical measurements we can use to learn more about ancient climate and environment from such shells. In turn, this can help improve climate reconstructions and models.
Hannah M. Palmer, Tessa M. Hill, Peter D. Roopnarine, Sarah E. Myhre, Katherine R. Reyes, and Jonas T. Donnenfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 2923–2937,Short summary
Modern climate change is causing expansions of low-oxygen zones, with detrimental impacts to marine life. To better predict future ocean oxygen change, we study past expansions and contractions of low-oxygen zones using microfossils of seafloor organisms. We find that, along the San Diego margin, the low-oxygen zone expanded into more shallow water in the last 400 years, but the conditions within and below the low-oxygen zone did not change significantly in the last 1500 years.
Yuanyuan Hong, Moriaki Yasuhara, Hokuto Iwatani, and Briony Mamo
Biogeosciences, 16, 585–604,Short summary
This study analyzed microfaunal assemblages in surface sediments from 52 sites in Hong Kong marine waters. We selected 18 species for linear regression modeling to statistically reveal the relationship between species distribution and environmental factors. These results show environmental preferences of commonly distributed species on Asian coasts, providing a robust baseline for past environmental reconstruction of the broad Asian region using microfossils in sediment cores.
Jorge Domingo Carrillo-Briceño, Zoneibe Luz, Austin Hendy, László Kocsis, Orangel Aguilera, and Torsten Vennemann
Biogeosciences, 16, 33–56,Short summary
By combining taxonomy and geochemistry, we corroborated the described paleoenvironments from a Neogene fossiliferous deposit of South America. Shark teeth specimens were used for taxonomic identification and as proxies for geochemical analyses. With a multidisciplinary approach we refined the understanding about the paleoenvironmental setting and the paleoecological characteristics of the studied groups, in our case, for the bull shark and its incursions into brackish waters.
Sami A. Jokinen, Joonas J. Virtasalo, Tom Jilbert, Jérôme Kaiser, Olaf Dellwig, Helge W. Arz, Jari Hänninen, Laura Arppe, Miia Collander, and Timo Saarinen
Biogeosciences, 15, 3975–4001,Short summary
Oxygen deficiency is a major environmental problem deteriorating seafloor habitats especially in the coastal ocean with large human impact. Here we apply a wide set of chemical and physical analyses to a 1500-year long sediment record and show that, although long-term climate variability has modulated seafloor oxygenation in the coastal northern Baltic Sea, the oxygen loss over the 20th century is unprecedentedly severe, emphasizing the need to reduce anthropogenic nutrient input in the future.
Saúl González-Lemos, José Guitián, Miguel-Ángel Fuertes, José-Abel Flores, and Heather M. Stoll
Biogeosciences, 15, 1079–1091,Short summary
Changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide affect ocean chemistry and the ability of marine organisms to manufacture shells from calcium carbonate. We describe a technique to obtain more reproducible measurements of the thickness of calcium carbonate shells made by microscopic marine algae called coccolithophores, which will allow researchers to compare how the shell thickness responds to variations in ocean chemistry in the past and present.
Ulrich Kotthoff, Jeroen Groeneveld, Jeanine L. Ash, Anne-Sophie Fanget, Nadine Quintana Krupinski, Odile Peyron, Anna Stepanova, Jonathan Warnock, Niels A. G. M. Van Helmond, Benjamin H. Passey, Ole Rønø Clausen, Ole Bennike, Elinor Andrén, Wojciech Granoszewski, Thomas Andrén, Helena L. Filipsson, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, Caroline P. Slomp, and Thorsten Bauersachs
Biogeosciences, 14, 5607–5632,Short summary
We present reconstructions of paleotemperature, paleosalinity, and paleoecology from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past ~ 8000 years and evaluate the applicability of numerous proxies. Conditions were lacustrine until ~ 7400 cal yr BP. A transition to brackish–marine conditions then occurred within ~ 200 years. Salinity proxies rarely allowed quantitative estimates but revealed congruent results, while quantitative temperature reconstructions differed depending on the proxies used.
Shuichang Zhang, Xiaomei Wang, Huajian Wang, Emma U. Hammarlund, Jin Su, Yu Wang, and Donald E. Canfield
Biogeosciences, 14, 2133–2149,
Liza M. Roger, Annette D. George, Jeremy Shaw, Robert D. Hart, Malcolm Roberts, Thomas Becker, Bradley J. McDonald, and Noreen J. Evans
Biogeosciences, 14, 1721–1737,Short summary
The shell compositions of bivalve species from south Western Australia are described here to better understand the factors involved in their formation. The shell composition can be used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, but certain species manifest an offset compared to the environmental parameters measured. As shown here, shells that experience the same conditions can present different compositions in relation to structure, organic composition and environmental conditions.
Johan Vellekoop, Lineke Woelders, Sanem Açikalin, Jan Smit, Bas van de Schootbrugge, Ismail Ö. Yilmaz, Henk Brinkhuis, and Robert P. Speijer
Biogeosciences, 14, 885–900,Short summary
The Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, ~ 66 Ma, is characterized by a mass extinction. We studied groups of both surface-dwelling and bottom-dwelling organisms to unravel the oceanographic consequences of these extinctions. Our integrated records indicate that a reduction of the transport of organic matter to the sea floor resulted in enhanced recycling of nutrients in the upper water column and decreased food supply at the sea floor in the first tens of thousands of years after the extinctions.
Biogeosciences, 13, 6003–6014,Short summary
Marine planktonic diatoms are today both the main silica and carbon exporter to the deep sea. However, 50 million years ago, radiolarians were the main silica exporter and diatoms were a rare, geographically restricted group. Quantification of their rise to dominance suggest that diatom abundance is primarily controlled by the continental weathering and has a negative feedback, observable on a geological timescale, on the carbon cycle.
Jelena Vidović, Rafał Nawrot, Ivo Gallmetzer, Alexandra Haselmair, Adam Tomašových, Michael Stachowitsch, Vlasta Ćosović, and Martin Zuschin
Biogeosciences, 13, 5965–5981,Short summary
We studied the ecological history of the Gulf of Trieste. Before the 20th century, the only activity here was ore mining, releasing high amounts of mercury into its northern part, Panzano Bay. Mercury did not cause changes to microorganisms, as it is not bioavailable. In the 20th century, agriculture caused nutrient enrichment in the bay and increased diversity of microorganisms. Industrial activities increased the concentrations of pollutants, causing only minor changes to microorganisms.
Aurélie Penaud, Frédérique Eynaud, Antje Helga Luise Voelker, and Jean-Louis Turon
Biogeosciences, 13, 5357–5377,Short summary
This paper presents new analyses conducted at high resolution in the Gulf of Cadiz over the last 50 ky. Palaeohydrological changes in these subtropical latitudes are discussed through dinoflagellate cyst assemblages but also dinocyst transfer function results, implying sea surface temperature and salinity as well as annual productivity reconstructions. This study is thus important for our understanding of past and future productivity regimes, also implying consequences on the biological pump.
William Hardy, Aurélie Penaud, Fabienne Marret, Germain Bayon, Tania Marsset, and Laurence Droz
Biogeosciences, 13, 4823–4841,Short summary
Our approach is based on a multi-proxy study from a core collected off the Congo River and discusses surface oceanic conditions (upwelling cells, river-induced upwelling), land–sea interactions and terrestrial erosion and in particular enables us to spatially constrain the migration of atmospheric systems. This paper thus presents new data highlighting, with the highest resolution ever reached in this region, the great correlation between phytoplanktonic organisms and monsoonal mechanisms.
Philippine Campagne, Xavier Crosta, Sabine Schmidt, Marie Noëlle Houssais, Olivier Ther, and Guillaume Massé
Biogeosciences, 13, 4205–4218,Short summary
Diatoms and biomarkers have been recently used for palaeoclimate reconstructions in the Southern Ocean. Few sediment-based ecological studies have investigated their relationships with environmental conditions. Here, we compare high-resolution sedimentary records with meteorological data to study relationships between our proxies and recent atmospheric and sea surface changes. Our results indicate that coupled wind pattern and sea surface variability act as the proximal forcing at that scale.
Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Appy Sluijs, Nina M. Papadomanolaki, A. Guy Plint, Darren R. Gröcke, Martin A. Pearce, James S. Eldrett, João Trabucho-Alexandre, Ireneusz Walaszczyk, Bas van de Schootbrugge, and Henk Brinkhuis
Biogeosciences, 13, 2859–2872,Short summary
Over the past decades large changes have been observed in the biogeographical dispersion of marine life resulting from climate change. To better understand present and future trends it is important to document and fully understand the biogeographical response of marine life during episodes of environmental change in the geological past. Here we investigate the response of phytoplankton, the base of the marine food web, to a rapid cold spell, interrupting greenhouse conditions during the Cretaceous.
Thomas C. Brachert, Markus Reuter, Stefan Krüger, Julia Kirkerowicz, and James S. Klaus
Biogeosciences, 13, 1469–1489,Short summary
We present stable isotope proxy data and calcification records from fossil reef corals. The corals investigated derive from the Florida carbonate platform and are of middle Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. From the data we infer an environment subject to intermittent upwelling on annual to decadal timescales. Calcification rates were enhanced during periods of upwelling. This is likely an effect of dampened SSTs during the upwelling.
B. A. A. Hoogakker, D. J. R. Thornalley, and S. Barker
Biogeosciences, 13, 211–221,Short summary
Models predict a decrease in future ocean O2, driven by surface water warming and freshening in the polar regions, causing a reduction in ocean circulation. Here we assess this effect in the past, focussing on the response of deep and intermediate waters from the North Atlantic during large-scale ice rafting and millennial-scale cooling events of the last glacial. Our assessment agrees with the models but also highlights the importance of biological processes driving ocean O2 change.
M. Hermoso, I. Z. X. Chan, H. L. O. McClelland, A. M. C. Heureux, and R. E. M. Rickaby
Biogeosciences, 13, 301–312,
B. Metcalfe, W. Feldmeijer, M. de Vringer-Picon, G.-J. A. Brummer, F. J. C. Peeters, and G. M. Ganssen
Biogeosciences, 12, 4781–4807,Short summary
Iron biogeochemical budgets during the natural ocean fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2 showed that complex circulation and transport pathways were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic and lithogenic pools was highly dynamic, resulting in a decoupling of iron supply and carbon export and controlling the efficiency of fertilisation.
J. P. D'Olivo, M. T. McCulloch, S. M. Eggins, and J. Trotter
Biogeosciences, 12, 1223–1236,Short summary
The boron isotope composition in the skeleton of massive Porites corals from the central Great Barrier Reef is used to reconstruct the seawater pH over the 1940-2009 period. The long-term decline in the coral-reconstructed seawater pH is in close agreement with estimates based on the CO2 uptake by surface waters due to rising atmospheric levels. We also observed a significant relationship between terrestrial runoff data and the inshore coral boron isotopes records.
J. Schönfeld, W. Kuhnt, Z. Erdem, S. Flögel, N. Glock, M. Aquit, M. Frank, and A. Holbourn
Biogeosciences, 12, 1169–1189,Short summary
Today’s oceans show distinct mid-depth oxygen minima while whole oceanic basins became transiently anoxic in the Mesozoic. To constrain past bottom-water oxygenation, we compared sediments from the Peruvian OMZ with the Cenomanian OAE 2 from Morocco. Corg accumulation rates in laminated OAE 2 sections match Holocene rates off Peru. Laminated deposits are found at oxygen levels of < 7µmol kg-1; crab burrows appear at 10µmol kg-1 today, both defining threshold values for palaeoreconstructions.
S. C. Löhr and M. J. Kennedy
Biogeosciences, 11, 4971–4983,
R. Hoffmann, J. A. Schultz, R. Schellhorn, E. Rybacki, H. Keupp, S. R. Gerden, R. Lemanis, and S. Zachow
Biogeosciences, 11, 2721–2739,
T. J. Algeo, P. A. Meyers, R. S. Robinson, H. Rowe, and G. Q. Jiang
Biogeosciences, 11, 1273–1295,
C. Berger, K. J. S. Meier, H. Kinkel, and K.-H. Baumann
Biogeosciences, 11, 929–944,
T. Caley, S. Zaragosi, J. Bourget, P. Martinez, B. Malaizé, F. Eynaud, L. Rossignol, T. Garlan, and N. Ellouz-Zimmermann
Biogeosciences, 10, 7347–7359,
N. Preto, C. Agnini, M. Rigo, M. Sprovieri, and H. Westphal
Biogeosciences, 10, 6053–6068,
I. Polovodova Asteman, K. Nordberg, and H. L. Filipsson
Biogeosciences, 10, 1275–1290,
J.-E. Tesdal, E. D. Galbraith, and M. Kienast
Biogeosciences, 10, 101–118,
L. Durantou, A. Rochon, D. Ledu, G. Massé, S. Schmidt, and M. Babin
Biogeosciences, 9, 5391–5406,
C. A. Grove, J. Zinke, T. Scheufen, J. Maina, E. Epping, W. Boer, B. Randriamanantsoa, and G.-J. A. Brummer
Biogeosciences, 9, 3063–3081,
D. Wall-Palmer, M. B. Hart, C. W. Smart, R. S. J. Sparks, A. Le Friant, G. Boudon, C. Deplus, and J. C. Komorowski
Biogeosciences, 9, 309–315,
S. F. Rella and M. Uchida
Biogeosciences, 8, 3545–3553,
M. C. Nash, U. Troitzsch, B. N. Opdyke, J. M. Trafford, B. D. Russell, and D. I. Kline
Biogeosciences, 8, 3331–3340,
A. Penaud, F. Eynaud, A. Voelker, M. Kageyama, F. Marret, J. L. Turon, D. Blamart, T. Mulder, and L. Rossignol
Biogeosciences, 8, 2295–2316,
D. Gallego-Torres, F. Martinez-Ruiz, P. A. Meyers, A. Paytan, F. J. Jimenez-Espejo, and M. Ortega-Huertas
Biogeosciences, 8, 415–431,
B. Williams, J. Halfar, R. S. Steneck, U. G. Wortmann, S. Hetzinger, W. Adey, P. Lebednik, and M. Joachimski
Biogeosciences, 8, 165–174,
B. van de Schootbrugge, D. Harazim, K. Sorichter, W. Oschmann, J. Fiebig, W. Püttmann, M. Peinl, F. Zanella, B. M. A. Teichert, J. Hoffmann, A. Stadnitskaia, and Y. Rosenthal
Biogeosciences, 7, 3123–3138,
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Primary productivity is an important factor in the functioning and structuring of the coastal ecosystem. Thus, two sediment cores from the Skagerrak (North Sea) were investigated in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of primary productivity changes during the last millennium and identify associated forcing factors (e.g. anthropogenic, climate). The cores were dated and analysed for palaeoproductivity proxies and palaeothermometers.
Primary productivity is an important factor in the functioning and structuring of the coastal...