Articles | Volume 9, issue 10
Research article 09 Oct 2012
Research article | 09 Oct 2012
Variations of net primary productivity and phytoplankton community composition in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean as estimated from ocean color remote sensing data
S. Takao et al.
Related subject area
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Fei Chai, Yuntao Wang, Xiaogang Xing, Yunwei Yan, Huijie Xue, Mark Wells, and Emmanuel Boss
Biogeosciences, 18, 849–859,Short summary
The unique observations by a Biogeochemical Argo float in the NW Pacific Ocean captured the impact of a super typhoon on upper-ocean physical and biological processes. Our result reveals typhoons can increase the surface chlorophyll through strong vertical mixing without bringing nutrients upward from the depth. The vertical redistribution of chlorophyll contributes little to enhance the primary production, which is contradictory to many former satellite-based studies related to this topic.
Rafael Rasse, Hervé Claustre, and Antoine Poteau
Biogeosciences, 17, 6491–6505,Short summary
Here, data collected by BGC-Argo floats are used to investigate the origin of the suspended small-particle layer inferred from optical sensors in the oxygen-poor Black Sea. Our results suggest that this layer is at least partially composed of the microbial communities that produce dinitrogen. We propose that oxygen and the optically derived small-particle layer can be used in combination to refine delineation of the effective N2-yielding section of the Black Sea and oxygen-deficient zones.
Christina Schallenberg, Robert F. Strzepek, Nina Schuback, Lesley A. Clementson, Philip W. Boyd, and Thomas W. Trull
Biogeosciences, 17, 793–812,Short summary
Measurements of phytoplankton health still require the use of research vessels and are thus costly and sparse. In this paper we propose a new way to assess the health of phytoplankton using simple fluorescence measurements, which can be made autonomously. In the Southern Ocean, where the most limiting nutrient for phytoplankton is iron, we found a relationship between iron limitation and the depression of fluorescence under high light, the so-called non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence.
Stanford B. Hooker, Atsushi Matsuoka, Raphael M. Kudela, Youhei Yamashita, Koji Suzuki, and Henry F. Houskeeper
Biogeosciences, 17, 475–497,Short summary
A Kd(λ) and aCDOM(440) data set spanned oceanic, coastal, and inland waters. The algorithmic approach, based on Kd end-member pairs, can be used globally. End-members with the largest spectral span had an accuracy of 1.2–2.4 % (RMSE). Validation was influenced by subjective
nonconservativewater masses. The influence of subcategories was confirmed with an objective cluster analysis.
Bingqing Liu, Eurico J. D'Sa, and Ishan D. Joshi
Biogeosciences, 16, 1975–2001,Short summary
An approach using bio-optical field and ocean color (Sentinel-3A OLCI) data combined with inversion models allowed for the first time an assessment of phytoplankton response (changes in taxonomy, pigment composition and physiological state) to a large hurricane-related floodwater perturbation in a turbid estuary. The study revealed the transition in phytoplankton community species as well as the spatiotemporal distributions of phytoplankton diagnostic pigments in the floodwater-impacted bay.
Nina Schuback and Philippe D. Tortell
Biogeosciences, 16, 1381–1399,Short summary
Understanding the dynamics of primary productivity requires mechanistic insight into the coupling of light absorption, electron transport and carbon fixation in response to environmental variability. Measuring such rates over diurnal timescales in contrasting regions allowed us to gain information on the regulation of photosynthetic efficiencies, with implications for the interpretation of bio-optical data, and the parameterization of models needed to monitor productivity over large scales.
Marie Barbieux, Julia Uitz, Bernard Gentili, Orens Pasqueron de Fommervault, Alexandre Mignot, Antoine Poteau, Catherine Schmechtig, Vincent Taillandier, Edouard Leymarie, Christophe Penkerc'h, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Hervé Claustre, and Annick Bricaud
Biogeosciences, 16, 1321–1342,Short summary
As commonly observed in oligotrophic stratified waters, a subsurface (or deep) chlorophyll maximum (SCM) frequently characterizes the vertical distribution of phytoplankton chlorophyll in the Mediterranean Sea. SCMs often result from photoacclimation of the phytoplankton organisms. However they can also result from an actual increase in phytoplankton carbon biomass. Our results also suggest that a variety of intermediate types of SCMs are encountered between these two endmember situations.
Hannah L. Bourne, James K. B. Bishop, Todd J. Wood, Timothy J. Loew, and Yizhuang Liu
Biogeosciences, 16, 1249–1264,Short summary
The biological carbon pump, the process by which carbon-laden particles sink out of the surface ocean, is dynamic and fast. The use of autonomous observations will better inform carbon export simulations. The Carbon Flux Explorer (CFE) was developed to optically measure hourly variations of particle flux. We calibrate the optical measurements of the CFE against C and N flux using samples collected during a coastal California cruise in June 2017. Our results yield well-correlated calibrations.
Hailong Zhang, Shengqiang Wang, Zhongfeng Qiu, Deyong Sun, Joji Ishizaka, Shaojie Sun, and Yijun He
Biogeosciences, 15, 4271–4289,Short summary
The PSC model was re-tuned for regional application in the East China Sea, and successfully applied to MODIS data. We investigated previously unknown temporal–spatial patterns of the PSC in the ECS and analyzed their responses to environmental factors. The results show the PSC varied across both spatial and temporal scales, and was probably affected by the water column stability, upwelling, and Kuroshio. In addition, human activity and riverine discharge may impact the PSC dynamics.
Ishan D. Joshi and Eurico J. D'Sa
Biogeosciences, 15, 4065–4086,Short summary
The standard quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) was tuned for various ocean color sensors as QAA-V and optimized for and evaluated in a variety of waters from highly absorbing and turbid to relatively clear shelf waters. The QAA-V-derived optical properties of total absorption and backscattering coefficients showed an obvious improvement when compared to the standard QAA and were used to examine suspended particulate matter dynamics in Galveston Bay following flooding due to Hurricane Harvey.
Yasmina Loozen, Karin T. Rebel, Derek Karssenberg, Martin J. Wassen, Jordi Sardans, Josep Peñuelas, and Steven M. De Jong
Biogeosciences, 15, 2723–2742,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. It would be interesting to detect it using satellite data. The goal was to investigate if it is possible to remotely sense the canopy nitrogen concentration and content of Mediterranean trees using a product calculated from satellite reflectance data, the MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI). The tree plots were located in Catalonia, NE Spain. The relationship between MTCI and canopy N was present but dependent on the type of trees.
Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Anna E. Hickman, and Oliver Jahn
Biogeosciences, 15, 613–630,Short summary
This study provides a demonstration that a biogeochemical/ecosystem/optical computer model which explicitly captures how light is radiated at the surface of the ocean and can be used as a laboratory to explore products (such as Chl a) that are derived from satellite measurements of ocean colour. It explores uncertainties that arise from data input used to derive the algorithms for the products, and issues arising from the interplay between optically important constituents in the ocean.
Gholamreza Mohammadpour, Jean-Pierre Gagné, Pierre Larouche, and Martin A. Montes-Hugo
Biogeosciences, 14, 5297–5312,Short summary
The mass-specific absorption coefficients of total suspended particulate matter (aSPM*) had relatively low (high) values in areas of of the St. Lawrence Estuary influenced by marine (freshwater) waters and dominated by large-sized (small-sized) and organic-rich (mineral-rich) particulates. The inorganic content of particulates was correlated with size-fractionated aSPM* values at a wavelength of 440 nm and the spectral slope of aSPM* as computed within the spectral range 400–710 nm.
Albert-Miquel Sánchez and Jaume Piera
Biogeosciences, 13, 4081–4098,Short summary
In this paper, several methods for the retrieval of the refractive indices are used in three different examples modeling different shapes and particle size distributions. The error associated with each method is discussed and analyzed. It is finally demonstrated that those inverse methods using a genetic algorithm provide optimal estimations relative to other techniques that, although faster, are less accurate.
Luisa Galgani and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 13, 2453–2473,
G. E. Kim, M.-A. Pradal, and A. Gnanadesikan
Biogeosciences, 12, 5119–5132,Short summary
Light absorption by colored detrital material (CDM) was included in a fully coupled Earth system model. Chlorophyll and biomass increased near the surface but decreased at greater depths when CDM was included. Concurrently, total biomass decreased leaving more nutrients in the water. Regional changes were analyzed by comparing the competing factors of diminished light availability and increased nutrient availability on phytoplankton growth.
J. A. Gamon, O. Kovalchuck, C. Y. S. Wong, A. Harris, and S. R. Garrity
Biogeosciences, 12, 4149–4159,Short summary
NDVI and PRI sensors (SRS, Decagon Inc.) exhibited complementary responses during spring photosynthetic activation in evergreen and deciduous stands. In evergreens, PRI was most strongly influenced by changing chlorophyll:carotenoid pool sizes over the several weeks of the study, while it was most affected by xanthophyll cycle pigment activity at the diurnal timescale. These automated PRI and NDVI sensors offer new ways to explore environmental and physiological constraints on photosynthesis.
M. Grenier, A. Della Penna, and T. W. Trull
Biogeosciences, 12, 2707–2735,Short summary
Four bio-profilers were deployed in the high-biomass plume downstream of the Kerguelen Plateau (KP; Southern Ocean) to examine the conditions favouring phytoplankton accumulation. Regions of very high Chla accumulation were mainly associated with surface waters from the northern KP. Light limitation seems to have a limited influence on production. A cyclonic eddy was associated with a significant export of organic matter and a subsequent dissolved inorganic carbon storage in the ocean interior.
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Biogeosciences, 12, 2179–2194,Short summary
The ratio of simple optical properties measured from underwater autonomous platforms, such as floats and gliders, is used as a new tool for studying phytoplankton distribution in the North Atlantic Ocean. The resolution that optical instruments carried by autonomous platforms provide allows us to study phytoplankton patchiness and its drivers in the oceanic systems.
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