Articles | Volume 12, issue 4
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Records of past mid-depth ventilation: Cretaceous ocean anoxic event 2 vs. Recent oxygen minimum zones
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
Institute for Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
Institute for Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
Institute for Geosciences, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany
K. Haynert, J. Schönfeld, R. Schiebel, B. Wilson, and J. Thomsen
Biogeosciences, 11, 1581–1597,
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Ocean deoxygenation due to climate warming is an evolving threat for organisms that are not well adapted to O2 depleted conditions, such as many pelagic fish species. Other better adapted organisms, such as benthic foraminifera, might benefit from ocean deoxygenation. Benthic foraminifera are a group of marine protists and can have specific adaptations to O2 depletion such as the ability to respire nitrate instead of O2. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge about these organisms.
Peter D. Clift, Christian Betzler, Steven C. Clemens, Beth Christensen, Gregor P. Eberli, Christian France-Lanord, Stephen Gallagher, Ann Holbourn, Wolfgang Kuhnt, Richard W. Murray, Yair Rosenthal, Ryuji Tada, and Shiming Wan
Sci. Dril., 31, 1–29,Short summary
An integrated campaign of drilling around Asia and Australia was conducted from 2013 to 2016 to reconstruct the monsoon climate. The results provide relatively continuous records spanning the last 24 myr. Asia has shown a steady drying since the late Miocene, while Australia has become wetter. The monsoons are affected by the tectonics of Asia and surrounding seas, as well as orbital forcing, resulting in diachronous evolution of continental climate, ocean currents, and the marine biosphere.
Clara T. Bolton, Emmeline Gray, Wolfgang Kuhnt, Ann E. Holbourn, Julia Lübbers, Katharine Grant, Kazuyo Tachikawa, Gianluca Marino, Eelco J. Rohling, Anta-Clarisse Sarr, and Nils Andersen
Clim. Past, 18, 713–738,Short summary
The timing of the initiation and evolution of the South Asian monsoon in the geological past is a subject of debate. Here, we present a new age model spanning the late Miocene (9 to 5 million years ago) and high-resolution records of past open-ocean biological productivity from the equatorial Indian Ocean that we interpret to reflect monsoon wind strength. Our data show no long-term intensification; however, strong orbital periodicities suggest insolation forcing of monsoon wind strength.
Gerd Krahmann, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Andrew W. Dale, Marcus Dengler, Anja Engel, Nicolaas Glock, Patricia Grasse, Johannes Hahn, Helena Hauss, Mark Hopwood, Rainer Kiko, Alexandra Loginova, Carolin R. Löscher, Marie Maßmig, Alexandra-Sophie Roy, Renato Salvatteci, Stefan Sommer, Toste Tanhua, and Hela Mehrtens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The project "Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" (SFB 754) was a multidisciplinary research project active from 2008 to 2019 aimed at a better understanding of the coupling between the tropical climate and ocean circulation and the ocean's oxygen and nutrient balance. On 34 research cruises, mainly in the Southeast Tropical Pacific and the Northeast Tropical Atlantic, 1071 physical, chemical and biological data sets were collected.
Wolf Dummann, Sebastian Steinig, Peter Hofmann, Matthias Lenz, Stephanie Kusch, Sascha Flögel, Jens Olaf Herrle, Christian Hallmann, Janet Rethemeyer, Haino Uwe Kasper, and Thomas Wagner
Clim. Past, 17, 469–490,Short summary
This study investigates the climatic mechanism that controlled the deposition of organic matter in the South Atlantic Cape Basin during the Early Cretaceous. The presented geochemical and climate modeling data suggest that fluctuations in riverine nutrient supply were the main driver of organic carbon burial on timescales < 1 Myr. Our results have implications for the understanding of Cretaceous atmospheric circulation patterns and climate-land-ocean interactions in emerging ocean basins.
Zeynep Erdem, Joachim Schönfeld, Anthony E. Rathburn, Maria-Elena Pérez, Jorge Cardich, and Nicolaas Glock
Biogeosciences, 17, 3165–3182,Short summary
Recent observations from today’s oceans revealed that oxygen concentrations are decreasing, and oxygen minimum zones are expanding together with current climate change. With the aim of understanding past climatic events and their relationship with oxygen content, we looked at the fossils, called benthic foraminifera, preserved in the sediment archives from the Peruvian margin and quantified the bottom-water oxygen content for the last 22 000 years.
Ulrike Hanz, Claudia Wienberg, Dierk Hebbeln, Gerard Duineveld, Marc Lavaleye, Katriina Juva, Wolf-Christian Dullo, André Freiwald, Leonardo Tamborrino, Gert-Jan Reichart, Sascha Flögel, and Furu Mienis
Biogeosciences, 16, 4337–4356,Short summary
Along the Namibian and Angolan margins, low oxygen conditions do not meet environmental ranges for cold–water corals and hence are expected to be unsuitable habitats. Environmental conditions show that tidal movements deliver water with more oxygen and high–quality organic matter, suggesting that corals compensate unfavorable conditions with availability of food. With the expected expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the future, this study provides an example how ecosystems cope with extremes.
April N. Abbott, Brian A. Haley, Aradhna K. Tripati, and Martin Frank
Clim. Past, 12, 837–847,Short summary
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a brief period when the Earth was in an extreme greenhouse state. We use neodymium isotopes to suggest that during this time deep-ocean circulation was distinct in each basin (North and South Atlanic, Southern, Pacific) with little exchange between. Moreover, the Pacific data show the most variability, suggesting this was a critical region possibly involved in both PETM triggering and remediation.
C. Ehlert, P. Grasse, D. Gutiérrez, R. Salvatteci, and M. Frank
Clim. Past, 11, 187–202,
N. Glock, V. Liebetrau, and A. Eisenhauer
Biogeosciences, 11, 7077–7095,Short summary
Our study explores the correlation of I/Ca ratios in four benthic foraminiferal species (three calcitic, one aragonitic) from the Peruvian OMZ with bottom water oxygenation ([O2]BW), and evaluates foraminiferal I/Ca ratios as a possible redox proxy. All species have a positive trend in the I/Ca ratios as a function of [O2]BW. Only for the aragonitic species Hoeglundina elegans is this trend not significant. The highest significance has been found for Uvigerina striata.
J. Raddatz, A. Rüggeberg, S. Flögel, E. C. Hathorne, V. Liebetrau, A. Eisenhauer, and W.-Chr. Dullo
Biogeosciences, 11, 1863–1871,
K. Haynert, J. Schönfeld, R. Schiebel, B. Wilson, and J. Thomsen
Biogeosciences, 11, 1581–1597,
J. Friedrich, F. Janssen, D. Aleynik, H. W. Bange, N. Boltacheva, M. N. Çagatay, A. W. Dale, G. Etiope, Z. Erdem, M. Geraga, A. Gilli, M. T. Gomoiu, P. O. J. Hall, D. Hansson, Y. He, M. Holtappels, M. K. Kirf, M. Kononets, S. Konovalov, A. Lichtschlag, D. M. Livingstone, G. Marinaro, S. Mazlumyan, S. Naeher, R. P. North, G. Papatheodorou, O. Pfannkuche, R. Prien, G. Rehder, C. J. Schubert, T. Soltwedel, S. Sommer, H. Stahl, E. V. Stanev, A. Teaca, A. Tengberg, C. Waldmann, B. Wehrli, and F. Wenzhöfer
Biogeosciences, 11, 1215–1259,
N. Glock, J. Schönfeld, A. Eisenhauer, C. Hensen, J. Mallon, and S. Sommer
Biogeosciences, 10, 4767–4783,
Related subject area
Paleobiogeoscience: Marine RecordNature and origin of variations in pelagic carbonate production in the tropical ocean since the mid-Miocene (ODP Site 927)Variation in calcification of Reticulofenestra coccoliths over the Oligocene–Early MioceneThe influence of near-surface sediment hydrothermalism on the TEX86 tetraether-lipid-based proxy and a new correction for ocean bottom lipid overprintingCalcification response of planktic foraminifera to environmental change in the Western Mediterranean Sea during the industrial eraTesting the effect of bioturbation and species abundance upon discrete-depth individual foraminifera analysisTest-size evolution of the planktonic foraminifer Globorotalia menardii in the eastern tropical Atlantic since the Late MioceneDistribution of coccoliths in surface sediments across the Drake Passage and calcification of Emiliania huxleyi morphotypesVertical distribution of planktic foraminifera through an oxygen minimum zone: how assemblages and test morphology reflect oxygen concentrationsReconstructing past variations in environmental conditions and paleoproductivity over the last ∼ 8000 years off north-central Chile (30° S)A 15-million-year-long record of phenotypic evolution in the heavily calcified coccolithophore Helicosphaera and its biogeochemical implicationsShell chemistry of the boreal Campanian bivalve Rastellum diluvianum (Linnaeus, 1767) reveals temperature seasonality, growth rates and life cycle of an extinct Cretaceous oysterSouthern California margin benthic foraminiferal assemblages record recent centennial-scale changes in oxygen minimum zoneBaseline for ostracod-based northwestern Pacific and Indo-Pacific shallow-marine paleoenvironmental reconstructions: ecological modeling of species distributionsNeogene Caribbean elasmobranchs: diversity, paleoecology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Cocinetas Basin assemblage (Guajira Peninsula, Colombia)Coastal primary productivity changes over the last millennium: a case study from the Skagerrak (North Sea)A 1500-year multiproxy record of coastal hypoxia from the northern Baltic Sea indicates unprecedented deoxygenation over the 20th centuryTechnical note: An empirical method for absolute calibration of coccolith thicknessReconstructing Holocene temperature and salinity variations in the western Baltic Sea region: a multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059)The oxic degradation of sedimentary organic matter 1400 Ma constrains atmospheric oxygen levelsGeochemical and microstructural characterisation of two species of cool-water bivalves (Fulvia tenuicostata and Soletellina biradiata) from Western AustraliaEcological response to collapse of the biological pump following the mass extinction at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundaryQuantifying the Cenozoic marine diatom deposition history: links to the C and Si cyclesAnthropogenically induced environmental changes in the northeastern Adriatic Sea in the last 500 years (Panzano Bay, Gulf of Trieste)Palaeohydrological changes over the last 50 ky in the central Gulf of Cadiz: complex forcing mechanisms mixing multi-scale processesDinocyst assemblage constraints on oceanographic and atmospheric processes in the eastern equatorial Atlantic over the last 44 kyrSedimentary response to sea ice and atmospheric variability over the instrumental period off Adélie Land, East AntarcticaEquatorward phytoplankton migration during a cold spell within the Late Cretaceous super-greenhouseUpwellings mitigated Plio-Pleistocene heat stress for reef corals on the Florida platform (USA)Millennial changes in North Atlantic oxygen concentrationsVanishing coccolith vital effects with alleviated carbon limitationLate Pleistocene glacial–interglacial shell-size–isotope variability in planktonic foraminifera as a function of local hydrographyCoral records of reef-water pH across the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia: assessing the influence of river runoff on inshore reefsOrganomineral nanocomposite carbon burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleo-ontological cephalopod researchIcehouse–greenhouse variations in marine denitrificationChanges in calcification of coccoliths under stable atmospheric CO2Southern Hemisphere imprint for Indo-Asian summer monsoons during the last glacial period as revealed by Arabian Sea productivity recordsThe calcareous nannofossil Prinsiosphaera achieved rock-forming abundances in the latest Triassic of western Tethys: consequences for the δ13C of bulk carbonateThe Little Ice Age: evidence from a sediment record in Gullmar Fjord, Swedish west coastNitrogen isotopes in bulk marine sediment: linking seafloor observations with subseafloor recordsQuantitative reconstruction of sea-surface conditions over the last 150 yr in the Beaufort Sea based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages: the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation patternsSpatial linkages between coral proxies of terrestrial runoff across a large embayment in MadagascarPteropods from the Caribbean Sea: variations in calcification as an indicator of past ocean carbonate saturationSedimentary organic matter and carbonate variations in the Chukchi Borderland in association with ice sheet and ocean-atmosphere dynamics over the last 155 kyrFirst discovery of dolomite and magnesite in living coralline algae and its geobiological implicationsAssessment of sea surface temperature changes in the Gulf of Cadiz during the last 30 ka: implications for glacial changes in the regional hydrographyProductivity patterns and N-fixation associated with Pliocene-Holocene sapropels: paleoceanographic and paleoecological significanceTwentieth century δ13C variability in surface water dissolved inorganic carbon recorded by coralline algae in the northern North Pacific Ocean and the Bering SeaThe enigmatic ichnofossil Tisoa siphonalis and widespread authigenic seep carbonate formation during the Late Pliensbachian in southern FranceHypoxia and cyanobacteria blooms - are they really natural features of the late Holocene history of the Baltic Sea?
Pauline Cornuault, Thomas Westerhold, Heiko Pälike, Torsten Bickert, Karl-Heinz Baumann, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 20, 597–618,Short summary
We generated high-resolution records of carbonate accumulation rate from the Miocene to the Quaternary in the tropical Atlantic Ocean to characterize the variability in pelagic carbonate production during warm climates. It follows orbital cycles, responding to local changes in tropical conditions, as well as to long-term shifts in climate and ocean chemistry. These changes were sufficiently large to play a role in the carbon cycle and global climate evolution.
José Guitián, Miguel Ángel Fuertes, José-Abel Flores, Iván Hernández-Almeida, and Heather Stoll
Biogeosciences, 19, 5007–5019,Short summary
The effect of environmental conditions on the degree of calcification of marine phytoplankton remains unclear. This study implements a new microscopic approach to quantify the calcification of ancient coccolithophores, using North Atlantic sediments. Results show significant differences in the thickness and shape factor of coccoliths for samples with minimum dissolution, providing the first evaluation of phytoplankton physiology adaptation to million-year-scale variable environmental conditions.
Jeremy N. Bentley, Gregory T. Ventura, Clifford C. Walters, Stefan M. Sievert, and Jeffrey S. Seewald
Biogeosciences, 19, 4459–4477,Short summary
We demonstrate the TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of 86 carbon atoms) paleoclimate proxy can become heavily impacted by the ocean floor archaeal community. The impact results from source inputs, their diagenetic and catagenetic alteration, and further overprint by the additions of lipids from the ocean floor sedimentary archaeal community. We then present a method to correct the overprints by using IPLs (intact polar lipids) extracted from both water column and subsurface archaeal communities.
Thibauld M. Béjard, Andrés S. Rigual-Hernández, José A. Flores, Javier P. Tarruella, Xavier Durrieu de Madron, Isabel Cacho, Neghar Haghipour, Timothy Eglinton, and Francisco J. Sierro
The Mediterranean Sea is undergoing a rapid and unprecedented environmental change. Planktic foraminifera calcification is affected on different time scales. On seasonal and interannual scales, calcification trends differ according to the species and are linked mainly to Sea Surface Temperatures and carbonate system parameters; while comparison with pre-industrial assemblages shows that all 3 species have reduced their calcification between 20 to 35 % according to the species.
Bryan C. Lougheed and Brett Metcalfe
Biogeosciences, 19, 1195–1209,Short summary
Measurements on sea-dwelling shelled organisms called foraminifera retrieved from deep-sea sediment cores have been used to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) variation. To evaluate the method, we use a computer model to simulate millions of single foraminifera and how they become mixed in the sediment after being deposited on the seafloor. We compare the SST inferred from the single foraminifera in the sediment core to the true SST in the water, thus quantifying method uncertainties.
Biogeosciences, 19, 777–805,Short summary
Size measurements of the planktonic foraminifer Globorotalia menardii and related forms are used to investigate the shell-size evolution for the last 8 million years in the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. Long-term changes in the shell size coincide with major climatic, palaeogeographic and palaeoceanographic changes and suggest the occurrence of a new G. menardii type in the Atlantic Ocean ca. 2 million years ago.
Nele Manon Vollmar, Karl-Heinz Baumann, Mariem Saavedra-Pellitero, and Iván Hernández-Almeida
Biogeosciences, 19, 585–612,Short summary
We studied recent (sub-)fossil remains of a type of algae (coccolithophores) off southernmost Chile and across the Drake Passage, adding to the scarce knowledge that exists in the Southern Ocean, a rapidly changing environment. We found that those can be used to reconstruct the surface ocean conditions in the north but not in the south. We also found variations in shape in the dominant species Emiliania huxleyi depending on the location, indicating subtle adaptations to environmental conditions.
Catherine V. Davis, Karen Wishner, Willem Renema, and Pincelli M. Hull
Biogeosciences, 18, 977–992,
Práxedes Muñoz, Lorena Rebolledo, Laurent Dezileau, Antonio Maldonado, Christoph Mayr, Paola Cárdenas, Carina B. Lange, Katherine Lalangui, Gloria Sanchez, Marco Salamanca, Karen Araya, Ignacio Jara, Gabriel Easton, and Marcel Ramos
Biogeosciences, 17, 5763–5785,Short summary
We analyze marine sedimentary records to study temporal changes in oxygen and productivity in marine waters of central Chile. We observed increasing oxygenation and decreasing productivity from 6000 kyr ago to the modern era that seem to respond to El Niño–Southern Oscillation activity. In the past centuries, deoxygenation and higher productivity are re-established, mainly in the northern zones of Chile and Peru. Meanwhile, in north-central Chile the deoxygenation trend is maintained.
Luka Šupraha and Jorijntje Henderiks
Biogeosciences, 17, 2955–2969,Short summary
The cell size, degree of calcification and growth rates of coccolithophores impact their role in the carbon cycle and may also influence their adaptation to environmental change. Combining insights from culture experiments and the fossil record, we show that the selection for smaller cells over the past 15 Myr has been a common adaptive trait among different lineages. However, heavily calcified species maintained a more stable biogeochemical output than the ancestral lineage of E. huxleyi.
Niels J. de Winter, Clemens V. Ullmann, Anne M. Sørensen, Nicolas Thibault, Steven Goderis, Stijn J. M. Van Malderen, Christophe Snoeck, Stijn Goolaerts, Frank Vanhaecke, and Philippe Claeys
Biogeosciences, 17, 2897–2922,Short summary
In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the chemical composition of 12 specimens of very well preserved, 78-million-year-old oyster shells from southern Sweden. The chemical data show how the oysters grew, the environment in which they lived and how old they became and also provide valuable information about which chemical measurements we can use to learn more about ancient climate and environment from such shells. In turn, this can help improve climate reconstructions and models.
Hannah M. Palmer, Tessa M. Hill, Peter D. Roopnarine, Sarah E. Myhre, Katherine R. Reyes, and Jonas T. Donnenfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 2923–2937,Short summary
Modern climate change is causing expansions of low-oxygen zones, with detrimental impacts to marine life. To better predict future ocean oxygen change, we study past expansions and contractions of low-oxygen zones using microfossils of seafloor organisms. We find that, along the San Diego margin, the low-oxygen zone expanded into more shallow water in the last 400 years, but the conditions within and below the low-oxygen zone did not change significantly in the last 1500 years.
Yuanyuan Hong, Moriaki Yasuhara, Hokuto Iwatani, and Briony Mamo
Biogeosciences, 16, 585–604,Short summary
This study analyzed microfaunal assemblages in surface sediments from 52 sites in Hong Kong marine waters. We selected 18 species for linear regression modeling to statistically reveal the relationship between species distribution and environmental factors. These results show environmental preferences of commonly distributed species on Asian coasts, providing a robust baseline for past environmental reconstruction of the broad Asian region using microfossils in sediment cores.
Jorge Domingo Carrillo-Briceño, Zoneibe Luz, Austin Hendy, László Kocsis, Orangel Aguilera, and Torsten Vennemann
Biogeosciences, 16, 33–56,Short summary
By combining taxonomy and geochemistry, we corroborated the described paleoenvironments from a Neogene fossiliferous deposit of South America. Shark teeth specimens were used for taxonomic identification and as proxies for geochemical analyses. With a multidisciplinary approach we refined the understanding about the paleoenvironmental setting and the paleoecological characteristics of the studied groups, in our case, for the bull shark and its incursions into brackish waters.
Anna Binczewska, Bjørg Risebrobakken, Irina Polovodova Asteman, Matthias Moros, Amandine Tisserand, Eystein Jansen, and Andrzej Witkowski
Biogeosciences, 15, 5909–5928,Short summary
Primary productivity is an important factor in the functioning and structuring of the coastal ecosystem. Thus, two sediment cores from the Skagerrak (North Sea) were investigated in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of primary productivity changes during the last millennium and identify associated forcing factors (e.g. anthropogenic, climate). The cores were dated and analysed for palaeoproductivity proxies and palaeothermometers.
Sami A. Jokinen, Joonas J. Virtasalo, Tom Jilbert, Jérôme Kaiser, Olaf Dellwig, Helge W. Arz, Jari Hänninen, Laura Arppe, Miia Collander, and Timo Saarinen
Biogeosciences, 15, 3975–4001,Short summary
Oxygen deficiency is a major environmental problem deteriorating seafloor habitats especially in the coastal ocean with large human impact. Here we apply a wide set of chemical and physical analyses to a 1500-year long sediment record and show that, although long-term climate variability has modulated seafloor oxygenation in the coastal northern Baltic Sea, the oxygen loss over the 20th century is unprecedentedly severe, emphasizing the need to reduce anthropogenic nutrient input in the future.
Saúl González-Lemos, José Guitián, Miguel-Ángel Fuertes, José-Abel Flores, and Heather M. Stoll
Biogeosciences, 15, 1079–1091,Short summary
Changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide affect ocean chemistry and the ability of marine organisms to manufacture shells from calcium carbonate. We describe a technique to obtain more reproducible measurements of the thickness of calcium carbonate shells made by microscopic marine algae called coccolithophores, which will allow researchers to compare how the shell thickness responds to variations in ocean chemistry in the past and present.
Ulrich Kotthoff, Jeroen Groeneveld, Jeanine L. Ash, Anne-Sophie Fanget, Nadine Quintana Krupinski, Odile Peyron, Anna Stepanova, Jonathan Warnock, Niels A. G. M. Van Helmond, Benjamin H. Passey, Ole Rønø Clausen, Ole Bennike, Elinor Andrén, Wojciech Granoszewski, Thomas Andrén, Helena L. Filipsson, Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz, Caroline P. Slomp, and Thorsten Bauersachs
Biogeosciences, 14, 5607–5632,Short summary
We present reconstructions of paleotemperature, paleosalinity, and paleoecology from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past ~ 8000 years and evaluate the applicability of numerous proxies. Conditions were lacustrine until ~ 7400 cal yr BP. A transition to brackish–marine conditions then occurred within ~ 200 years. Salinity proxies rarely allowed quantitative estimates but revealed congruent results, while quantitative temperature reconstructions differed depending on the proxies used.
Shuichang Zhang, Xiaomei Wang, Huajian Wang, Emma U. Hammarlund, Jin Su, Yu Wang, and Donald E. Canfield
Biogeosciences, 14, 2133–2149,
Liza M. Roger, Annette D. George, Jeremy Shaw, Robert D. Hart, Malcolm Roberts, Thomas Becker, Bradley J. McDonald, and Noreen J. Evans
Biogeosciences, 14, 1721–1737,Short summary
The shell compositions of bivalve species from south Western Australia are described here to better understand the factors involved in their formation. The shell composition can be used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, but certain species manifest an offset compared to the environmental parameters measured. As shown here, shells that experience the same conditions can present different compositions in relation to structure, organic composition and environmental conditions.
Johan Vellekoop, Lineke Woelders, Sanem Açikalin, Jan Smit, Bas van de Schootbrugge, Ismail Ö. Yilmaz, Henk Brinkhuis, and Robert P. Speijer
Biogeosciences, 14, 885–900,Short summary
The Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, ~ 66 Ma, is characterized by a mass extinction. We studied groups of both surface-dwelling and bottom-dwelling organisms to unravel the oceanographic consequences of these extinctions. Our integrated records indicate that a reduction of the transport of organic matter to the sea floor resulted in enhanced recycling of nutrients in the upper water column and decreased food supply at the sea floor in the first tens of thousands of years after the extinctions.
Biogeosciences, 13, 6003–6014,Short summary
Marine planktonic diatoms are today both the main silica and carbon exporter to the deep sea. However, 50 million years ago, radiolarians were the main silica exporter and diatoms were a rare, geographically restricted group. Quantification of their rise to dominance suggest that diatom abundance is primarily controlled by the continental weathering and has a negative feedback, observable on a geological timescale, on the carbon cycle.
Jelena Vidović, Rafał Nawrot, Ivo Gallmetzer, Alexandra Haselmair, Adam Tomašových, Michael Stachowitsch, Vlasta Ćosović, and Martin Zuschin
Biogeosciences, 13, 5965–5981,Short summary
We studied the ecological history of the Gulf of Trieste. Before the 20th century, the only activity here was ore mining, releasing high amounts of mercury into its northern part, Panzano Bay. Mercury did not cause changes to microorganisms, as it is not bioavailable. In the 20th century, agriculture caused nutrient enrichment in the bay and increased diversity of microorganisms. Industrial activities increased the concentrations of pollutants, causing only minor changes to microorganisms.
Aurélie Penaud, Frédérique Eynaud, Antje Helga Luise Voelker, and Jean-Louis Turon
Biogeosciences, 13, 5357–5377,Short summary
This paper presents new analyses conducted at high resolution in the Gulf of Cadiz over the last 50 ky. Palaeohydrological changes in these subtropical latitudes are discussed through dinoflagellate cyst assemblages but also dinocyst transfer function results, implying sea surface temperature and salinity as well as annual productivity reconstructions. This study is thus important for our understanding of past and future productivity regimes, also implying consequences on the biological pump.
William Hardy, Aurélie Penaud, Fabienne Marret, Germain Bayon, Tania Marsset, and Laurence Droz
Biogeosciences, 13, 4823–4841,Short summary
Our approach is based on a multi-proxy study from a core collected off the Congo River and discusses surface oceanic conditions (upwelling cells, river-induced upwelling), land–sea interactions and terrestrial erosion and in particular enables us to spatially constrain the migration of atmospheric systems. This paper thus presents new data highlighting, with the highest resolution ever reached in this region, the great correlation between phytoplanktonic organisms and monsoonal mechanisms.
Philippine Campagne, Xavier Crosta, Sabine Schmidt, Marie Noëlle Houssais, Olivier Ther, and Guillaume Massé
Biogeosciences, 13, 4205–4218,Short summary
Diatoms and biomarkers have been recently used for palaeoclimate reconstructions in the Southern Ocean. Few sediment-based ecological studies have investigated their relationships with environmental conditions. Here, we compare high-resolution sedimentary records with meteorological data to study relationships between our proxies and recent atmospheric and sea surface changes. Our results indicate that coupled wind pattern and sea surface variability act as the proximal forcing at that scale.
Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Appy Sluijs, Nina M. Papadomanolaki, A. Guy Plint, Darren R. Gröcke, Martin A. Pearce, James S. Eldrett, João Trabucho-Alexandre, Ireneusz Walaszczyk, Bas van de Schootbrugge, and Henk Brinkhuis
Biogeosciences, 13, 2859–2872,Short summary
Over the past decades large changes have been observed in the biogeographical dispersion of marine life resulting from climate change. To better understand present and future trends it is important to document and fully understand the biogeographical response of marine life during episodes of environmental change in the geological past. Here we investigate the response of phytoplankton, the base of the marine food web, to a rapid cold spell, interrupting greenhouse conditions during the Cretaceous.
Thomas C. Brachert, Markus Reuter, Stefan Krüger, Julia Kirkerowicz, and James S. Klaus
Biogeosciences, 13, 1469–1489,Short summary
We present stable isotope proxy data and calcification records from fossil reef corals. The corals investigated derive from the Florida carbonate platform and are of middle Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. From the data we infer an environment subject to intermittent upwelling on annual to decadal timescales. Calcification rates were enhanced during periods of upwelling. This is likely an effect of dampened SSTs during the upwelling.
B. A. A. Hoogakker, D. J. R. Thornalley, and S. Barker
Biogeosciences, 13, 211–221,Short summary
Models predict a decrease in future ocean O2, driven by surface water warming and freshening in the polar regions, causing a reduction in ocean circulation. Here we assess this effect in the past, focussing on the response of deep and intermediate waters from the North Atlantic during large-scale ice rafting and millennial-scale cooling events of the last glacial. Our assessment agrees with the models but also highlights the importance of biological processes driving ocean O2 change.
M. Hermoso, I. Z. X. Chan, H. L. O. McClelland, A. M. C. Heureux, and R. E. M. Rickaby
Biogeosciences, 13, 301–312,
B. Metcalfe, W. Feldmeijer, M. de Vringer-Picon, G.-J. A. Brummer, F. J. C. Peeters, and G. M. Ganssen
Biogeosciences, 12, 4781–4807,Short summary
Iron biogeochemical budgets during the natural ocean fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2 showed that complex circulation and transport pathways were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic and lithogenic pools was highly dynamic, resulting in a decoupling of iron supply and carbon export and controlling the efficiency of fertilisation.
J. P. D'Olivo, M. T. McCulloch, S. M. Eggins, and J. Trotter
Biogeosciences, 12, 1223–1236,Short summary
The boron isotope composition in the skeleton of massive Porites corals from the central Great Barrier Reef is used to reconstruct the seawater pH over the 1940-2009 period. The long-term decline in the coral-reconstructed seawater pH is in close agreement with estimates based on the CO2 uptake by surface waters due to rising atmospheric levels. We also observed a significant relationship between terrestrial runoff data and the inshore coral boron isotopes records.
S. C. Löhr and M. J. Kennedy
Biogeosciences, 11, 4971–4983,
R. Hoffmann, J. A. Schultz, R. Schellhorn, E. Rybacki, H. Keupp, S. R. Gerden, R. Lemanis, and S. Zachow
Biogeosciences, 11, 2721–2739,
T. J. Algeo, P. A. Meyers, R. S. Robinson, H. Rowe, and G. Q. Jiang
Biogeosciences, 11, 1273–1295,
C. Berger, K. J. S. Meier, H. Kinkel, and K.-H. Baumann
Biogeosciences, 11, 929–944,
T. Caley, S. Zaragosi, J. Bourget, P. Martinez, B. Malaizé, F. Eynaud, L. Rossignol, T. Garlan, and N. Ellouz-Zimmermann
Biogeosciences, 10, 7347–7359,
N. Preto, C. Agnini, M. Rigo, M. Sprovieri, and H. Westphal
Biogeosciences, 10, 6053–6068,
I. Polovodova Asteman, K. Nordberg, and H. L. Filipsson
Biogeosciences, 10, 1275–1290,
J.-E. Tesdal, E. D. Galbraith, and M. Kienast
Biogeosciences, 10, 101–118,
L. Durantou, A. Rochon, D. Ledu, G. Massé, S. Schmidt, and M. Babin
Biogeosciences, 9, 5391–5406,
C. A. Grove, J. Zinke, T. Scheufen, J. Maina, E. Epping, W. Boer, B. Randriamanantsoa, and G.-J. A. Brummer
Biogeosciences, 9, 3063–3081,
D. Wall-Palmer, M. B. Hart, C. W. Smart, R. S. J. Sparks, A. Le Friant, G. Boudon, C. Deplus, and J. C. Komorowski
Biogeosciences, 9, 309–315,
S. F. Rella and M. Uchida
Biogeosciences, 8, 3545–3553,
M. C. Nash, U. Troitzsch, B. N. Opdyke, J. M. Trafford, B. D. Russell, and D. I. Kline
Biogeosciences, 8, 3331–3340,
A. Penaud, F. Eynaud, A. Voelker, M. Kageyama, F. Marret, J. L. Turon, D. Blamart, T. Mulder, and L. Rossignol
Biogeosciences, 8, 2295–2316,
D. Gallego-Torres, F. Martinez-Ruiz, P. A. Meyers, A. Paytan, F. J. Jimenez-Espejo, and M. Ortega-Huertas
Biogeosciences, 8, 415–431,
B. Williams, J. Halfar, R. S. Steneck, U. G. Wortmann, S. Hetzinger, W. Adey, P. Lebednik, and M. Joachimski
Biogeosciences, 8, 165–174,
B. van de Schootbrugge, D. Harazim, K. Sorichter, W. Oschmann, J. Fiebig, W. Püttmann, M. Peinl, F. Zanella, B. M. A. Teichert, J. Hoffmann, A. Stadnitskaia, and Y. Rosenthal
Biogeosciences, 7, 3123–3138,
L. Zillén and D. J. Conley
Biogeosciences, 7, 2567–2580,
Agnihotri, R., Altabet, M. A., Herbert, T. D., and Tierney, J. E.: Subdecadally resolved paleoceanography of the Peru margin during the last two millennia, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 9, 1525–2027, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GC001744, 2008.
Anbar, A. D. and Rouxel, O.: Metal Stable Isotopes in Paleoceanography, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 35, 717–746, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.34.031405.125029, 2007.
Aquit, M., Kuhnt, W., Holbourn, A., Chellai, E. H., Stattegger, K., Kluth, O., and Jabour, H.: Late Cretaceous paleoenvironmental evolution of the Tarfaya Atlantic coastal basin, SW Morocco, Cretaceous Res,. 45, 288–305, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2013.05.004, 2013.
Arndt, S., Jørgensen, B. B., LaRowe, D. E., Middelburg, J. J., Pancoste, R. D., and Regnier, P.: Quantifying the degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: A review and synthesis, Earth-Sci. Rev., 123, 53–86, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.02.008, 2013.
Behl, R. J. and Kennett, J. P.: Brief interstadial events in the Santa Barbara Basin, NE Pacific, during the past 60 kyr, Nature, 379, 243–246, https://doi.org/10.1038/379243a0, 1996.
Betts, J. N. and Holland, H. D.: The oxygen content of ocean bottom waters, the burial effciency of organic carbon, and the regulation of atmospheric oxygen, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 97, 5–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-8181(91)90123-E, 1991
Böning, P., Brumsack, H. J., Böttcher, M. E., Schnetger, B., Kriete, C., Kallmeyer, J., and Borchers, S. L.: Geochemistry of Peruvian near-surface sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 68, 4429–4451, https://doi.org//10.1016/j.gca.2004.04.027, 2004.
Boyce, R. E.: Definitions and laboratory techniques of the compressional sound velocity parameters and wet-water content, wet-bulk density and porosity parameters by gravimetric and gamma-ray attenuation techniques, Initial Rep. Deep. Sea., 33, 931–958, 1976.
Brodie, I. and Kemp, A. E. S.: Variation in biogenic and detrital fluxes and formation of laminae in late Quaternary sediments from the Peruvian coastal upwelling zone, Mar. Geol., 116, 385–398, https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(94)90053-1, 1994.
Bromley, R. G. and Ekdale, A. A.: Chondrites: a trace fossil indicator of anoxia in sediments, Science, 224, 872–874, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.224.4651.872, 1984.
Brumsack, H. J.: The trace metal content of recent organic carbon-rich sediments: Implications for Cretaceous black shale formation, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 232, 344–361, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.05.011, 2006.
Buesseler, K. O., Lamborg, C. H., Boyd, P. W., Lam, P. J., Trull, T. W. Bidigare, R. R., Bishop, J. K. B. Casciotti, K. L., Dehairs, F., Elskens, M., Honda, M., Karl, D. M., Siegel, D. A., Silver, M. W., Steinberg, D. K., Valdes, J., Van Mooy, B., and Wilson, S.: Revisiting Carbon Flux Through the Ocean's Twilight Zone, Science, 316, 567–570, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1137959, 2007.
Buggisch, W.: The global Frasnian-Famennian "Kellwasser Event", Geol. Rundsch., 80, 49–72, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01828767, 1991.
Calvert, S. E.: Oceanographic controls on the accumulation of organic matter in marine sediments, Geol. Soc. S.P., 26, 137–151, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1987.026.01.08, 1987.
Canfield, D. E.: Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments, Chem. Geol., 114, 315–329, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(94)90061-2, 1994.
Cannariato, K. G. and Kennett, J. P.: Climatically related millennial-scale fluctuations in strength of California margin oxygen-minimum zone during the past 60 k.y., Geology, 27, 975–978, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0975:CRMSFI>2.3.CO;2, 1999.
Dale, A. W., Meyers, S. R., Aguilera, D. R., Arndt, S., and Wallmann, K.: Controls on organic carbon and molybdenum accumulation in Cretaceous marine sediments from the Cenomanian–Turonian interval including Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. Chem. Geol., 324–325, 28–45, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.04.014, 2012.
Dale, A. W., Sommer, S., Lomnitz, U., Montes, I., Treude, T., Gier, J., Hensen, C., Dengler, M., Stolpovsky, K., Bryant, L. D., and Wallmann, K.: Organic carbon production, mineralization and preservation on the Peruvian margin, Biogeosciences Discuss., 11, 13067–13126, https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-11-13067-2014, 2014.
Dumitrescu, M. and Brassell, S. C.: Biogeochemical assessment of sources of organic matter and paleoproductivity during the early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event at Shatsky Rise, ODP Leg 198, Org. Geochem., 36, 1002–1022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2005.03.001, 2005.
Ehlert, C., Grasse, P., and Frank, M.: Changes in silicate utilisation and upwelling intensity off Peru since the Last Glacial Maximum – insights from silicon and neodymium isotopes, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 72, 18–35, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.04.013, 2013.
Einsele, G. and Wiedmann, J.: Faunal and sedimentological evidence for upwelling in the Upper Cretaceous coastal basin of Tarfaya, Morocco, Ninth Internat. Congress of Sedimentology, Nice, 1, 67–72, 1975.
Ekdale, A. A. and Bromley, R. G.: Analysis of composite ichnofabrics: an example in uppermost Cretaceous chalk of Denmark, Palaios, 6, 232–249, 1991.
El Albani, A., Kuhnt, W., Luderer, F., and Caron, M.: Palaeoenvironmental evolution of the Late Cretaceous sequence in the Tarfaya Basin (southwest of Morocco), Geol. Soc. S.P., 153, 223–240, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1999.153.01.14, 1999.
EPICA Community Members: One-to-one coupling of glacial climate variability in Greenland and Antarctica, Nature, 444, 195–198, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05301, 2006.
Erbacher, J., Huber, B. T., Norris, R. D., and Markay, M.: Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period, Nature, 409, 325–327, https://doi.org/10.1038/35053041, 2001.
Flögel, S., Wallmann, K., Poulsen, C. J., Zhou, J., Oschlies, A., Voigt, S., andKuhnt, W.: Simulating the biogeochemical effects of volcanic CO2 degassing on the oxygen-state of the deep ocean during the Cenomanian/Turonian Anoxic Event (OAE2), Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 305, 371–384, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.03.018, 2011.
Flower, B. P. and Kennett, J. P.: Relations between Monterey Formation deposition and middle Miocene global cooling: Naples Beach section, California, Geology, 21, 877–880, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1993)021<0877:RBMFDA>2.3.CO;2, 1993.
Fu, S.: Funktion, Verhalten und Einteilung fucoider und lophocteniider Lebensspuren, Courier Forsch. Senck., 125, 1–79, 1991.
Fütterer, D. K.: The modern upwelling record off northwest Africa, in: Coastal Upwelling – its sedimentary record Part B: Sedimentary Records of Ancient Coastal Upwelling, edited by: Thiede, J. and Suess, E., NATO Conference Series IV, Mar. Sci., 10, 105–122, 1983.
Gaillard, C. and Jautee, E.: The use of burrows to detect compaction and sliding in fine-grained sediments: an example from the Cretaceous of S.E. France, Sedimentology, 34, 585–593, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1987.tb00788.x, 2006.
Gale, A. S., Hancock, J. M., and Kennedy, W. J.: Biostratigraphical and sequence correlation of the Cenomanian successions in Mangyshlak (W. Kazakhstan) and Crimea (Ukraine) with those in southern England, Bull. Inst. R. Sc. N. B.-S., 69 (Supp. A), 67–86, 1999.
Garrison, R. E. and Kastner, M.: Phosphatic sediments and rocks recovered from the Peru margin during ODP Leg 112, in: Proceedings Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, edited by: Suess, E., von Huene, R., Emeis, K. C., Bourgois, J., Cruzado, J. C., De Wever, P., Eglinton, G., Garrison, R., Greenberg, M., Paz, E. H., Hill, P., Ibaraki, M., Kastner, M., Kemp, A. E. S., Kvenvolden, K., Langridge, R., Lindsley-Griffin, N., Marsters, J., Martini, E., McCabe, R., Ocola, L.S., Resig, J., Sanchez, A. W., Schrader, H. J., Thornburg, T., Wefer, G., and Yamano, M., 112, 111–134, 1990.
Gebhardt, H., Kuhnt, W., and Holbourn, A.: Foraminiferal response to sealevel change, organic flux and oxygen deficiency in the Cenomanian of the Tarfaya Basin, southern Morocco, Mar. Micropaleontol. 53, 133–158, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2004.05.007, 2004.
Gingras, M. K., MacEachern, J. A., and Dashtgard, S. E.: Using process ichnology to refine interpretations of sedimentary rocks, GeoCanada 2010, Abstract 680, 2010.
Gutiérrez, D., Sifeddine, A., Reyss, J. L., Vargas, G., Velazco, F., Salvatteci, R., Ferreira, V., Ortlieb, L., Field, D., Baumgartner, T., Boussafir, M., Boucher, H., Valdés, J., Marinovic, L., Soler, P., and Tapia, P.: Anoxic sediments off Central Peru record interannual to multidecadal changes of climate and upwelling ecosystem during the last two centuries, Adv. Geosci., 6, 119–125, https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-6-119-2006, 2006.
Gutiérrez, D., Sifeddine, A., Field, D. B., Ortlieb, L., Vargas, G., Chávez, F. P., Velazco, F., Ferreira, V., Tapia, P., Salvatteci, R., Boucher, H., Morales, M. C., Valdés, J., Reyss, J.-L., Campusano, A., Boussafir, M., Mandeng-Yogo, M., García, M., and Baumgartner, T.: Rapid reorganization in ocean biogeochemistry off Peru towards the end of the Little Ice Age, Biogeosciences, 6, 835–848, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-835-2009, 2009.
Hagadorn, J. W.: Laminated sediments of Santa Monica Basin, California Continental Borderland, Geol. Soc. S.P. 116, 111–120 https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.116.01.11, 1996.
Hartnett, H. E. and Devol, A. H.: Role of a strong oxygen-deficient zone in the preservation and degradation of organic matter: a carbon budget for the continental margin of northwest Mexico and Washington State, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 67, 247–264, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01076-1, 2003.
Hartnett, H. E., Keil, R. G., Hedges, J. I., and Devol, A. H.: Influence of oxygen exposure time on organic carbon preservation in continental margin sediments, Nature, 391, 572–574, https://doi.org/10.1038/35351, 1998.
Hedges, J. I. and Keil, R. G.: Sedimentary organic matter preservation: an assessment and speculative synthesis, Mar. Chem., 49, 81–115, https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(95)00008-F, 1995.
Helly, J. J. and Levin, L. A.: Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins, Deep-Sea Res. PT. I, 51, 1159–1168, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2004.03.009, 2004.
Herrle, J. O., Kößler, P., Friedrich, O., Erlenkeuser, H., and Hemleben, C.: High-resolution carbon isotope records of the Aptian to Lower Albian from SE France and the Mazagan Plateau (DSDP Site 545): a stratigraphic tool for paleoceanographic and paleobiologic reconstruction, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 218, 149–161, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00646-0, 2004.
Hesselbo, S. P., Grocke, D. R., Jenkyns, H. C., Bjerrum, C. J., Farrimond, P., Morgans Bell, H. S., and Green, O. R.: Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic anoxic event, Nature, 406, 392–395, https://doi.org/10.1038/35019044, 2000.
Hessen, D. O., Elser, J. J., Sterner, R. W., and Urabe, J.: Ecological stoichiometry: An elementary approach using basic principles, Limnol. Oceanogr., 58, 2219–2236, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2013.58.6.2219, 2013.
Hetzel, A., Böttcher, M. E., Wortmann, U. G., and Brumsack, H. J.: Paleo-redox conditions during OAE 2 reflected in Demerara Rise sediment geochemistry (ODP Leg 207), Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 273, 302–328, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.11.005, 2009.
Hilbrecht, H. and Dahmer, D. D.: Sediment dynamics during the Cenomanian-Turonian (Cretaceous) oceanic anoxic event in Northwestern Germany, Facies, 30, 63–83, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02536890, 1994.
Imbrie, J., Hays, J., Martinson, D., Mclntyre, A., Mix, A., Morley, J., Pisias, N., Prell, W., and Shackleton, N.: The orbital theory of Pleistocene climate: support from a revised chronology of the marine 5180 record, in: Milankovitch and Climate. Part 1, edited by: Berger, A., Imbrie, J., Hays, J., Kukla, G., and Saltzman, B., Dordrecht (Riedel), https://doi.org/269-305.10.1007/978-94-017-4841-4, 1984.
Jaccard, S. L. and Galbraith, E. D.: Large climate-driven changes of oceanic oxygen concentrations during the last deglaciation, Nat. Geosci. 5, 151–156, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1352, 2012.
Jenkyns, H. C., Gale, A. S., and Corfield, R. M.: Carbon- and oxygen-isotope stratigraphy of the English Chalk and Italian Scaglia and its palaeoclimatic significance, Geol. Mag., 131, 1–34, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800010451, 1994.
Joachimski, M. M., Pancost, R. D., Freeman, K. H., Ostertag-Henning, C., and Buggisch, W.: Carbon isotope geochemistry of the Frasnian–Famennian transition, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 181, 91–109, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00474-6, 2002.
Kalvelage, T., Lavik, G., Lam, P., Contreras, S., Arteaga, L., Löscher, C. R., Oschlies, A., Paulmier, A., Stramma, L., and Kuypers, M. M. M.: Nitrogen cycling driven by organic matter export in the South Pacific oxygen minimum zone, Nat. Geosci., 6, 228–234, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1739, 2013.
Kemp, A. E. S.: Sedimentary fabrics and variation in lamination style in Peru continental margin upwelling sediments, in: Proceedings Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, edited by: Suess, E., von Huene, R., Emeis, K. C., Bourgois, J., Cruzado, J. C., De Wever, P., Eglinton, G., Garrison, R., Greenberg, M., Paz, E. H., Hill, P., Ibaraki, M., Kastner, M., Kemp, A. E. S., Kvenvolden, K., Langridge, R., Lindsley-Griffin, N., Marsters, J., Martini, E., McCabe, R., Ocola, L.S., Resig, J., Sanchez, A. W., Schrader, H. J., Thornburg, T., Wefer, G., and Yamano, M., 112, 43–58, 1990.
Kemp, A. E. S. (Ed.): Palaeoclimatology and Palaeoceanography from laminated sediments, Geol. Soc. S.P., 116, 252 pp., 1996.
Koho, K. A., Nierop, K. G. J., Moodley, L., Middelburg, J. J., Pozzato, L., Soetaert, K., van der Plicht, J., and Reichart, G.-J.: Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments, Biogeosciences, 10, 1131–1141, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-1131-2013, 2013.
Kolonic, S., Wagner, T., Forster, A., Sinninghe Damsté, J. S., Walsworth-Bell, B., Erba, E., Turgeon, S., Brumsack, H. J., Chellai, E. H., Tsikos, H., Kuhnt, W., and Kuypers, M. M. M.: Black shale deposition on the northwest African Shelf during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event: Climate coupling and organic carbon burial, Paleoceanography, 20, PA1006, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA000950, 2005.
Krahmann, G.: Physical oceanography during METEOR cruise M77-2, IFM-GEOMAR Leibniz-Institute of Marine Sciences, Kiel University, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.778021, 2012.
Kröncke, I.: Structure and function of macrofaunal communities influenced by hydrodynamically controlled food availability in the Wadden Sea, the open North Sea, and the deep-sea: a synopsis, Senck. Marit., 36, 123–164, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03043725, 2006.
Kuhlbrodt, T., Griesel, A., Montoya, M., Levermann, A., Hofmann, M., and Rahmstorf, S.: On the driving processes of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Rev. Geophys., 45, RG2001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004RG000166, 2007.
Kuhnt, W., Herbin, J. P., Thurow, J., and Wiedmann, J.: Distribution of Cenomanian-Turonian Organic Facies in the Western Mediterranean and along the Adjacent Atlantic Margin, in: Deposition of Organic Facies, edited by: Huc, A. Y., AAPG Stud. Geol., 30, 133–160, 1990.
Kuhnt, W., Nederbragt, A., and Leine, L.: Cyclicity of Cenomanian-Turonian organic-carbon-rich sediments in the Tarfaya Atlantic Coastal Basin (Morocco), Cretaceous Res., 18, 587–601, https://doi.org/10.1006/cres.1997.0076, 1997.
Kuhnt, W., Chellai, H., Holbourn, A., Luderer, F., Thurow, J., Wagner, T., El Albani, A., Beckmann, B., Herbin, J. P., Kawamura, H., Kolonic, S., Nederbragt, S., Street, C., and Ravilious, K.: Morocco Basin's sedimentary record may provide correlations for Cretaceous paleoceanographic events worldwide, Eos, 82, 361–368, https://doi.org/10.1029/01EO00223, 2001.
Kuhnt, W., Luderer, F., Nederbragt, S., Thurow, J., and Wagner, T.: Orbital-scale record of the Late Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event (OAE-2) in the Tarfaya Basin (Morocco), Int. J. Earth Sci., 94, 147–159, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-004-0440-5, 2005.
Kuhnt, W., Holbourn, A., Gale, A., Chellai, E. H., and Kennedy, W. J.: Cenomanian sequence stratigraphy and sea-level fluctuations in the Tarfaya Basin (SW Morocco), Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 121, 11–12, https://doi.org/10.1130/B26418.1, 2009.
Kuypers, M. M. M., Pancost, R. D., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: A large and abrupt fall in atmospheric CO2 concentration during Cretaceous times, Nature, 399, 342–345, https://doi.org/10.1038/20659, 1999.
Leine, L.: Geology of the Tarfaya oil shale deposit, Morocco, Geol. Mijnbouw, 65, 57–74, 1986.
Levin, L. A., Huggett, C. L., and Wishner, K. F.: Control of deep-sea benthic community structure by oxygen and organic-matter gradients on the eastern Pacific Ocean, J. Mar. Res., 49, 763–800, https://doi.org/10.1357/002224091784995756, 1991.
Liesicki L. E. and Raymo, M. E.: A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ 18O records, Paleoceanography, 20, PA1003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001071, 2005.
Mallon, J.: Benthic foraminifera of the Peruvian and Ecuadorian continental margin, PhD Dissertation, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 236 pp., 2012.
Martin, J. H., Kanuer, G., Karl, D. M., and Broenkow, W. W.: VERTEX: carbon cycling in the northeast Pacific, Deep-Sea Res., 34, 267–286, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(87)90086-0, 1987.
McCorkle, D. C., Keigwin, L. D., Corliss, B. H., and Emerson, S. R.: The influence of microhabitats on the carbon isotopic composition of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, Paleoceanography, 5, 161–185, https://doi.org/10.1029/PA005i002p00161, 1990.
McKay, J. L., Pedersen, T. F., and Kienast, S. S.: Organic carbon accumulation over the last 16 kyr off Vancouver Island, Canada: evidence for increased marine productivity during the deglacial, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 23, 261–281, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2003.07.004, 2004.
McManus, J., Berelson, W. M., Severmann, S., Poulson, R. L., Hammond, D. E., Klinkhammer, G. P., and Holm, C.: Molybdenum and uranium geochemistry in continental margin sediments: Paleoproxy potential, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 70, 4643–4662, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2006.06.1564, 2006.
Meyer, K. M. and Kump, L. R.: Oceanic euxinia in earth history: causes and consequences, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 36, 251–288, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.36.031207.124256, 2008.
Meyers, S. R., Sageman, B. B., and Arthur, M. A.: Obliquity forcing of organic matter accumulation during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, Paleoceanography, 27, PA3212, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012PA002286, 2012.
Mollier-Vogel, E., Leduc, G., Böschen, T., Martinez, P., and Schneider, R.: Rainfall response to orbital and millennial in northern Peru over the last 18 ka, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 76, 29–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.06.021, 2013.
Mosch, T., Sommer, S., Dengler, M., Noffke, A., Bohlen, L., Pfannkuche, O., Liebetrau, V., and Wallmann, K.: Factors influencing the distribution of epibenthic megafauna across the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone, Deep-Sea Res., 168, 123–135, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2012.04.014, 2012.
Müller, P. J. and Suess, E.: Productivity, sedimentation rate, and sedimentary organic matter in the oceans – I. Organic carbon preservation, Deep-Sea Res., 26, 1347–1362, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(79)90003-7, 1979.
Murray, A. W., Solomon, M. J., and Kirschner, M. W.: The role of cyclin synthesis and degradation in the control of maturation promoting factor activity, Nature, 339, 280–286, https://doi.org/10.1038/339280a0, 1989.
Owens, J. D., Lyons, T. W., Li, X., Macleod, K. G., Gordon, G., Kuypers, M. M. M., Anbar, A., Kuhnt, W., and Severmann, S.: Iron isotope and trace metal records of iron cycling in the proto-North Atlantic during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event (OAE-2), Paleoceanography, 27, 1944–9186, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012PA002328, 2012.
Owens, J. D., Gill, B. C., Jenkyns, H. C., Bates, S. M., Severmann, S., Kuypers, M. M., Woodfine, R. G., and Lyons, T. W.: Sulfur isotopes track the global extent and dynamics of euxinia during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 110, 18407–18412, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305304110, 2013.
Pfannkuche, O., Frank, M., Schneider, R., and Stramma, L.: Climate-biogeochemistry interactions in the tropical ocean of the SE-American oxygen minimum zone Cruise No. 77, Leg 1–4 October 22 2008 – February 18, 2009 Talcahuano (Chile) – Callao (Peru) – Colon (Panama), Meteor-Berichte, 11-2, 1–200, 2011.
Pike, J. and Kemp, A. E. S.: Early Holocene decadal-scale ocean variability recorded in Gulf of California laminated sediments, Paleoceanography, 12, 227–238, https://doi.org/10.1029/96PA03132, 1997.
Poulsen, N. E., Barron, E. J., Arthur, M. A., and Peterson, W. H.: Response of the mid-Cretaceous global oceanic circulation to tectonic and CO2 forcings, Paleoceanography, 16, 576–592, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000PA000579, 2001.
Reimer, P., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J., Blackwell, P., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C., Cheng, H., Edwards, R., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P., Guilderson, T., Haflidason, H., Hajdas, I., Hatté, C., Heaton, T., Hoffmann, D., Hogg, A., Hughen, K., Kaiser, K., Kromer, B., Manning, S., Niu, M., Reimer, R., Richards, D., Scott, E., Southon, J., Staff, R., Turney, C., and van der Plicht, J.: INTCAL13 and Marine radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50 000 years cal BP, Radiocarbon, 55, 1869–1887, https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947, 2013.
Reimers, C. E. and Suess, E.: Spatial and temporal patterns of organic matter accumulation on the Peru continental margin, in: Coastal Upwelling – its sedimentary record Part B: Sedimentary Records of Ancient Coastal Upwelling, edited by: Thiede, J. and Suess, E., NATO Conference Series IV, Mar. Sci., 10, 311–346, 1983.
Rein, B., Lückge, A., Reinhardt, L., Sirocko, F., Wolf, A., and Dullo, W.-C.: El Niño variability off Peru during the last 20 000 years, Paleoceanography, 20, PA4003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004PA001099, 2005.
Rhoads, D. C. and Morse, J. W.: Evolutionary and ecologic significance of oxygen-deficient basins, Lethaia, 4, 413–428, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1971.tb01864.x, 1971.
Riebesell, U.: Effects of CO2 enrichment on marine phytoplankton, J. Oceanogr., 60, 719–729, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-004-5764-z, 2004.
Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J. and Uchmann, A.: Ichnological data as a useful tool for deep-sea environmental characterization: a brief overview and an application to recognition of small-scale oxygenation changes during the Cenomanian-Turonian anoxic event, Geo-Mar. Lett., 31, 525–536, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-011-0237-z, 2011.
Rohling, E. J. and Hilgen, F. J.: The eastern Mediterranean climate at times of sapropel formation: a review, Geol. Mijnbouw, 70, 253–264, 1991.
Sageman, B. B., Meyers, S. R., and Arthur, M. A.: Orbital time scale and new C-isotope record for Cenomanian-Turonian boundary stratotype, Geology, 34, 125–128, https://doi.org/10.1130/G22074.1, 2006.
Sarnthein, M., Thiede, J., Pflaumann, U., Erlenkeuser, H., Fiitterer, D., Koopmann, B., Lange, H., and Seibold, E.: Atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns off northwest Africa during the past 25 million years, in: Geology of Northwest Africa Continental Margin, edited by: von Rad, U., Hinz, K., Sarnthein, M., and Seibold, E., Berlin-Heidelberg-New York (Springer-Verlag), 545–604, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-68409-8_24, 1982.
Sarnthein, S., Pflaumann, U., Ross, R., Tiedemann, R., and Winn, K.: Transfer functions to reconstruct ocean palaeoproductivity: a comparison, Geol. Soc. S.P., 64, 411–427, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1992.064.01.27, 1992.
Savrda, C. E. and Bottjer, D. J.: Trace-fossil model for reconstruction of paleo-oxygenation in bottom waters, Geology, 14, 3–6, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1986)14<3:TMFROP>2.0.CO;2, 1986.
Savrda, C. E. and Bottjer, D. J.: Trace fossils as indicators of bottom-water redox conditions in ancient marine environments, Soc. Econ. PA, Pacific section, Volume and Guidebook, 52, 3–26, 1987.
Savrda, C. E. and Bottjer, D. J.: Oxygen-related biofacies in marine strata: an overview and update, Geol. Soc. S.P., 58, 201–219, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1991.058.01.14, 1991.
Savrda, C. E., Bottjer, D. J., and Gorsline, D. S.: Development of a comprehensive oxygen-deficient marine biofacies model: evidence from Santa Monica, San Pedro, and Santa Barbara Basins, California Continental Borderland, AAPG Bull., 68, 1179–1192, 1984.
Schäfer, W.: Wirkungen der Benthos-Organismen auf den jungen Schichtverband, Senck. Lethaea, 37, 183–263, 1956.
Schlanger, S. O. and Jenkyns, H. C.: Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events: causes and consequences, Geology, 55, 179–184, 1976.
Schnitker, D., Mayer, L. M., and Norton, S.: Loss of calcareous microfossils from sediments through gypsum formation, Mar. Geol., 36, M35–M44, https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(80)90085-7, 1980.
Schönfeld, J., Schiebel, R., and Timm, S.: The Rotpläner (Upper Cenomanian to Lower Turonian) of Baddeckenstedt (north-western Germany): lithology, geochemistry, foraminifers, and stratigraphic correlations, Meyniana, 43, 73–95, https://doi.org/10.2312/meyniana.1991.43.73, 1991.
Scholz, F., Hensen, C., Noffke, A., Rhode, A., and Wallmann, K.: Early diagenesis of redox-sensitive trace metals in the Peru upwelling area – response to ENSO-related oxygen fluctuations in the water column, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 22, 7247–7276, 2011.
Scholz, F., Severmann, S., McManus, J., and Hensen, C.: Beyond the Black Sea paradigm: The sedimentary fingerprint of an open-marine iron shuttle, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 127, 368–380, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2013.11.041, 2014a.
Scholz, F., McManus, J., Mix, A. C., Hensen, C., and Schneider, R.: The impact of ocean deoxygenation on iron release from continental margin sediments, Nat. Geosci., 7, 433–437, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2162, 2014b.
Schott, W., von Stackelberg, U., Eckhardt, F. J., Mattiat, B., Peters, J., and Zobel, B.: Geologische Untersuchungen an Sedimenten des indisch-pakistanischen Kontinentalrandes (Arabisches Meer), Geol. Rundsch., 60, 246–275, 1970.
Schulz, H., von Rad, U., and von Stackelberg, U.: Laminated sediments from the oxygen-minimum zone of the northeastern Arabian Sea, Geol. Soc. S.P., 116, 185–207, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.116.01.16, 1996.
Sinninghe Damsté, J. S. and Köster, J.: A euxinic southern North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 158, 165–173, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(98)00052-1, 1998.
Stein, R. and Stax, R.: Late Cenozoic changes in flux rates and composition of organic carbon at Sites 798 and 799 (Sea of Japan), in: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, edited by: Pisciotto, K. A., Ingle Jr., J. C., von Breymann, M. T., and Barron, J., Vol.127/128, Part 1, 423–437, 1990.
Stein, R. and Stax, R.: Late Quaternary organic carbon cycles and paleoproductivity in the Labrador Sea, Geo-Mar. Lett., 11, 90–95, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02431035, 1991.
Sterner, R. and Elser, J. J.: Ecological Stoichiometry: The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere, Princeton University Press, 2002.
Sterner, R. W., Andersen, T., Elser, J. J., Hessen, D. O., Hood, J. M., McCauley, E., and Urabe, J.: Scale-dependent carbon: nitrogen: phosphorus seston stoichiometry in marine and freshwaters, American Soc. Limnol. Oceanogr., 53, 1169–1180, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2008.53.3.1169, 2008.
Stramma, L., Bange, H. W., Czeschel, R., Lorenzo, A., and Frank, M.: On the role of mesoscale eddies for the biological productivity and biogeochemistry in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Peru, Biogeosciences, 10, 7293–7306, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-7293-2013, 2013.
Struck, U., Altenbach, A. V., Emeis, K. C., Alheit, J., Eichner, C., and Schneider, R.: Changes of the upwelling rates of nitrate preserved in the δ 15N-signature of sediments and fish scales from the diatomaceous mud belt of Namibia, Geobios, 35, 3–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(02)00004-9, 2002.
Stuiver, M. and Reimer, P. J.: Extended C-14 data base and revised Calib 3.0 C-14 age calibration program, Radiocarbon, 35, 215–230, 1993.
Thiede, J. and Suess, E. (Eds.): Coastal Upwelling: Its sediment record, Part B: Sedimentary Records of Ancient Coastal Upwelling, NATO Conference Series IV, Mar. Sci., 10, 610 pp., 1983.
Thunell, R. C., Tappa, E., and Anderson, D. M.: Sediment Fluxes and Varve Formation in Santa Barbara Basin, offshore California, Geology, 23, 1083–1086, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<1083:SFAVFI>2.3.CO;2, 1995.
Topper, R. P. M., Trabucho Alexandre, J., Tuenter, E., and Meijer, P. Th.: A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation, Clim. Past, 7, 277–297, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-7-277-2011, 2011.
Torrence, C. and Compo, G. P.: A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 61–78, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0061:APGTWA>2.0.CO;2, 1998.
Trabucho Alexandre, J., Tuenter, E., Henstra, G .A., van der Zwaan, C. J., van de Wal, R. S. W., Dijkstra, H. A., and de Boer, P. L.: The mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic nutrient trap: black shales and OAEs, Paleoceanography, 25, PA4201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010PA001925, 2010.
Tucker, M. E.: Sedimentation of organic-rich limestones in the late Precambrian of Southern Norway, Precambrian Res., 22, 295–315, https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9268(83)90053-0, 1983.
van Andel, T. H.: Recent marine sediments of Gulf of California, Part 2, AAPG Memoir., 3, 216–310, 1964.
van Andel, T. H., Heath, G. R., and Moore, T. C.: Cenozoic history and paleoceanography of the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: a regional synthesis of deep-sea drilling project data, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 143, 1–133, https://doi.org/10.1130/MEM143-p1, 1975.
van Bentum, E. C., Hetzel, A., Brumsack, H. J., Forster, A., Reichart, G. J., and Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.: Reconstruction of water column anoxia in the equatorial Atlantic during the Cenomanian–Turonian oceanic anoxic event using biomarker and trace metal proxies, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 280, 489–498, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.07.003, 2009.
van Geen, A., Zheng, Y., Bernhard, J. M., Cannariato, K. G., Carriquiry, J., Dean, W. E., Eakins, B. W., Ortiz, J. D., and Pike, J.: On the preservation of laminated sediments along the western margin of North America, Paleoceanography, 18, PA1098, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003PA000911, 2003.
Voigt, S. and Schönfeld, J.: Cyclostratigraphy of the reference section for the Cretaceous white chalk of northern Germany, Lägerdorf-Kronsmoor: A late Campanian-early Maastrichtian orbital time scale, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 287, 67–80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.017, 2010.
von Rad, U., Schulz, H., and Sonne 90 Scientific Party: Sampling the oxygen minimum zone off Pakistan: glacial-interglacial variations of anoxia and productivity (preliminary results, SONNE 90 cruise), Mar. Geol., 125, 7–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(95)00051-Y, 1995.
von Stackelberg, U.: Faziesverteilung in Sedimenten des indisch-pakistanischen Kontinentalrandes (Arabisches Meer), "Meteor" Forschungs-Ergebnisse C, 9, 1–73, 1972.
Wefer, G., Dunbar, R. B., and Suess, E.: Stable isotopes of foraminifers off Peru recording high fertility and changes in upwelling history, in: Coastal Upwelling – its sedimentary record Part B: Sedimentary Records of Ancient Coastal Upwelling, edited by: Thiede, J. and Suess, E., NATO Conference Series IV, Mar. Sci., 10, 295–308, 1983.
Wefer, G., Heinze, P., and Suess, E.: Stratigraphy and sedimentation rates from oxygen isotope composition at the Peruvian upwelling region: Holes 680B and 686B, in: Proceedings Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, edited by: Suess, E., von Huene, R., Emeis, K. C., Bourgois, J., Cruzado, J. C., De Wever, P., Eglinton, G., Garrison, R., Greenberg, M., Paz, E. H., Hill, P., Ibaraki, M., Kastner, M., Kemp, A. E. S., Kvenvolden, K., Langridge, R., Lindsley-Griffin, N., Marsters, J., Martini, E., McCabe, R., Ocola, L.S., Resig, J., Sanchez, A. W., Schrader, H. J., Thornburg, T., Wefer, G., and Yamano, M., 112, 355–367, 1990.
Wetzel, A.: Recent bioturbation in the deep South China Sea: a uniformitarian ichnologic approach, Palaios, 23, 601–615, https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2007.p07-096r, 2008
Wiedmann, J., Butt, A., and Einsele, G.: Vergleich von marokkanischen Kreide-Küstenaufschlüssen und Tiefseebohrungen (DSDP): Stratigraphie, Paläoenvironment und Subsidenz an einem passiven Kontinentalrand, Geol. Rundsch., 67, 454–508, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01802800, 1978.
Wignall, P. B. and Twitchett, R. J.: Oceanic anoxia and the end Permian mass extinction, Science, 272, 1155–1158, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.272.5265.1155, 1996.
Wolf, A.: Zeitliche Variationen im peruanischen Küstenauftrieb seit dem Letzten Glazialen Maximum – Steurung durch globale Klimadynamik, Dissertation, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 115 pp., 2002.
- Metadata XML
Today’s oceans show distinct mid-depth oxygen minima while whole oceanic basins became transiently anoxic in the Mesozoic. To constrain past bottom-water oxygenation, we compared sediments from the Peruvian OMZ with the Cenomanian OAE 2 from Morocco. Corg accumulation rates in laminated OAE 2 sections match Holocene rates off Peru. Laminated deposits are found at oxygen levels of < 7µmol kg-1; crab burrows appear at 10µmol kg-1 today, both defining threshold values for palaeoreconstructions.
Today’s oceans show distinct mid-depth oxygen minima while whole oceanic basins became...