Articles | Volume 12, issue 18
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Derivation of greenhouse gas emission factors for peatlands managed for extraction in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom
Earthy Matters Environmental Consultants, Glenvar, Co. Donegal, Ireland
S. D. Dixon
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Durham, UK
R. R. E. Artz
The James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
T. E. L. Smith
King's College London, Department of Geography, Strand, London, UK
C. D. Evans
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Wales, UK
H. J. F. Owen
King's College London, Department of Geography, Strand, London, UK
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Durham, UK
School of Biology & Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
F. Renou-Wilson, C. Barry, C. Müller, and D. Wilson
Biogeosciences, 11, 4361–4379,
Jennifer Williamson, Chris Evans, Bryan Spears, Amy Pickard, Pippa J. Chapman, Heidrun Feuchtmayr, Fraser Leith, Susan Waldron, and Don Monteith
Biogeosciences, 20, 3751–3766,Short summary
Managing drinking water catchments to minimise water colour could reduce costs for water companies and save their customers money. Brown-coloured water comes from peat soils, primarily around upland reservoirs. Management practices, including blocking drains, removing conifers, restoring peatland plants and reducing burning, have been used to try and reduce water colour. This work brings together published evidence of the effectiveness of these practices to aid water industry decision-making.
Gustaf Granath, Christopher D. Evans, Joachim Strengbom, Jens Fölster, Achim Grelle, Johan Strömqvist, and Stephan J. Köhler
Biogeosciences, 18, 3243–3261,Short summary
We measured element losses and impacts on water quality following a wildfire in Sweden. We observed the largest carbon and nitrogen losses during the fire and a strong pulse of elements 1–3 months after the fire that showed a fast (weeks) and a slow (months) release from the catchments. Total carbon export through water did not increase post-fire. Overall, we observed a rapid recovery of the biogeochemical cycling of elements within 3 years but still an annual net release of carbon dioxide.
Jennifer Williamson, Christopher Evans, Bryan Spears, Amy Pickard, Pippa J. Chapman, Heidrun Feuchtmayr, Fraser Leith, and Don Monteith
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Water companies in the UK have found that drinking water from upland reservoirs is becoming browner. This is costly to treat and if the dissolved organic matter that causes the colour isn't removed potentially harmful chemicals could be produced. Land management around reservoirs has been suggested as a way to reduce water colour. We reviewed the available literature to assess whether this would work. There is limited evidence available to date, although forestry appears to increase colour.
Sarah Cook, Mick J. Whelan, Chris D. Evans, Vincent Gauci, Mike Peacock, Mark H. Garnett, Lip Khoon Kho, Yit Arn Teh, and Susan E. Page
Biogeosciences, 15, 7435–7450,Short summary
This paper presents the first comprehensive assessment of fluvial organic carbon loss from oil palm plantations on tropical peat: a carbon loss pathway previously unaccounted for from carbon budgets. Carbon in the water draining four plantations in Sarawak was monitored across a 1-year period. Greater fluvial carbon losses were linked to sites with lower water tables. These data will be used to complete the carbon budget from these ecosystems and assess the full impact of this land conversion.
Alistair Grinham, Simon Albert, Nathaniel Deering, Matthew Dunbabin, David Bastviken, Bradford Sherman, Catherine E. Lovelock, and Christopher D. Evans
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5281–5298,Short summary
Artificial water bodies are a major source of methane and an important contributor to flooded land greenhouse gas emissions. Past studies focussed on large water supply or hydropower reservoirs with small artificial water bodies (ponds) almost completely ignored. This regional study demonstrated ponds accounted for one-third of flooded land surface area and emitted over 1.6 million t CO2 eq. yr−1 (10 % of land use sector emissions). Ponds should be included in regional GHG inventories.
Elise-Andrée Guérette, Clare Paton-Walsh, Maximilien Desservettaz, Thomas E. L. Smith, Liubov Volkova, Christopher J. Weston, and Carl P. Meyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3717–3735,Short summary
We characterised trace gas emissions from Australian temperate forest fires through measurements at nine prescribed fires. We find that smoke from Australian forest fires is different from that of American forest fires, and different from Australian savanna fires. This will impact plume chemistry and influence air quality outcomes downwind of the fires. We therefore recommend the use of data specific to Australian forest fires when studying the impacts of these fires on air quality and health.
C. Paton-Walsh, T. E. L. Smith, E. L. Young, D. W. T. Griffith, and É.-A. Guérette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11313–11333,
T. E. L. Smith, C. Paton-Walsh, C. P. Meyer, G. D. Cook, S. W. Maier, J. Russell-Smith, M. J. Wooster, and C. P. Yates
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11335–11352,
F. Renou-Wilson, C. Barry, C. Müller, and D. Wilson
Biogeosciences, 11, 4361–4379,
A. M. Ågren, I. Buffam, D. M. Cooper, T. Tiwari, C. D. Evans, and H. Laudon
Biogeosciences, 11, 1199–1213,
R. R. E. Artz, S. J. Chapman, M. Saunders, C. D. Evans, and R. B. Matthews
Biogeosciences, 10, 7623–7630,
Related subject area
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recovery promotes carbon capture in riparian zonesAssessing CO2 and CH4 fluxes from mounds of African fungus-growing termitesMethane emissions due to reservoir flushing: a significant emission pathway?Capabilities of optical and radar Earth observation data for up-scaling methane emissions linked to subsidence and permafrost degradation in sub-Arctic peatlandsMeteorological responses of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of a subarctic landscapeHerbivore-shrub interactions influence ecosystem respiration and BVOC composition in the subarcticSpatial and temporal variability of methane emissions and environmental conditions in a hyper-eutrophic fishpondCarbon emission and export from the Ket River, western SiberiaEvaluation of wetland CH4 in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model using satellite observationsGreenhouse gas fluxes in mangrove forest soil in an Amazon estuaryTemporal patterns and drivers of CO2 emission from dry sediments in a groyne field of a large riverEffects of water table level and nitrogen deposition on methane and nitrous oxide emissions in an alpine peatlandHighest methane concentrations in an Arctic river linked to local terrestrial inputsSeasonal study of the small-scale variability in dissolved methane in the western Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea) during the European heatwave in 2018Trace gas fluxes from tidal salt marsh soils: implications for carbon–sulfur biogeochemistrySpatial and temporal variation in δ13C values of methane emitted from a hemiboreal mire: methanogenesis, methanotrophy, and hysteresisIntercomparison of methods to estimate gross primary production based on CO2 and COS flux measurementsLateral carbon export has low impact on the net ecosystem carbon balance of a polygonal tundra catchmentThe effect of static chamber base on N2O flux in drip irrigationControls on autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in an ombrotrophic bogEpisodic N2O emissions following 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Frederic Thalasso, Brenda Riquelme, Andrés Gómez, Roy Mackenzie, Francisco Javier Aguirre, Jorge Hoyos-Santillan, Ricardo Rozzi, and Armando Sepulveda-Jauregui
Biogeosciences, 20, 3737–3749,Short summary
A robust skirt-chamber design to capture and quantify greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands is presented. Compared to standard methods, this design improves the spatial resolution of field studies in remote locations while minimizing intrusion.
Gesa Schulz, Tina Sanders, Yoana G. Voynova, Hermann W. Bange, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 20, 3229–3247,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas. However, N2O emissions from estuaries underlie significant uncertainties due to limited data availability and high spatiotemporal variability. We found the Elbe Estuary (Germany) to be a year-round source of N2O, with the highest emissions in winter along with high nitrogen loads. However, in spring and summer, N2O emissions did not decrease alongside lower nitrogen loads because organic matter fueled in situ N2O production along the estuary.
Alex Mavrovic, Oliver Sonnentag, Juha Lemmetyinen, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Christophe Kinnard, and Alexandre Roy
Biogeosciences, 20, 2941–2970,Short summary
This review supports the integration of microwave spaceborne information into carbon cycle science for Arctic–boreal regions. The microwave data record spans multiple decades with frequent global observations of soil moisture and temperature, surface freeze–thaw cycles, vegetation water storage, snowpack properties, and land cover. This record holds substantial unexploited potential to better understand carbon cycle processes.
Zoé Rehder, Thomas Kleinen, Lars Kutzbach, Victor Stepanenko, Moritz Langer, and Victor Brovkin
Biogeosciences, 20, 2837–2855,Short summary
We use a new model to investigate how methane emissions from Arctic ponds change with warming. We find that emissions increase substantially. Under annual temperatures 5 °C above present temperatures, pond methane emissions are more than 3 times higher than now. Most of this increase is caused by an increase in plant productivity as plants provide the substrate microbes used to produce methane. We conclude that vegetation changes need to be included in predictions of pond methane emissions.
Julian Koch, Lars Elsgaard, Mogens H. Greve, Steen Gyldenkærne, Cecilie Hermansen, Gregor Levin, Shubiao Wu, and Simon Stisen
Biogeosciences, 20, 2387–2403,Short summary
Utilizing peatlands for agriculture leads to large emissions of greenhouse gases worldwide. The emissions are triggered by lowering the water table, which is a necessary step in order to make peatlands arable. Many countries aim at reducing their emissions by restoring peatlands, which can be achieved by stopping agricultural activities and thereby raising the water table. We estimate a total emission of 2.6 Mt CO2-eq for organic-rich peatlands in Denmark and a potential reduction of 77 %.
Mélissa Laurent, Matthias Fuchs, Tanja Herbst, Alexandra Runge, Susanne Liebner, and Claire C. Treat
Biogeosciences, 20, 2049–2064,Short summary
In this study we investigated the effect of different parameters (temperature, landscape position) on the production of greenhouse gases during a 1-year permafrost thaw experiment. For very similar carbon and nitrogen contents, our results show a strong heterogeneity in CH4 production, as well as in microbial abundance. According to our study, these differences are mainly due to the landscape position and the hydrological conditions established as a result of the topography.
Tim René de Groot, Anne Margriet Mol, Katherine Mesdag, Pierre Ramond, Rachel Ndhlovu, Julia Catherine Engelmann, Thomas Röckmann, and Helge Niemann
This study investigates methane dynamics in the Wadden Sea. Our measurements revealed distinct variations triggered by seasonality and tidal forcing. Methane budget was higher in warmer seasons, but remained surprisingly high in colder seasons. Methane dynamics were amplified during low tides, flushing the majority of methane into the North Sea or released to the atmosphere. Methanotrophic activity was also elevated during low tide but mitigated only a small fraction of the methane efflux.
Michael Moubarak, Seeta Sistla, Stefano Potter, Susan M. Natali, and Brendan M. Rogers
Biogeosciences, 20, 1537–1557,Short summary
Tundra wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity with climate change. We show using a combination of field measurements and computational modeling that tundra wildfires result in a positive feedback to climate change by emitting significant amounts of long-lived greenhouse gasses. With these effects, attention to tundra fires is necessary for mitigating climate change.
Hanna I. Campen, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 20, 1371–1379,Short summary
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a climate-relevant trace gas emitted from the ocean. However, oceanic CO cycling is understudied. Results from incubation experiments conducted in the Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) indicated that (i) pH did not affect CO cycling and (ii) enhanced CO production and consumption were positively correlated with coloured dissolved organic matter and nitrate concentrations. This suggests microbial CO uptake to be the driving factor for CO cycling in the Arctic Ocean.
Yihong Zhu, Ruihua Liu, Huai Zhang, Shaoda Liu, Zhengfeng Zhang, Fei-Hai Yu, and Timothy G. Gregoire
Biogeosciences, 20, 1357–1370,Short summary
With global warming, the risk of flooding is rising, but the response of the carbon cycle of aquatic and associated riparian systems to flooding is still unclear. Based on the data collected in the Lijiang, we found that flooding would lead to significant carbon emissions of fluvial areas and riparian areas during flooding, but carbon capture may happen after flooding. In the riparian areas, the surviving vegetation, especially clonal plants, played a vital role in this transformation.
Matti Räsänen, Risto Vesala, Petri Rönnholm, Laura Arppe, Petra Manninen, Markus Jylhä, Jouko Rikkinen, Petri Pellikka, and Janne Rinne
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Fungus-growing termites recycle large part of dead plant material in African savannas and are significant sources of greenhouse gases. We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes from their mounds and surrounding soils at open and closed habitats. The fluxes scale with mound volume. The results show that emissions from mounds of fungus-growing termites are more stable than those from other termites. The soil fluxes around the mound are affected by the termite colonies up to 2 m distance from the mound.
Ole Lessmann, Jorge Encinas Fernández, Karla Martínez-Cruz, and Frank Peeters
In our study, we assess the significance of methane (CH4) emissions due to reservoir flushing. We generated a large dataset of CH4 pore water concentrations in a reservoir's sediment to resolve seasonal CH4 distributions in the sediment. Our results show that in the studied reservoir, CH4 emissions caused by one flushing operation can represent 7–14 % of the annual CH4 emissions and that timing and frequency of the flushing operations affect the amount of released CH4.
Sofie Sjogersten, Martha Ledger, Matthias Siewert, Betsabé de la Barreda-Bautista, Andrew Sowter, David Gee, Giles Foody, and Doreen S. Boyd
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Permafrost thaw in Arctic regions is increasing methane emissions but quantification is difficult given the large and remote areas impacted. We show that drone data together with satellite data can be used to extrapolate emissions across the wider landscape as well as detecting areas at risk of higher emissions. A transition of currently degrading areas to fen type vegetation can increase emission with several orders of magnitude highlighting the importance of quantifying areas at risk.
Lauri Heiskanen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Henriikka Vekuri, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Sari Juutinen, Annalea Lohila, Juha Mikola, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 20, 545–572,Short summary
We measured and modelled the CO2 and CH4 fluxes of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the subarctic landscape for 2 years. The landscape was an annual CO2 sink and a CH4 source. The forest had the largest contribution to the landscape-level CO2 sink and the peatland to the CH4 emissions. The lakes released 24 % of the annual net C uptake of the landscape back to the atmosphere. The C fluxes were affected most by the rainy peak growing season of 2017 and the drought event in July 2018.
Cole G. Brachmann, Tage Vowles, Riikka Rinnan, Mats P. Björkman, Anna Ekberg, and Robert G. Björk
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Herbivores change plant communities through grazing, altering the amount of CO2 and plant-specific chemicals (termed VOCs) emitted. We tested this effect by excluding herbivores and studying the CO2 and VOC emissions. Herbivores reduced CO2 emissions from a meadow community and altered VOC composition, however community type had the strongest effect on the amount of CO2 and VOCs released. Herbivores can mediate greenhouse gas emissions, but the effect is marginal and community dependent.
Petr Znachor, Jiří Nedoma, Vojtech Kolar, and Anna Matoušů
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We conducted intensive spatial sampling of the hypertrophic fishpond to better understand the spatial dynamics of methane fluxes and environmental heterogeneity in fishponds. The diffusive fluxes of methane accounted for only a minor fraction of the total fluxes, and both varied pronouncedly within the pond and over the studied summer season, which could be explained only by the water depth. Wind substantially affected temperature, oxygen and chlorophyll-a distribution in the pond.
Artem G. Lim, Ivan V. Krickov, Sergey N. Vorobyev, Mikhail A. Korets, Sergey Kopysov, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Jan Karlsson, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 19, 5859–5877,Short summary
In order to quantify C transport and emission and main environmental factors controlling the C cycle in Siberian rivers, we investigated the largest tributary of the Ob River, the Ket River basin, by measuring spatial and seasonal variations in carbon CO2 and CH4 concentrations and emissions together with hydrochemical analyses. The obtained results are useful for large-scale modeling of C emission and export fluxes from permafrost-free boreal rivers of an underrepresented region of the world.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Toby R. Marthews, A. Anthony Bloom, Mark F. Lunt, Nicola Gedney, Simon J. Dadson, Joe McNorton, Neil Humpage, Hartmut Boesch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Paul I. Palmer, and Dai Yamazaki
Biogeosciences, 19, 5779–5805,Short summary
Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane, one of the most important climate gases. The JULES land surface model simulates these emissions. We use satellite data to evaluate how well JULES reproduces the methane seasonal cycle over different tropical wetlands. It performs well for most regions; however, it struggles for some African wetlands influenced heavily by river flooding. We explain the reasons for these deficiencies and highlight how future development will improve these areas.
Saúl Edgardo Martínez Castellón, José Henrique Cattanio, José Francisco Berrêdo, Marcelo Rollnic, Maria de Lourdes Ruivo, and Carlos Noriega
Biogeosciences, 19, 5483–5497,Short summary
We seek to understand the influence of climatic seasonality and microtopography on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in an Amazonian mangrove. Topography and seasonality had a contrasting influence when comparing the two gas fluxes: CO2 fluxes were greater in high topography in the dry period, and CH4 fluxes were greater in the rainy season in low topography. Only CO2 fluxes were correlated with soil organic matter, the proportion of carbon and nitrogen, and redox potential.
Matthias Koschorreck, Klaus Holger Knorr, and Lelaina Teichert
Biogeosciences, 19, 5221–5236,Short summary
At low water levels, parts of the bottom of rivers fall dry. These beaches or mudflats emit the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. We found that those emissions are caused by microbial reactions in the sediment and that they change with time. Emissions were influenced by many factors like temperature, water level, rain, plants, and light.
Wantong Zhang, Zhengyi Hu, Joachim Audet, Thomas A. Davidson, Enze Kang, Xiaoming Kang, Yong Li, Xiaodong Zhang, and Jinzhi Wang
Biogeosciences, 19, 5187–5197,Short summary
This work focused on the CH4 and N2O emissions from alpine peatlands in response to the interactive effects of altered water table levels and increased nitrogen deposition. Across the 2-year mesocosm experiment, nitrogen deposition showed nonlinear effects on CH4 emissions and linear effects on N2O emissions, and these N effects were associated with the water table levels. Our results imply the future scenario of strengthened CH4 and N2O emissions from an alpine peatland.
Karel Castro-Morales, Anna Canning, Sophie Arzberger, Will A. Overholt, Kirsten Küsel, Olaf Kolle, Mathias Göckede, Nikita Zimov, and Arne Körtzinger
Biogeosciences, 19, 5059–5077,Short summary
Permafrost thaw releases methane that can be emitted into the atmosphere or transported by Arctic rivers. Methane measurements are lacking in large Arctic river regions. In the Kolyma River (northeast Siberia), we measured dissolved methane to map its distribution with great spatial detail. The river’s edge and river junctions had the highest methane concentrations compared to other river areas. Microbial communities in the river showed that the river’s methane likely is from the adjacent land.
Sonja Gindorf, Hermann W. Bange, Dennis Booge, and Annette Kock
Biogeosciences, 19, 4993–5006,Short summary
Methane is a climate-relevant greenhouse gas which is emitted to the atmosphere from coastal areas such as the Baltic Sea. We measured the methane concentration in the water column of the western Kiel Bight. Methane concentrations were higher in September than in June. We found no relationship between the 2018 European heatwave and methane concentrations. Our results show that the methane distribution in the water column is strongly affected by temporal and spatial variabilities.
Margaret Capooci and Rodrigo Vargas
Biogeosciences, 19, 4655–4670,Short summary
Tidal salt marsh soil emits greenhouse gases, as well as sulfur-based gases, which play roles in global climate but are not well studied as they are difficult to measure. Traditional methods of measuring these gases worked relatively well for carbon dioxide, but less so for methane, nitrous oxide, carbon disulfide, and dimethylsulfide. High variability of trace gases complicates the ability to accurately calculate gas budgets and new approaches are needed for monitoring protocols.
Janne Rinne, Patryk Łakomiec, Patrik Vestin, Joel D. White, Per Weslien, Julia Kelly, Natascha Kljun, Lena Ström, and Leif Klemedtsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 4331–4349,Short summary
The study uses the stable isotope 13C of carbon in methane to investigate the origins of spatial and temporal variation in methane emitted by a temperate wetland ecosystem. The results indicate that methane production is more important for spatial variation than methane consumption by micro-organisms. Temporal variation on a seasonal timescale is most likely affected by more than one driver simultaneously.
Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Roderick Dewar, Gianluca Tramontana, Aleksanteri Mauranen, Pasi Kolari, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Dario Papale, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 19, 4067–4088,Short summary
Four different methods for quantifying photosynthesis (GPP) at ecosystem scale were tested, of which two are based on carbon dioxide (CO2) and two on carbonyl sulfide (COS) flux measurements. CO2-based methods are traditional partitioning, and a new method uses machine learning. We introduce a novel method for calculating GPP from COS fluxes, with potentially better applicability than the former methods. Both COS-based methods gave on average higher GPP estimates than the CO2-based estimates.
Lutz Beckebanze, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Josefine Walz, Christian Wille, David Holl, Manuel Helbig, Julia Boike, Torsten Sachs, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 19, 3863–3876,Short summary
In this study, we present observations of lateral and vertical carbon fluxes from a permafrost-affected study site in the Russian Arctic. From this dataset we estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance for this study site. We show that lateral carbon export has a low impact on the net ecosystem carbon balance during the complete study period (3 months). Nevertheless, our results also show that lateral carbon export can exceed vertical carbon uptake at the beginning of the growing season.
Shahar Baram, Asher Bar-Tal, Alon Gal, Shmulik P. Friedman, and David Russo
Biogeosciences, 19, 3699–3711,Short summary
Static chambers are the most common tool used to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. We tested the impact of such chambers on nitrous oxide emissions in drip irrigation. Field measurements and 3-D simulations show that the chamber base drastically affects the water and nutrient distribution in the soil and hence the measured GHG fluxes. A nomogram is suggested to determine the optimal diameter of a cylindrical chamber that ensures minimal disturbance.
Tracy E. Rankin, Nigel T. Roulet, and Tim R. Moore
Biogeosciences, 19, 3285–3303,Short summary
Peatland respiration is made up of plant and peat sources. How to separate these sources is not well known as peat respiration is not straightforward and is more influenced by vegetation dynamics than previously thought. Results of plot level measurements from shrubs and sparse grasses in a woody bog show that plants' respiration response to changes in climate is related to their different root structures, implying a difference in the mechanisms by which they obtain water resources.
Alison Bressler and Jennifer Blesh
Biogeosciences, 19, 3169–3184,Short summary
Our field experiment tested if a mixture of a nitrogen-fixing legume and non-legume cover crop could reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions following tillage, compared to the legume grown alone. We found higher N2O following both legume treatments, compared to those without, and lower emissions from the cover crop mixture at one of the two test sites, suggesting that interactions between cover crop types and soil quality influence N2O emissions.
Sari Juutinen, Mika Aurela, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Viktor Ivakhov, Maiju Linkosalmi, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Juha Mikola, Johanna Nyman, Emmi Vähä, Marina Loskutova, Alexander Makshtas, and Tuomas Laurila
Biogeosciences, 19, 3151–3167,Short summary
We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in heterogenous Arctic tundra in eastern Siberia. We found that tundra wetlands with sedge and grass vegetation contributed disproportionately to the landscape's ecosystem CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Moreover, we observed high CH4 consumption in dry tundra, particularly in barren areas, offsetting part of the CH4 emissions from the wetlands.
Jessica Plein, Rulon W. Clark, Kyle A. Arndt, Walter C. Oechel, Douglas Stow, and Donatella Zona
Biogeosciences, 19, 2779–2794,Short summary
Tundra vegetation and the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems can be substantially impacted by herbivory. We tested how herbivory by brown lemmings in individual enclosure plots have impacted carbon exchange of tundra ecosystems via altering carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Lemmings significantly decreased net CO2 uptake while not affecting CH4 emissions. There was no significant difference in the subsequent growing season due to recovery of the vegetation.
Jenie Gil, Maija E. Marushchak, Tobias Rütting, Elizabeth M. Baggs, Tibisay Pérez, Alexander Novakovskiy, Tatiana Trubnikova, Dmitry Kaverin, Pertti J. Martikainen, and Christina Biasi
Biogeosciences, 19, 2683–2698,Short summary
N2O emissions from permafrost soils represent up to 11.6 % of total N2O emissions from natural soils, and their contribution to the global N2O budget will likely increase due to climate change. A better understanding of N2O production from permafrost soil is needed to evaluate the role of arctic ecosystems in the global N2O budget. By studying microbial N2O production processes in N2O hotspots in permafrost peatlands, we identified denitrification as the dominant source of N2O in these surfaces.
Christian Rödenbeck, Tim DeVries, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, and Ralph F. Keeling
Biogeosciences, 19, 2627–2652,Short summary
The ocean is an important part of the global carbon cycle, taking up about a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted by burning of fossil fuels and thus slowing down climate change. However, the CO2 uptake by the ocean is, in turn, affected by variability and trends in climate. Here we use carbon measurements in the surface ocean to quantify the response of the oceanic CO2 exchange to environmental conditions and discuss possible mechanisms underlying this response.
Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Yuanyuan Huang, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 19, 2245–2262,Short summary
The relative ratio of wetland methane (CH4) emission pathways determines how much CH4 is oxidized before leaving the soil. We found an ebullition modeling approach that has a better performance in deep layer pore water CH4 concentration. We suggest using this approach in land surface models to accurately represent CH4 emission dynamics and response to climate change. Our results also highlight that both CH4 flux and belowground concentration data are important to constrain model parameters.
Mika Korkiakoski, Tiia Määttä, Krista Peltoniemi, Timo Penttilä, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 19, 2025–2041,Short summary
We measured CH4 fluxes and production and oxidation potentials from irrigated and non-irrigated podzolic soil in a boreal forest. CH4 sink was smaller at the irrigated site but did not cause CH4 emission, with one exception. We also showed that under laboratory conditions, not only wet conditions, but also fresh carbon, are needed to make podzolic soil into a CH4 source. Our study provides important data for improving the process models describing the upland soil CH4 dynamics.
Sarah Shakil, Suzanne E. Tank, Jorien E. Vonk, and Scott Zolkos
Biogeosciences, 19, 1871–1890,Short summary
Permafrost thaw-driven landslides in the western Arctic are increasing organic carbon delivered to headwaters of drainage networks in the western Canadian Arctic by orders of magnitude. Through a series of laboratory experiments, we show that less than 10 % of this organic carbon is likely to be mineralized to greenhouse gases during transport in these networks. Rather most of the organic carbon is likely destined for burial and sequestration for centuries to millennia.
Wolfgang Fischer, Christoph K. Thomas, Nikita Zimov, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 19, 1611–1633,Short summary
Arctic permafrost ecosystems may release large amounts of carbon under warmer future climates and may therefore accelerate global climate change. Our study investigated how long-term grazing by large animals influenced ecosystem characteristics and carbon budgets at a Siberian permafrost site. Our results demonstrate that such management can contribute to stabilizing ecosystems to keep carbon in the ground, particularly through drying soils and reducing methane emissions.
Dong-Gill Kim, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Youngryel Ryu, Bumsuk Seo, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 19, 1435–1450,Short summary
As carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) research has adopted appropriate technology and approach (AT&A), low-cost instruments, open-source software, and participatory research and their results were well accepted by scientific communities. In terms of cost, feasibility, and performance, the integration of low-cost and low-technology, participatory and networking-based research approaches can be AT&A for enhancing C and GHG research in developing countries.
Lutz Beckebanze, Zoé Rehder, David Holl, Christian Wille, Charlotta Mirbach, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 19, 1225–1244,Short summary
Arctic permafrost landscapes feature many water bodies. In contrast to the terrestrial parts of the landscape, the water bodies release carbon to the atmosphere. We compare carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from small water bodies to the surrounding tundra and find not accounting for the carbon dioxide emissions leads to an overestimation of the tundra uptake by 11 %. Consequently, changes in hydrology and water body distribution may substantially impact the overall carbon budget of the Arctic.
Brian Scott, Andrew H. Baldwin, and Stephanie A. Yarwood
Biogeosciences, 19, 1151–1164,Short summary
Carbon dioxide and methane contribute to global warming. What can we do? We can build wetlands: they store carbon dioxide and should cause global cooling. But when first built they produce excess methane. Eventually built wetlands will cause cooling, but it may take decades or even centuries. How we build wetlands matters. We show that a common practice, using organic matter, such as manure, can make a big difference whether or not the wetlands we build start global cooling within our lifetime.
Jan Knappe, Celia Somlai, and Laurence W. Gill
Biogeosciences, 19, 1067–1085,Short summary
Two domestic on-site wastewater treatment systems have been monitored for greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) emissions coming from the process units, soil and vent pipes. This has enabled the net greenhouse gas per person to be quantified for the first time, as well as the impact of pre-treatment on the effluent before being discharged to soil. These decentralised wastewater treatment systems serve approx. 20 % of the population in both Europe and the United States.
Yanan Zhao, Dennis Booge, Christa A. Marandino, Cathleen Schlundt, Astrid Bracher, Elliot L. Atlas, Jonathan Williams, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 19, 701–714,Short summary
We present here, for the first time, simultaneously measured dimethylsulfide (DMS) seawater concentrations and DMS atmospheric mole fractions from the Peruvian upwelling region during two cruises in December 2012 and October 2015. Our results indicate low oceanic DMS concentrations and atmospheric DMS molar fractions in surface waters and the atmosphere, respectively. In addition, the Peruvian upwelling region was identified as an insignificant source of DMS emissions during both periods.
Moussa Moustapha, Loris Deirmendjian, David Sebag, Jean-Jacques Braun, Stéphane Audry, Henriette Ateba Bessa, Thierry Adatte, Carole Causserand, Ibrahima Adamou, Benjamin Ngounou Ngatcha, and Frédéric Guérin
Biogeosciences, 19, 137–163,Short summary
We monitor the spatio-temporal variability of organic and inorganic carbon (C) species in the tropical Nyong River (Cameroon), across groundwater and increasing stream orders. We show the significant contribution of wetland as a C source for tropical rivers. Thus, ignoring the river–wetland connectivity might lead to the misrepresentation of C dynamics in tropical watersheds. Finally, total fluvial carbon losses might offset ~10 % of the net C sink estimated for the whole Nyong watershed.
Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Troy S. Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6579–6588,Short summary
This work builds a high-resolution estimate (500 m) of gross primary productivity (GPP) over the US using satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) between 2018 and 2020. We identify ecosystem-specific scaling factors for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) from TROPOMI SIF. Extreme precipitation events drive four regional GPP anomalies that account for 28 % of year-to-year GPP differences across the US.
Paul Laris, Moussa Koné, Fadiala Dembélé, Christine M. Rodrigue, Lilian Yang, Rebecca Jacobs, and Quincy Laris
Biogeosciences, 18, 6229–6244,Short summary
Savanna fires play a key role in the global carbon cycle because they release methane. Although it burns the most, there are few studies from West Africa. We conducted 36 experimental fires according to local practice to collect smoke samples. We found that fires set early in the season had higher methane emissions than those set later, and head fires had double the emissions of backfires. We conclude policies to reduce emissions will not have the desired effects if fire type is not considered.
Johan H. Scheller, Mikhail Mastepanov, Hanne H. Christiansen, and Torben R. Christensen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6093–6114,Short summary
Our study presents a time series of methane emissions in a high-Arctic-tundra landscape over 14 summers, which shows large variations between years. The methane emissions from the valley are expected to more than double in the late 21st century. This warming increases permafrost thaw, which could increase surface erosion in the valley. Increased erosion could offset some of the rise in methane fluxes from the valley, but this would require large-scale impacts on vegetated surfaces.
Patryk Łakomiec, Jutta Holst, Thomas Friborg, Patrick Crill, Niklas Rakos, Natascha Kljun, Per-Ola Olsson, Lars Eklundh, Andreas Persson, and Janne Rinne
Biogeosciences, 18, 5811–5830,Short summary
Methane emission from the subarctic mire with heterogeneous permafrost status was measured for the years 2014–2016. Lower methane emission was measured from the palsa mire sector while the thawing wet sector emitted more. Both sectors have a similar annual pattern with a gentle rise during spring and a decrease during autumn. The highest emission was observed in the late summer. Winter emissions were positive during the measurement period and have a significant impact on the annual budgets.
Balázs Grosz, Reinhard Well, Rene Dechow, Jan Reent Köster, Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil, Simone Merl, Andreas Rode, Bianca Ziehmer, Amanda Matson, and Hongxing He
Biogeosciences, 18, 5681–5697,Short summary
To assure quality predictions biogeochemical models must be current. We use data measured using novel incubation methods to test the denitrification sub-modules of three models. We aim to identify limitations in the denitrification modeling to inform next steps for development. Several areas are identified, most urgently improved denitrification control parameters and further testing with high-temporal-resolution datasets. Addressing these would significantly improve denitrification modeling.
Sarah Waldo, Jake J. Beaulieu, William Barnett, D. Adam Balz, Michael J. Vanni, Tanner Williamson, and John T. Walker
Biogeosciences, 18, 5291–5311,Short summary
Human-made reservoirs impact the carbon cycle. In particular, the breakdown of organic matter in reservoir sediments can result in large emissions of greenhouse gases (especially methane) to the atmosphere. This study takes an intensive look at the patterns in greenhouse gas emissions from a single reservoir in Ohio (United States) and the role of water temperature, precipitation, and algal blooms in emissions. We saw a "spring burst" of elevated emissions that challenged our assumptions.
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We quantified carbon dioxide emissions from drained peat extraction sites in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom and also measured a range of greenhouse gases that are released to the atmosphere with the burning of peat. Our derived carbon dioxide emission factors were considerably lower than those derived by the IPCC, which has major implications for National Inventory reporting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol.
We quantified carbon dioxide emissions from drained peat extraction sites in the Republic of...