Articles | Volume 18, issue 19
Research article 30 Sep 2021
Research article | 30 Sep 2021
Temporal trends in methane emissions from a small eutrophic reservoir: the key role of a spring burst
Sarah Waldo et al.
No articles found.
Zhiyong Wu, Leiming Zhang, John T. Walker, Paul A. Makar, Judith A. Perlinger, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5093–5105,Short summary
A community dry deposition algorithm for modeling the gaseous dry deposition process in chemistry transport models was extended to include an additional 12 oxidized volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide based on their physicochemical properties and was then evaluated using field flux measurements over a mixed forest. This study provides a useful tool that is needed in chemistry transport models with increasing complexity for simulating an important atmospheric process.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
Xi Chen, Mingjie Xie, Michael D. Hays, Eric Edgerton, Donna Schwede, and John T. Walker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6829–6846,
Xi Chen, John T. Walker, and Chris Geron
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3893–3908,Short summary
The MARGA instrument is a powerful research tool for investigating atmospheric chemistry and the exchange of gases and particles between the atmosphere and biosphere. Our study examines the operating characteristics of the instrument with a focus on the software used to calculate air concentrations. We show that more accurate measurements may be obtained by calibrating the instrument with a range of standards in addition to the single internal standard used in online concentration calculations.
Rose M. Smith, Sujay S. Kaushal, Jake J. Beaulieu, Michael J. Pennino, and Claire Welty
Biogeosciences, 14, 2831–2849,Short summary
Urban streams receive excess nitrogen from numerous sources. We hypothesized that variations in carbon availability and subsurface infrastructure influence emissions of N2O and other greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) as excess N is utilized by microbes. We sampled eight streams draining four categories of stormwater and sanitary infrastructure. Dissolved nitrogen concentration was the strongest predictor of CO2 and N2O concentrations, while C : N ratio was the strongest predictor of CH4 in streams.
Ian C. Rumsey and John T. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2581–2592,Short summary
The performance of the MARGA (Monitor of AeRosols and GAses in ambient air) instrument in measuring speciated nitrogen and sulfur fluxes is evaluated for the first time. The results demonstrate that the MARGA instrument can be used to make accurate measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur deposition. These measurements are urgently needed to evaluate chemical transport models and develop risk assessments and mitigation strategies to protect ecosystems from nutrient and acidic deposition.
F. Yu, G. Luo, S. C. Pryor, P. R. Pillai, S. H. Lee, J. Ortega, J. J. Schwab, A. G. Hallar, W. R. Leaitch, V. P. Aneja, J. N. Smith, J. T. Walker, O. Hogrefe, and K. L. Demerjian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13993–14003,Short summary
The role of low-volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF) in the atmosphere is assessed. An empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low-volatility organics significantly overpredicts NPF in the summer. Two different schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America.
B. B. Almand-Hunter, J. T. Walker, N. P. Masson, L. Hafford, and M. P. Hannigan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 267–280,
I. C. Rumsey, K. A. Cowen, J. T. Walker, T. J. Kelly, E. A. Hanft, K. Mishoe, C. Rogers, R. Proost, G. M. Beachley, G. Lear, T. Frelink, and R. P. Otjes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5639–5658,
J. O. Bash, E. J. Cooter, R. L. Dennis, J. T. Walker, and J. E. Pleim
Biogeosciences, 10, 1635–1645,
J. T. Walker, M. R. Jones, J. O. Bash, L. Myles, T. Meyers, D. Schwede, J. Herrick, E. Nemitz, and W. Robarge
Biogeosciences, 10, 981–998,
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Xinyu Liu, Xixi Lu, Ruihong Yu, Heyang Sun, Hao Xue, Zhen Qi, Zhengxu Cao, Zhuangzhuang Zhang, and Tingxi Liu
Biogeosciences, 18, 4855–4872,Short summary
Gradual riparian wetland drying is increasingly sensitive to global warming and contributes to climate change. We analyzed the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from riparian wetlands in the Xilin River basin to understand the role of these ecosystems in greenhouse gas emissions. Our study showed that anthropogenic activities have extensively changed the hydrological characteristics of the riparian wetlands and might accelerate carbon loss, which could further affect greenhouse gas emissions.
Zhaohui Chen, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Andrew J. Watson, Ute Schuster, Jiang Zhu, and Ning Zeng
Biogeosciences, 18, 4549–4570,Short summary
As the global temperature continues to increase, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major driver of this global warming. The increased CO2 is mainly caused by emissions from fossil fuel use and land use. At the same time, the ocean is a significant sink in the carbon cycle. The North Atlantic is a critical ocean region in reducing CO2 concentration. We estimate the CO2 uptake in this region based on a carbon inverse system and atmospheric CO2 observations.
Sirwan Yamulki, Jack Forster, Georgios Xenakis, Adam Ash, Jacqui Brunt, Mike Perks, and James I. L. Morison
Biogeosciences, 18, 4227–4241,Short summary
The effect of clear-felling on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes was assessed in a Sitka spruce forest. Measurements over 4 years showed that CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes responded differently to clear-felling due to significant changes in soil biotic and abiotic factors and showed large variations between years. Over 3 years since felling, the soil GHG flux was reduced by 45% due to a much larger reduction in CO2 efflux than increases in N2O (up to 20%) and CH4 (changed from sink to source) fluxes.
Stefan Theodorus Johannes Weideveld, Weier Liu, Merit van den Berg, Leon Peter Maria Lamers, and Christian Fritz
Biogeosciences, 18, 3881–3902,Short summary
Raising the groundwater table (GWT) trough subsoil irrigation does not lead to a reduction of carbon emissions from drained peat meadows, even though there was a clear increase in the GWT during summer. Most likely, the largest part of the peat oxidation takes place in the top 70 cm of the soil, which stays above the GWT with the use of subsoil irrigation. We conclude that the use of subsoil irrigation is ineffective as a mitigation measure to sufficiently lower peat oxidation rates.
Yanming Gong, Ping Yue, Kaihui Li, Anwar Mohammat, and Yanyan Liu
Biogeosciences, 18, 3529–3537,Short summary
At present, data on the influence of asymmetric warming on the GHG flux on a temporal scale are scarce. GHG fluxes were measured using static chambers and a gas chromatograph. Our study showed that the effect of seasonally asymmetrical warming on CO2 flux was obvious, with the GHG flux being able to adapt to continuous warming. Warming in the non-growing season increased the temperature dependence of GHG flux.
Hella van Asperen, João Rafael Alves-Oliveira, Thorsten Warneke, Bruce Forsberg, Alessandro Carioca de Araújo, and Justus Notholt
Biogeosciences, 18, 2609–2625,Short summary
Termites are insects that are highly abundant in tropical ecosystems. It is known that termites emit CH4, an important greenhouse gas, but their absolute emission remains uncertain. In the Amazon rainforest, we measured CH4 emissions from termite nests and groups of termites. In addition, we tested a fast and non-destructive field method to estimate termite nest colony size. We found that termites play a significant role in an ecosystem's CH4 budget and probably emit more than currently assumed.
Genevieve L. Noyce and J. Patrick Megonigal
Biogeosciences, 18, 2449–2463,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to global radiative forcing. A mechanistic understanding of how wetland CH4 cycling will respond to global warming is crucial for improving prognostic models. We present results from the first 4 years of a novel whole-ecosystem warming experiment in a coastal wetland, showing that warming increases CH4 emissions and identifying four potential mechanisms that can be added to future modeling efforts.
Balázs Grosz, Reinhard Well, Rene Dechow, Jan Reent Köster, M. Ibrahim Khalil, Simone Merl, Andreas Rode, Bianca Ziehmer, Amanda Matson, and Hongxing He
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
To assure quality predictions biogeochemical models must be current. We use data measured using novel incubation methods, to test the denitrification sub-modules of three models. We aim to identify limitations in the denitrification modelling to inform next steps for development. Several areas are identified, most urgently improved denitrification control parameters and further testing with high-temporal-resolution datasets. Addressing these would significantly improve denitrification modelling.
Patryk Łakomiec, Jutta Holst, Thomas Friborg, Patrick Crill, Niklas Rakos, Natascha Kljun, Per-Ola Olsson, Lars Eklundh, and Janne Rinne
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Methane emission from the sub-artic mire with heterogeneous permafrost status was measured for the years 2014–2016. Lower methane emission was measured from the palsa mire sector while the thawing wet sector emitted more. Both sectors have a similar annual pattern with a gentle rise during spring and a decrease during autumn. The highest emission was observed in the late summer. Winter emissions were positive during the measurement period and have a significant impact on the annual budgets.
Yanan Zhao, Cathleen Schlundt, Dennis Booge, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 18, 2161–2179,Short summary
We present a unique and comprehensive time-series study of biogenic sulfur compounds in the southwestern Baltic Sea, from 2009 to 2018. Dimethyl sulfide is one of the key players regulating global climate change, as well as dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethyl sulfoxide. Their decadal trends did not follow increasing temperature but followed some algae group abundances at the Boknis Eck Time Series Station.
Ingeborg Bussmann, Irina Fedorova, Bennet Juhls, Pier Paul Overduin, and Matthias Winkel
Biogeosciences, 18, 2047–2061,Short summary
Arctic rivers, lakes, and bays are affected by a warming climate. We measured the amount and consumption of methane in waters from Siberia under ice cover and in open water. In the lake, methane concentrations under ice cover were much higher than in summer, and methane consumption was highest. The ice cover leads to higher methane concentration under ice. In a warmer Arctic, there will be more time with open water when methane is consumed by bacteria, and less methane will escape into the air.
Elisa Vainio, Olli Peltola, Ville Kasurinen, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, and Mari Pihlatie
Biogeosciences, 18, 2003–2025,Short summary
We studied forest floor methane exchange over an area of 10 ha in a boreal pine forest. The results demonstrate high spatial variability in soil moisture and consequently in the methane flux. We detected wet patches emitting high amounts of methane in the early summer; however, these patches turned to methane uptake in the autumn. We concluded that the small-scale spatial variability of the boreal forest methane flux highlights the importance of soil chamber placement in similar studies.
Matthias Koschorreck, Yves T. Prairie, Jihyeon Kim, and Rafael Marcé
Biogeosciences, 18, 1619–1627,Short summary
The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in water samples is often measured using a gas chromatograph. Depending on the chemical composition of the water, this method can produce wrong results. We quantified the possible error and how it depends on water composition and the analytical procedure. We propose a method to correct wrong results by additionally analysing alkalinity in the samples. We provide an easily usable computer code to perform the correction calculations.
Julia Drewer, Melissa M. Leduning, Robert I. Griffiths, Tim Goodall, Peter E. Levy, Nicholas Cowan, Edward Comynn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Justin Sentian, Noreen Majalap, and Ute M. Skiba
Biogeosciences, 18, 1559–1575,Short summary
In Southeast Asia, oil palm plantations have largely replaced tropical forests. The impact of this shift in land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil microbial communities remains uncertain. We have found emission rates of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide on mineral soil to be higher from oil palm plantations than logged forest over a 2-year study and concluded that emissions have increased over the last 42 years in Sabah, with the proportion of emissions from plantations increasing.
Lutz Merbold, Charlotte Decock, Werner Eugster, Kathrin Fuchs, Benjamin Wolf, Nina Buchmann, and Lukas Hörtnagl
Biogeosciences, 18, 1481–1498,Short summary
Our study investigated the exchange of the three major greenhouse gases (GHGs) over a temperate grassland prior to and after restoration through tillage in central Switzerland. Our results show that irregular management events, such as tillage, have considerable effects on GHG emissions in the year of tillage while leading to enhanced carbon uptake and similar nitrogen losses via nitrous oxide in the years following tillage to those observed prior to tillage.
Roland Vernooij, Marcos Giongo, Marco Assis Borges, Máximo Menezes Costa, Ana Carolina Sena Barradas, and Guido R. van der Werf
Biogeosciences, 18, 1375–1393,Short summary
We used drones to measure greenhouse gas emission factors from fires in the Brazilian Cerrado. We compared early-dry-season management fires and late-dry-season fires to determine if fire management can be a tool for abating emissions. Although we found some evidence of increased CO and CH4 emission factors, the seasonal effect was smaller than that found in previous studies. For N2O, the third most important greenhouse gas, we found opposite trends in grass- and shrub-dominated areas.
Filippo Vingiani, Nicola Durighetto, Marcus Klaus, Jakob Schelker, Thierry Labasque, and Gianluca Botter
Biogeosciences, 18, 1223–1240,Short summary
Flexible foil chamber design and the anchored deployment might be useful techniques to enhance the robustness and the accuracy of CO2 measurements in low-order streams. Moreover, the study demonstrates the value of analytical and numerical techniques for the estimation of gas exchange velocities. These results may contribute to the development of novel procedures for chamber data analysis which might improve the robustness and reliability of chamber-based CO2 measurements in first-order streams.
Lauri Heiskanen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Sari Juutinen, Annalea Lohila, Timo Penttilä, Maiju Linkosalmi, Juha Mikola, Tuomas Laurila, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 18, 873–896,Short summary
We studied ecosystem- and plant-community-level carbon (C) exchange between subarctic mire and the atmosphere during 2017–2018. We found strong spatial variation in CO2 and CH4 dynamics between the main plant communities. The earlier onset of growing season in 2018 strengthened the CO2 sink of the ecosystem, but this gain was counterbalanced by a later drought period. Variation in water table level, soil temperature and vegetation explained most of the variation in ecosystem-level C exchange.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Maria Tsivlidou, A. Anthony Bloom, Benjamin Poulter, Zhen Zhang, and Ilse Aben
Biogeosciences, 18, 557–572,Short summary
We use atmospheric methane observations from the novel TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI; Sentinel-5p) to estimate methane emissions from South Sudan's wetlands. Our emission estimates are an order of magnitude larger than the estimate of process-based wetland models. We find that this underestimation by the models is likely due to their misrepresentation of the wetlands' inundation extent and temperature dependences.
Paula Alejandra Lamprea Pineda, Marijn Bauters, Hans Verbeeck, Selene Baez, Matti Barthel, Samuel Bodé, and Pascal Boeckx
Biogeosciences, 18, 413–421,Short summary
Tropical forest soils are an important source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHGs) with tropical montane forests having been poorly studied. In this pilot study, we explored soil fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O in an Ecuadorian neotropical montane forest, where a net consumption of N2O at higher altitudes was observed. Our results highlight the importance of short-term variations in N2O and provide arguments and insights for future, more detailed studies on GHG fluxes from montane forest soils.
Bruna R. F. Oliveira, Carsten Schaller, J. Jacob Keizer, and Thomas Foken
Biogeosciences, 18, 285–302,Short summary
Forest fires have a significant impact on carbon dioxide emissions. The present study from a pine forest in Portugal is one of the few where measurements of CO2 fluxes were started immediately (1.5 months) after the forest fire. Carbon dioxide emissions were linked to soil humidity. Therefore, they started after the beginning of the rainfall in autumn. Due to the beginning of vegetation, the site was already a carbon dioxide sink the following year.
Hui Zhang, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Aino Korrensalo, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Mika Aurela, Timo Penttilä, Tuomas Laurila, Stephanie Gerin, Viivi Lindholm, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 17, 6247–6270,Short summary
We studied the impact of a stream on peatland microhabitats and CH4 emissions in a northern boreal fen. We found that there were higher water levels, lower peat temperatures, and greater oxygen concentrations close to the stream; these supported the highest biomass production but resulted in the lowest CH4 emissions. Further from the stream, the conditions were drier and CH4 emissions were also low. CH4 emissions were highest at an intermediate distance from the stream.
Simon Baumgartner, Matti Barthel, Travis William Drake, Marijn Bauters, Isaac Ahanamungu Makelele, John Kalume Mugula, Laura Summerauer, Nora Gallarotti, Landry Cizungu Ntaboba, Kristof Van Oost, Pascal Boeckx, Sebastian Doetterl, Roland Anton Werner, and Johan Six
Biogeosciences, 17, 6207–6218,Short summary
Soil respiration is an important carbon flux and key process determining the net ecosystem production of terrestrial ecosystems. The Congo Basin lacks studies quantifying carbon fluxes. We measured soil CO2 fluxes from different forest types in the Congo Basin and were able to show that, even though soil CO2 fluxes are similarly high in lowland and montane forests, the drivers were different: soil moisture in montane forests and C availability in the lowland forests.
Bettina K. Gier, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Peter M. Cox, Pierre Friedlingstein, and Veronika Eyring
Biogeosciences, 17, 6115–6144,Short summary
Models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) phases 5 and 6 are compared to a satellite data product of column-averaged CO2 mole fractions (XCO2). The previously believed discrepancy of the negative trend in seasonal cycle amplitude in the satellite product, which is not seen in in situ data nor in the models, is attributed to a sampling characteristic. Furthermore, CMIP6 models are shown to have made progress in reproducing the observed XCO2 time series compared to CMIP5.
Samuel T. Wilson, Alia N. Al-Haj, Annie Bourbonnais, Claudia Frey, Robinson W. Fulweiler, John D. Kessler, Hannah K. Marchant, Jana Milucka, Nicholas E. Ray, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Brett F. Thornton, Robert C. Upstill-Goddard, Thomas S. Weber, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Hermann W. Bange, Heather M. Benway, Daniele Bianchi, Alberto V. Borges, Bonnie X. Chang, Patrick M. Crill, Daniela A. del Valle, Laura Farías, Samantha B. Joye, Annette Kock, Jabrane Labidi, Cara C. Manning, John W. Pohlman, Gregor Rehder, Katy J. Sparrow, Philippe D. Tortell, Tina Treude, David L. Valentine, Bess B. Ward, Simon Yang, and Leonid N. Yurganov
Biogeosciences, 17, 5809–5828,Short summary
The oceans are a net source of the major greenhouse gases; however there has been little coordination of oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements. The scientific community has recently embarked on a series of capacity-building exercises to improve the interoperability of dissolved methane and nitrous oxide measurements. This paper derives from a workshop which discussed the challenges and opportunities for oceanic methane and nitrous oxide research in the near future.
Najeeb Al-Amin Iddris, Marife D. Corre, Martin Yemefack, Oliver van Straaten, and Edzo Veldkamp
Biogeosciences, 17, 5377–5397,Short summary
We quantified the changes in stem and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes with forest conversion to cacao agroforestry in the Congo Basin, Cameroon. All forest and cacao trees consistently emitted N2O, contributing 8–38 % of the total (soil and stem) emissions. Forest conversion to extensively managed (>–20 years old) cacao agroforestry had no effect on stem and soil N2O fluxes. Our results highlight the importance of including tree-mediated fluxes in the ecosystem-level N2O budget.
Cédric Morana, Steven Bouillon, Vimac Nolla-Ardèvol, Fleur A. E. Roland, William Okello, Jean-Pierre Descy, Angela Nankabirwa, Erina Nabafu, Dirk Springael, and Alberto V. Borges
Biogeosciences, 17, 5209–5221,Short summary
A growing body of studies challenges the paradigm that methane (CH4) production occurs only under anaerobic conditions. Our field experiments revealed that oxic CH4 production is closely related to phytoplankton metabolism and is indeed a common feature in five contrasting African lakes. Nevertheless, we found that methanotrophic activity in surface waters and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere were predominantly fuelled by CH4 generated in sediments and physically transported to the surface.
Leandra Stephanie Emilia Praetzel, Nora Plenter, Sabrina Schilling, Marcel Schmiedeskamp, Gabriele Broll, and Klaus-Holger Knorr
Biogeosciences, 17, 5057–5078,Short summary
Small lakes are important but variable sources of greenhouse gas emissions. We performed lab experiments to determine spatial patterns and drivers of CO2 and CH4 emission and sediment gas production within a lake. The observed high spatial variability of emissions and production could be explained by the degradability of the sediment organic matter. We did not see correlations between production and emissions and suggest on-site flux measurements as the most accurate way for determing emissions.
François Clayer, Yves Gélinas, André Tessier, and Charles Gobeil
Biogeosciences, 17, 4571–4589,Short summary
Here, we quantified the sediment production of methane and carbon dioxide in lake sediments to better characterize the nature of the organic matter at the origin of these two greenhouse gases. We demonstrate that the production of these gases is not adequately represented in models for deep lake sediments. We thus propose to improve the representation of organic matter degradation reactions in current models for improving predictions of greenhouse gas cycling in aquatic sediments.
David Bastviken, Jonatan Nygren, Jonathan Schenk, Roser Parellada Massana, and Nguyen Thanh Duc
Biogeosciences, 17, 3659–3667,Short summary
This study presents a low-cost way to measure methane emissions applicable in nature and society. This facilitates widespread and affordable methane measurements, which are greatly needed for verifying that greenhouse gas mitigation is effective and for improved quantification of fluxes and how they are regulated. The paper also describes an open-source do-it-yourself methane–carbon dioxide–humidity–temperature logger, to increase the distributed capacity to measure greenhouse gases.
Fortunat Joos, Renato Spahni, Benjamin D. Stocker, Sebastian Lienert, Jurek Müller, Hubertus Fischer, Jochen Schmitt, I. Colin Prentice, Bette Otto-Bliesner, and Zhengyu Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 3511–3543,Short summary
Results of the first globally resolved simulations of terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (N) cycling and N2O emissions over the past 21 000 years are compared with reconstructed N2O emissions. Modelled and reconstructed emissions increased strongly during past abrupt warming events. This evidence appears consistent with a dynamic response of biological N fixation to increasing N demand by ecosystems, thereby reducing N limitation of plant productivity and supporting a land sink for atmospheric CO2.
Xuefei Li, Outi Wahlroos, Sami Haapanala, Jukka Pumpanen, Harri Vasander, Anne Ojala, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 17, 3409–3425,Short summary
We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes and quantified the global warming potential of different surface areas in a recently created urban wetland in Southern Finland. The ecosystem has a small net climate warming effect which was mainly contributed by the open-water areas. Our results suggest that limiting open-water areas and setting a design preference for areas of emergent vegetation in the establishment of urban wetlands can be a beneficial practice when considering solely the climate impact.
Xiao Ma, Mingshuang Sun, Sinikka T. Lennartz, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 17, 3427–3438,Short summary
Monthly measurements of dissolved methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, were conducted at Boknis Eck (BE), a time-series station in the southwestern Baltic Sea, from June 2006. In general CH4 concentrations increased with depth. High concentrations in the upper layer were linked to saline water inflow. Eckernförde Bay emitted CH4 to the atmosphere throughout the monitoring period. No significant trend was detected in CH4 concentrations or emissions during 2006–2017.
Elizabeth León-Palmero, Alba Contreras-Ruiz, Ana Sierra, Rafael Morales-Baquero, and Isabel Reche
Biogeosciences, 17, 3223–3245,Short summary
CH4 emissions from reservoirs are responsible for the majority of the climatic forcing of these ecosystems. The origin of the recurrent CH4 supersaturation in oxic waters is still controversial. We found that the dissolved CH4 concentration varied by up to 4 orders of magnitude in the water column of 12 reservoirs and was consistently supersaturated. Our findings suggest that photosynthetic picoeukaryotes can play a significant role in determining CH4 concentration in oxic waters.
Marcus B. Wallin, Joachim Audet, Mike Peacock, Erik Sahlée, and Mattias Winterdahl
Biogeosciences, 17, 2487–2498,Short summary
Here we show that small streams draining agricultural areas are potential hotspots for emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. We further conclude that the variability in stream CO2 concentration over time is very high, caused by variations in both water discharge and primary production. Given the observed high levels of CO2 and its temporally variable nature, agricultural streams clearly need more attention in order to understand and incorporate these dynamics in large-scale extrapolations.
Quan Zhang, Huimin Lei, Dawen Yang, Lihua Xiong, Pan Liu, and Beijing Fang
Biogeosciences, 17, 2245–2262,Short summary
Research into climate change has been popular over the past few decades. Greenhouse gas emissions are found to be responsible for climate change. Among all the ecosystems, cropland is the main food source for mankind, therefore its carbon cycle and contribution to the global carbon balance interest us. Our evaluation of the typical wheat–maize rotation cropland over the North China Plain shows it is a net CO2 emission to the atmosphere and that emissions will continue to rise in the future.
Sheila Wachiye, Lutz Merbold, Timo Vesala, Janne Rinne, Matti Räsänen, Sonja Leitner, and Petri Pellikka
Biogeosciences, 17, 2149–2167,Short summary
Limited data on emissions in Africa translate into uncertainty during GHG budgeting. We studied annual CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions in four land-use types in Kenyan savanna using static chambers and gas chromatography. CO2 emissions varied between seasons and land-use types. Soil moisture and vegetation explained the seasonal variation, while soil temperature was insignificant. N2O and CH4 emissions did not vary at all sites. Our results are useful in climate change mitigation interventions.
Celina Burkholz, Neus Garcias-Bonet, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 1717–1730,Short summary
Seagrass meadows store carbon in their biomass and sediments, but they have also been shown to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). We experimentally investigated the effect of warming and prolonged darkness on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in Red Sea seagrass (Halophila stipulacea) communities. Our results indicated that sublethal warming may lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases from seagrass meadows which may contribute to further enhance global warming.
Chris R. Flechard, Andreas Ibrom, Ute M. Skiba, Wim de Vries, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Nancy B. Dise, Janne F. J. Korhonen, Nina Buchmann, Arnaud Legout, David Simpson, Maria J. Sanz, Marc Aubinet, Denis Loustau, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Ivan A. Janssens, Mari Pihlatie, Ralf Kiese, Jan Siemens, André-Jean Francez, Jürgen Augustin, Andrej Varlagin, Janusz Olejnik, Radosław Juszczak, Mika Aurela, Daniel Berveiller, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Ulrich Dämmgen, Nicolas Delpierre, Vesna Djuricic, Julia Drewer, Eric Dufrêne, Werner Eugster, Yannick Fauvel, David Fowler, Arnoud Frumau, André Granier, Patrick Gross, Yannick Hamon, Carole Helfter, Arjan Hensen, László Horváth, Barbara Kitzler, Bart Kruijt, Werner L. Kutsch, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Michal V. Marek, Giorgio Matteucci, Marta Mitosinkova, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Kim Pilegaard, Gabriel Pita, Francisco Sanz, Jan K. Schjoerring, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Y. Sim Tang, Hilde Uggerud, Marek Urbaniak, Netty van Dijk, Timo Vesala, Sonja Vidic, Caroline Vincke, Tamás Weidinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1583–1620,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a network of 40 monitoring sites in Europe suggests that atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forests and other semi-natural vegetation impacts the carbon sequestration rates in ecosystems, as well as the net greenhouse gas balance including other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Excess nitrogen deposition in polluted areas also leads to other environmental impacts such as nitrogen leaching to groundwater and other pollutant gaseous emissions.
Chris R. Flechard, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Wim de Vries, Andreas Ibrom, Nina Buchmann, Nancy B. Dise, Ivan A. Janssens, Johan Neirynck, Leonardo Montagnani, Andrej Varlagin, Denis Loustau, Arnaud Legout, Klaudia Ziemblińska, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Julia Drewer, Werner Eugster, André-Jean Francez, Radosław Juszczak, Barbara Kitzler, Werner L. Kutsch, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Giorgio Matteucci, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Janusz Olejnik, Maria J. Sanz, Jan Siemens, Timo Vesala, Caroline Vincke, Eiko Nemitz, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ute M. Skiba, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1621–1654,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere to unfertilized terrestrial vegetation such as forests can increase carbon dioxide uptake and favour carbon sequestration by ecosystems. However the data from observational networks are difficult to interpret in terms of a carbon-to-nitrogen response, because there are a number of other confounding factors, such as climate, soil physical properties and fertility, and forest age. We propose a model-based method to untangle the different influences.
Pauline Sophie Rummel, Birgit Pfeiffer, Johanna Pausch, Reinhard Well, Dominik Schneider, and Klaus Dittert
Biogeosciences, 17, 1181–1198,Short summary
Chemical composition of plant litter controls C availability for biological N transformation processes in soil. In this study, we showed that easily degradable maize shoots stimulated microbial respiration and mineralization leading to high N2O formation in litter-associated hot spots. A higher share of slowly degradable C compounds and lower concentrations of water-soluble N restricted N2O emissions from maize roots. Bacterial community structure reflected degradability of maize litter.
Cynthia Soued and Yves T. Prairie
Biogeosciences, 17, 515–527,Short summary
Freshwater reservoirs emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to organic matter decay after landscape flooding. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we performed a comprehensive carbon footprint assessment of a tropical reservoir. Contrary to predictions, 89 % of measured emissions occurred downstream of the dam. Comparing predicted vs. measured emissions revealed weaknesses in our current modeling framework and insights to improve our ability to quantify and reduce reservoir GHG emissions.
Shimelis Gizachew Raji and Peter Dörsch
Biogeosciences, 17, 345–359,Short summary
Intercropping maize with forage legumes can benefit Ethiopian smallholder farmers by providing cheap nitrogen and valuable livestock feed. We measured N2O emissions and maize yields and found that high legume biomasses may enhance N2O emissions per unit of harvested maize but that, after mulching, legume N can partly replace expensive mineral N. Thus, legume intercropping can be a valid strategy in the framework of climate-smart agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa.
Arezoo Taghizadeh-Toosi, Lars Elsgaard, Tim J. Clough, Rodrigo Labouriau, Vibeke Ernstsen, and Søren O. Petersen
Biogeosciences, 16, 4555–4575,Short summary
Organic soils drained for crop production or grazing land have high potential for nitrous oxide emissions. The present study investigated the regulation of N2O emissions in a raised bog area drained for agriculture. It seems that archaeal ammonia oxidation and either chemodenitrification or nitrifier denitrification were considered to be plausible pathways of N2O production in spring, whereas in the autumn heterotrophic denitrification may have been more important at arable sites.
Hermann W. Bange, Chun Hock Sim, Daniel Bastian, Jennifer Kallert, Annette Kock, Aazani Mujahid, and Moritz Müller
Biogeosciences, 16, 4321–4335,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are atmospheric trace gases which play important roles in the climate and atmospheric chemistry of the Earth. However, little is known about their emissions from rivers and estuaries. To this end, concentrations of N2O and CH4 were measured during a seasonal study in six rivers and estuaries in northwestern Borneo. The concentrations of both gases were mainly driven by rainfall. The rivers and estuaries were an overall net source of atmospheric N2O and CH4.
Jackie R. Webb, Peter R. Leavitt, Gavin L. Simpson, Helen M. Baulch, Heather A. Haig, Kyle R. Hodder, and Kerri Finlay
Biogeosciences, 16, 4211–4227,Short summary
Small farm reservoirs are key features within agricultural landscapes, yet these waterbodies can contribute substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere. This study assessed some of the environmental factors that may impact the production of these GHGs. We found promise that farm reservoirs can act as net greenhouse gas sinks and identified some of the key water quality, landscape, and design features that may support GHG mitigation.
Thomas Klintzsch, Gerald Langer, Gernot Nehrke, Anna Wieland, Katharina Lenhart, and Frank Keppler
Biogeosciences, 16, 4129–4144,Short summary
Marine algae might contribute to the observed methane oversaturation in oxic waters, but so far direct evidence for methane production by marine algae is limited. We investigated three widespread haptophytes for methane formation. Our results provide unambiguous evidence that all investigated marine algae produce methane per se and at substantial rates. We conclude that each of the three algae studied here could substantially account for the methane production observed in field studies.
Fabien Leroy, Sébastien Gogo, Christophe Guimbaud, Léonard Bernard-Jannin, Xiaole Yin, Guillaume Belot, Wang Shuguang, and Fatima Laggoun-Défarge
Biogeosciences, 16, 4085–4095,Short summary
This study demonstrates the implications of Molinia caerulea colonization in Sphagnum peatland on the C fluxes by enhancing the CO2 uptake by photosynthesis (but which led to higher CO2 and CH4 emissions) and also on the parameters controlling it (by increasing the temperature sensitivity of the CH4 emissions). Furthermore, roots and litter of Molinia caerulea could provide additional substrates for C emissions and should be taken into account in further works.
Xiao Ma, Sinikka T. Lennartz, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 16, 4097–4111,Short summary
Monthly measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas and ozone depletion agent, were conducted at Boknis Eck (BE), a time series station in the southwestern Baltic Sea, since July 2005. Low N2O concentrations were observed in autumn and high in winter and early spring. Dissolved nutrients and oxygen played important roles in N2O distribution. Although we did not observe a significant N2O trend during 2005–2017, a decrease in N2O concentration and emission seems likely in future.
Eric J. Morgan, Jost V. Lavric, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Hermann W. Bange, Tobias Steinhoff, Thomas Seifert, and Martin Heimann
Biogeosciences, 16, 4065–4084,Short summary
Taking a 2-year atmospheric record of atmospheric oxygen and the greenhouse gases N2O, CO2, and CH4, made at a coastal site in the Namib Desert, we estimated the fluxes of these gases from upwelling events in the northern Benguela Current region. We compared these results with flux measurements made on a research vessel in the study area at the same time and found that the two approaches agreed well. The study region was a source of N2O, CO2, and CH4 to the atmosphere during upwelling events.
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Human-made reservoirs impact the carbon cycle. In particular, the breakdown of organic matter in reservoir sediments can result in large emissions of greenhouse gases (especially methane) to the atmosphere. This study takes an intensive look at the patterns in greenhouse gas emissions from a single reservoir in Ohio (United States) and the role of water temperature, precipitation, and algal blooms in emissions. We saw a "spring burst" of elevated emissions that challenged our assumptions.
Human-made reservoirs impact the carbon cycle. In particular, the breakdown of organic matter in...