Articles | Volume 19, issue 10
31 May 2022
Research article | 31 May 2022
Sources of nitrous oxide and the fate of mineral nitrogen in subarctic permafrost peat soils
Jenie Gil et al.
No articles found.
Anna-Maria Virkkala, Susan M. Natali, Brendan M. Rogers, Jennifer D. Watts, Kathleen Savage, Sara June Connon, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Darcy Peter, Christina Minions, Julia Nojeim, Roisin Commane, Craig A. Emmerton, Mathias Goeckede, Manuel Helbig, David Holl, Hiroki Iwata, Hideki Kobayashi, Pasi Kolari, Efrén López-Blanco, Maija E. Marushchak, Mikhail Mastepanov, Lutz Merbold, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Torsten Sachs, Oliver Sonnentag, Masahito Ueyama, Carolina Voigt, Mika Aurela, Julia Boike, Gerardo Celis, Namyi Chae, Torben R. Christensen, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Sigrid Dengel, Han Dolman, Colin W. Edgar, Bo Elberling, Eugenie Euskirchen, Achim Grelle, Juha Hatakka, Elyn Humphreys, Järvi Järveoja, Ayumi Kotani, Lars Kutzbach, Tuomas Laurila, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Yojiro Matsuura, Gesa Meyer, Mats B. Nilsson, Steven F. Oberbauer, Sang-Jong Park, Roman Petrov, Anatoly S. Prokushkin, Christopher Schulze, Vincent L. St. Louis, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, William Quinton, Andrej Varlagin, Donatella Zona, and Viacheslav I. Zyryanov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 179–208,Short summary
The effects of climate warming on carbon cycling across the Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) remain poorly understood due to the relatively limited distribution of ABZ flux sites. Fortunately, this flux network is constantly increasing, but new measurements are published in various platforms, making it challenging to understand the ABZ carbon cycle as a whole. Here, we compiled a new database of Arctic–boreal CO2 fluxes to help facilitate large-scale assessments of the ABZ carbon cycle.
Kirsty C. Paterson, Joanna M. Cloy, Robert M. Rees, Elizabeth M. Baggs, Hugh Martineau, Dario Fornara, Andrew J. Macdonald, and Sarah Buckingham
Biogeosciences, 18, 605–620,Short summary
Soil organic carbon sequestration across agroecosystems worldwide can contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change by reducing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The maximum carbon sequestration potential is frequently estimated using the linear regression equation developed by Hassink (1997). This work examines the suitability of this equation for use in grasslands across the United Kingdom. The results highlight the need to ensure the fit of equations to the soils being studied.
Marja Maljanen, Heli Yli-Moijala, Bjarni Didrik Sigurdsson, and Christina Biasi
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We studied the proportion of biotic and abiotic CO2 fluxes from soil using static chamber method and stable isotope approach from a geothermally warmed area in southern Iceland. These sites can be used cost efficiently to study the effects of soil warming on the ecosystem. However, our study showed that a significant amount of CO2 emitted from the higher warming levels can have non-biotic origin and this has to be taken into account when measuring respiration fluxes on such volcanic sites.
Hongxing He, Astrid Meyer, Per-Erik Jansson, Magnus Svensson, Tobias Rütting, and Leif Klemedtsson
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 725–751,Short summary
Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) have shown a major impact on forest C and N cycles, but are currently neglected in most ecosystem models. We thus implemented the previously developed ectomycorrhizal fungi model, MYCOFON, into a well-established ecosystem model, CoupModel. This paper describes the key components and features of Coup-MYCOFON. The new version of CoupModel can now simulate C and N fluxes and pools, explicitly accounting for links and feedbacks among plant, soil, and ECM.
Torsten Diem, Nicholas J. Morley, Adan Julian Ccahuana Quispe, Lidia Priscila Huaraca Quispe, Elizabeth M. Baggs, Patrick Meir, Mark I. A. Richards, Pete Smith, and Yit Arn Teh
Biogeosciences, 14, 5077–5097,Short summary
Montane ecosystems in the southern Peruvian Andes were atmospheric sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, exceeding prior emissions estimates from bottom-up process models. Nitrous oxide flux originated primarily from nitrate reduction. Nitrous oxide fluxes showed an inverse trend with elevation, and only weak evidence of seasonal variability. Nitrous oxide fluxes were influenced by the availability of nitrate and soil moisture content, but were not predicted by inputs of labile carbon.
Mari Pihlatie, Üllar Rannik, Sami Haapanala, Olli Peltola, Narasinha Shurpali, Pertti J. Martikainen, Saara Lind, Niina Hyvönen, Perttu Virkajärvi, Mark Zahniser, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 13, 5471–5485,Short summary
The sources and sinks of carbon monoxide (CO) in the biosphere are poorly understood. We report the first continuous data series of CO fluxes measured by eddy covariance method in an agricultural bioenergy crop. The CO fluxes were seasonally and diurnally variable demonstrating the parallel consumption and production processes. Radiation was the main driver of CO emissions, and the eddy covariance method was demonstrated as suitable for linking short-term flux dynamics to environmental drivers.
Saara E. Lind, Narasinha J. Shurpali, Olli Peltola, Ivan Mammarella, Niina Hyvönen, Marja Maljanen, Mari Räty, Perttu Virkajärvi, and Pertti J. Martikainen
Biogeosciences, 13, 1255–1268,Short summary
We showed that the reed canary grass (RCG) was environmentally friendly from the CO2 balance point of view when cultivated on this mineral soil. When compared to the earlier findings on the same crop on organic soil site, the capacity of the crop to withdraw atmospheric CO2 was even stronger on the present mineral soil site than that on the organic soil site. For full estimation of the climatic impacts of this bioenergy system, a life cycle assessment will be needed.
M. E. Marushchak, T. Friborg, C. Biasi, M. Herbst, T. Johansson, I. Kiepe, M. Liimatainen, S. E. Lind, P. J. Martikainen, T. Virtanen, H. Soegaard, and N. J. Shurpali
Biogeosciences, 13, 597–608,Short summary
Arctic region is experiencing an unprecedented rise in permafrost temperatures leading to permafrsot thawing with dire implications for ecosystem structure and functioning. Therefore, it imperative to understand the behaviour of Arctic ecosystems under present climatic conditions so that we are equipped with the information to predict their future behaviour. This study presents field data on methane exchange from Seida, located in NW Siberia, Russia measured using various biogeochemical tools.
M. E. Marushchak, I. Kiepe, C. Biasi, V. Elsakov, T. Friborg, T. Johansson, H. Soegaard, T. Virtanen, and P. J. Martikainen
Biogeosciences, 10, 437–452,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Greenhouse GasesData-based estimates of interannual sea–air CO2 flux variations 1957–2020 and their relation to environmental driversEvaluating alternative ebullition models for predicting peatland methane emission and its pathways via data–model fusionExcess soil moisture and fresh carbon input are prerequisites for methane production in podzolic soilLow biodegradability of particulate organic carbon mobilized from thaw slumps on the Peel Plateau, NT, and possible chemosynthesis and sorption effectsGrazing enhances carbon cycling but reduces methane emission during peak growing season in the Siberian Pleistocene Park tundra siteIdeas and perspectives: Enhancing research and monitoring of carbon pools and land-to-atmosphere greenhouse gases exchange in developing countriesIgnoring carbon emissions from thermokarst ponds results in overestimation of tundra net carbon uptakeQuantification of potential methane emissions associated with organic matter amendments following oxic-soil inundationAssessing the spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from different configurations of on-site wastewater treatment system using discrete and continuous gas flux measurementDimethylated sulfur compounds in the Peruvian upwelling systemPartitioning carbon sources between wetland and well-drained ecosystems to a tropical first-order stream – implications for carbon cycling at the watershed scale (Nyong, Cameroon)Extreme events driving year-to-year differences in gross primary productivity across the USMethane gas emissions from savanna fires: what analysis of local burning regimes in a working West African landscape tell usMethane in Zackenberg Valley, NE Greenland: multidecadal growing season fluxes of a high-Arctic tundraResponse of vegetation and carbon fluxes to brown lemming herbivory in Northern AlaskaField-scale CH4 emission at a subarctic mire with heterogeneous permafrost thaw statusEvaluation of denitrification and decomposition from three biogeochemical models using laboratory measurements of N2, N2O and CO2Temporal trends in methane emissions from a small eutrophic reservoir: the key role of a spring burstGreenhouse gases emissions from riparian wetlands: an example from the Inner Mongolia grassland region in ChinaVariability of North Atlantic CO2 fluxes for the 2000–2017 period estimated from atmospheric inverse analysesEffects of clear-fell harvesting on soil CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes in an upland Sitka spruce stand in EnglandConventional subsoil irrigation techniques do not lower carbon emissions from drained peat meadowsDifferent responses of ecosystem CO2 and N2O emissions and CH4 uptake to seasonally asymmetric warming in an alpine grassland of the TianshanThe role of termite CH4 emissions on the ecosystem scale: a case study in the Amazon rainforestBiogeochemical and plant trait mechanisms drive enhanced methane emissions in response to whole-ecosystem warmingA decade of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) measurements in the southwestern Baltic SeaMethane dynamics in three different Siberian water bodies under winter and summer conditionsTopography-based statistical modelling reveals high spatial variability and seasonal emission patches in forest floor methane fluxTechnical note: CO2 is not like CH4 – limits of and corrections to the headspace method to analyse pCO2 in fresh waterComparison of greenhouse gas fluxes from tropical forests and oil palm plantations on mineral soilAre there memory effects on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) following grassland restoration?Intraseasonal variability of greenhouse gas emission factors from biomass burning in the Brazilian CerradoEvaluating stream CO2 outgassing via drifting and anchored flux chambers in a controlled flume experimentCarbon dioxide and methane exchange of a patterned subarctic fen during two contrasting growing seasonsUsing satellite data to identify the methane emission controls of South Sudan's wetlandsIdeas and perspectives: patterns of soil CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes along an altitudinal gradient – a pilot study from an Ecuadorian neotropical montane forestEstimating immediate post-fire carbon fluxes using the eddy-covariance techniqueWater flow controls the spatial variability of methane emissions in a northern valley fen ecosystemSeasonality, drivers, and isotopic composition of soil CO2 fluxes from tropical forests of the Congo BasinSpatially resolved evaluation of Earth system models with satellite column-averaged CO2Ideas and perspectives: A strategic assessment of methane and nitrous oxide measurements in the marine environmentStem and soil nitrous oxide fluxes from rainforest and cacao agroforest on highly weathered soils in the Congo BasinMethane paradox in tropical lakes? Sedimentary fluxes rather than pelagic production in oxic conditions sustain methanotrophy and emissions to the atmosphereOrganic matter and sediment properties determine in-lake variability of sediment CO2 and CH4 production and emissions of a small and shallow lakeMineralization of organic matter in boreal lake sediments: rates, pathways, and nature of the fermenting substratesTechnical note: Facilitating the use of low-cost methane (CH4) sensors in flux chambers – calibration, data processing, and an open-source make-it-yourself loggerN2O changes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the preindustrial – Part 2: terrestrial N2O emissions and carbon–nitrogen cycle interactionsCarbon dioxide and methane fluxes from different surface types in a created urban wetlandA decade of methane measurements at the Boknis Eck Time Series Station in Eckernförde Bay (southwestern Baltic Sea)Dissolved CH4 coupled to photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in oxic waters and to cumulative chlorophyll a in anoxic waters of reservoirs
Christian Rödenbeck, Tim DeVries, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, and Ralph F. Keeling
Biogeosciences, 19, 2627–2652,Short summary
The ocean is an important part of the global carbon cycle, taking up about a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted by burning of fossil fuels and thus slowing down climate change. However, the CO2 uptake by the ocean is, in turn, affected by variability and trends in climate. Here we use carbon measurements in the surface ocean to quantify the response of the oceanic CO2 exchange to environmental conditions and discuss possible mechanisms underlying this response.
Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Yuanyuan Huang, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 19, 2245–2262,Short summary
The relative ratio of wetland methane (CH4) emission pathways determines how much CH4 is oxidized before leaving the soil. We found an ebullition modeling approach that has a better performance in deep layer pore water CH4 concentration. We suggest using this approach in land surface models to accurately represent CH4 emission dynamics and response to climate change. Our results also highlight that both CH4 flux and belowground concentration data are important to constrain model parameters.
Mika Korkiakoski, Tiia Määttä, Krista Peltoniemi, Timo Penttilä, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 19, 2025–2041,Short summary
We measured CH4 fluxes and production and oxidation potentials from irrigated and non-irrigated podzolic soil in a boreal forest. CH4 sink was smaller at the irrigated site but did not cause CH4 emission, with one exception. We also showed that under laboratory conditions, not only wet conditions, but also fresh carbon, are needed to make podzolic soil into a CH4 source. Our study provides important data for improving the process models describing the upland soil CH4 dynamics.
Sarah Shakil, Suzanne E. Tank, Jorien E. Vonk, and Scott Zolkos
Biogeosciences, 19, 1871–1890,Short summary
Permafrost thaw-driven landslides in the western Arctic are increasing organic carbon delivered to headwaters of drainage networks in the western Canadian Arctic by orders of magnitude. Through a series of laboratory experiments, we show that less than 10 % of this organic carbon is likely to be mineralized to greenhouse gases during transport in these networks. Rather most of the organic carbon is likely destined for burial and sequestration for centuries to millennia.
Wolfgang Fischer, Christoph K. Thomas, Nikita Zimov, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 19, 1611–1633,Short summary
Arctic permafrost ecosystems may release large amounts of carbon under warmer future climates and may therefore accelerate global climate change. Our study investigated how long-term grazing by large animals influenced ecosystem characteristics and carbon budgets at a Siberian permafrost site. Our results demonstrate that such management can contribute to stabilizing ecosystems to keep carbon in the ground, particularly through drying soils and reducing methane emissions.
Dong-Gill Kim, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Youngryel Ryu, Bumsuk Seo, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 19, 1435–1450,Short summary
As carbon (C) and greenhouse gas (GHG) research has adopted appropriate technology and approach (AT&A), low-cost instruments, open-source software, and participatory research and their results were well accepted by scientific communities. In terms of cost, feasibility, and performance, the integration of low-cost and low-technology, participatory and networking-based research approaches can be AT&A for enhancing C and GHG research in developing countries.
Lutz Beckebanze, Zoé Rehder, David Holl, Christian Wille, Charlotta Mirbach, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 19, 1225–1244,Short summary
Arctic permafrost landscapes feature many water bodies. In contrast to the terrestrial parts of the landscape, the water bodies release carbon to the atmosphere. We compare carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from small water bodies to the surrounding tundra and find not accounting for the carbon dioxide emissions leads to an overestimation of the tundra uptake by 11 %. Consequently, changes in hydrology and water body distribution may substantially impact the overall carbon budget of the Arctic.
Brian Scott, Andrew H. Baldwin, and Stephanie A. Yarwood
Biogeosciences, 19, 1151–1164,Short summary
Carbon dioxide and methane contribute to global warming. What can we do? We can build wetlands: they store carbon dioxide and should cause global cooling. But when first built they produce excess methane. Eventually built wetlands will cause cooling, but it may take decades or even centuries. How we build wetlands matters. We show that a common practice, using organic matter, such as manure, can make a big difference whether or not the wetlands we build start global cooling within our lifetime.
Jan Knappe, Celia Somlai, and Laurence W. Gill
Biogeosciences, 19, 1067–1085,Short summary
Two domestic on-site wastewater treatment systems have been monitored for greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) emissions coming from the process units, soil and vent pipes. This has enabled the net greenhouse gas per person to be quantified for the first time, as well as the impact of pre-treatment on the effluent before being discharged to soil. These decentralised wastewater treatment systems serve approx. 20 % of the population in both Europe and the United States.
Yanan Zhao, Dennis Booge, Christa A. Marandino, Cathleen Schlundt, Astrid Bracher, Elliot L. Atlas, Jonathan Williams, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 19, 701–714,Short summary
We present here, for the first time, simultaneously measured dimethylsulfide (DMS) seawater concentrations and DMS atmospheric mole fractions from the Peruvian upwelling region during two cruises in December 2012 and October 2015. Our results indicate low oceanic DMS concentrations and atmospheric DMS molar fractions in surface waters and the atmosphere, respectively. In addition, the Peruvian upwelling region was identified as an insignificant source of DMS emissions during both periods.
Moussa Moustapha, Loris Deirmendjian, David Sebag, Jean-Jacques Braun, Stéphane Audry, Henriette Ateba Bessa, Thierry Adatte, Carole Causserand, Ibrahima Adamou, Benjamin Ngounou Ngatcha, and Frédéric Guérin
Biogeosciences, 19, 137–163,Short summary
We monitor the spatio-temporal variability of organic and inorganic carbon (C) species in the tropical Nyong River (Cameroon), across groundwater and increasing stream orders. We show the significant contribution of wetland as a C source for tropical rivers. Thus, ignoring the river–wetland connectivity might lead to the misrepresentation of C dynamics in tropical watersheds. Finally, total fluvial carbon losses might offset ~10 % of the net C sink estimated for the whole Nyong watershed.
Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Troy S. Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6579–6588,Short summary
This work builds a high-resolution estimate (500 m) of gross primary productivity (GPP) over the US using satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) between 2018 and 2020. We identify ecosystem-specific scaling factors for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) from TROPOMI SIF. Extreme precipitation events drive four regional GPP anomalies that account for 28 % of year-to-year GPP differences across the US.
Paul Laris, Moussa Koné, Fadiala Dembélé, Christine M. Rodrigue, Lilian Yang, Rebecca Jacobs, and Quincy Laris
Biogeosciences, 18, 6229–6244,Short summary
Savanna fires play a key role in the global carbon cycle because they release methane. Although it burns the most, there are few studies from West Africa. We conducted 36 experimental fires according to local practice to collect smoke samples. We found that fires set early in the season had higher methane emissions than those set later, and head fires had double the emissions of backfires. We conclude policies to reduce emissions will not have the desired effects if fire type is not considered.
Johan H. Scheller, Mikhail Mastepanov, Hanne H. Christiansen, and Torben R. Christensen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6093–6114,Short summary
Our study presents a time series of methane emissions in a high-Arctic-tundra landscape over 14 summers, which shows large variations between years. The methane emissions from the valley are expected to more than double in the late 21st century. This warming increases permafrost thaw, which could increase surface erosion in the valley. Increased erosion could offset some of the rise in methane fluxes from the valley, but this would require large-scale impacts on vegetated surfaces.
Jessica Plein, Rulon W. Clark, Kyle A. Arndt, Walter C. Oechel, Douglas Stow, and Donatella Zona
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Tundra vegetation and the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems can be substantially impacted by herbivory. We tested how herbivory by brown lemmings in individual enclosure plots impacted carbon exchange of tundra ecosystems via altering carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Lemmings significantly decreased CO2 uptake, while not affecting CH4 emissions. There was no significant difference the following growing season due to recovery of the vegetation.
Patryk Łakomiec, Jutta Holst, Thomas Friborg, Patrick Crill, Niklas Rakos, Natascha Kljun, Per-Ola Olsson, Lars Eklundh, Andreas Persson, and Janne Rinne
Biogeosciences, 18, 5811–5830,Short summary
Methane emission from the subarctic mire with heterogeneous permafrost status was measured for the years 2014–2016. Lower methane emission was measured from the palsa mire sector while the thawing wet sector emitted more. Both sectors have a similar annual pattern with a gentle rise during spring and a decrease during autumn. The highest emission was observed in the late summer. Winter emissions were positive during the measurement period and have a significant impact on the annual budgets.
Balázs Grosz, Reinhard Well, Rene Dechow, Jan Reent Köster, Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil, Simone Merl, Andreas Rode, Bianca Ziehmer, Amanda Matson, and Hongxing He
Biogeosciences, 18, 5681–5697,Short summary
To assure quality predictions biogeochemical models must be current. We use data measured using novel incubation methods to test the denitrification sub-modules of three models. We aim to identify limitations in the denitrification modeling to inform next steps for development. Several areas are identified, most urgently improved denitrification control parameters and further testing with high-temporal-resolution datasets. Addressing these would significantly improve denitrification modeling.
Sarah Waldo, Jake J. Beaulieu, William Barnett, D. Adam Balz, Michael J. Vanni, Tanner Williamson, and John T. Walker
Biogeosciences, 18, 5291–5311,Short summary
Human-made reservoirs impact the carbon cycle. In particular, the breakdown of organic matter in reservoir sediments can result in large emissions of greenhouse gases (especially methane) to the atmosphere. This study takes an intensive look at the patterns in greenhouse gas emissions from a single reservoir in Ohio (United States) and the role of water temperature, precipitation, and algal blooms in emissions. We saw a "spring burst" of elevated emissions that challenged our assumptions.
Xinyu Liu, Xixi Lu, Ruihong Yu, Heyang Sun, Hao Xue, Zhen Qi, Zhengxu Cao, Zhuangzhuang Zhang, and Tingxi Liu
Biogeosciences, 18, 4855–4872,Short summary
Gradual riparian wetland drying is increasingly sensitive to global warming and contributes to climate change. We analyzed the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from riparian wetlands in the Xilin River basin to understand the role of these ecosystems in greenhouse gas emissions. Our study showed that anthropogenic activities have extensively changed the hydrological characteristics of the riparian wetlands and might accelerate carbon loss, which could further affect greenhouse gas emissions.
Zhaohui Chen, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Andrew J. Watson, Ute Schuster, Jiang Zhu, and Ning Zeng
Biogeosciences, 18, 4549–4570,Short summary
As the global temperature continues to increase, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major driver of this global warming. The increased CO2 is mainly caused by emissions from fossil fuel use and land use. At the same time, the ocean is a significant sink in the carbon cycle. The North Atlantic is a critical ocean region in reducing CO2 concentration. We estimate the CO2 uptake in this region based on a carbon inverse system and atmospheric CO2 observations.
Sirwan Yamulki, Jack Forster, Georgios Xenakis, Adam Ash, Jacqui Brunt, Mike Perks, and James I. L. Morison
Biogeosciences, 18, 4227–4241,Short summary
The effect of clear-felling on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes was assessed in a Sitka spruce forest. Measurements over 4 years showed that CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes responded differently to clear-felling due to significant changes in soil biotic and abiotic factors and showed large variations between years. Over 3 years since felling, the soil GHG flux was reduced by 45% due to a much larger reduction in CO2 efflux than increases in N2O (up to 20%) and CH4 (changed from sink to source) fluxes.
Stefan Theodorus Johannes Weideveld, Weier Liu, Merit van den Berg, Leon Peter Maria Lamers, and Christian Fritz
Biogeosciences, 18, 3881–3902,Short summary
Raising the groundwater table (GWT) trough subsoil irrigation does not lead to a reduction of carbon emissions from drained peat meadows, even though there was a clear increase in the GWT during summer. Most likely, the largest part of the peat oxidation takes place in the top 70 cm of the soil, which stays above the GWT with the use of subsoil irrigation. We conclude that the use of subsoil irrigation is ineffective as a mitigation measure to sufficiently lower peat oxidation rates.
Yanming Gong, Ping Yue, Kaihui Li, Anwar Mohammat, and Yanyan Liu
Biogeosciences, 18, 3529–3537,Short summary
At present, data on the influence of asymmetric warming on the GHG flux on a temporal scale are scarce. GHG fluxes were measured using static chambers and a gas chromatograph. Our study showed that the effect of seasonally asymmetrical warming on CO2 flux was obvious, with the GHG flux being able to adapt to continuous warming. Warming in the non-growing season increased the temperature dependence of GHG flux.
Hella van Asperen, João Rafael Alves-Oliveira, Thorsten Warneke, Bruce Forsberg, Alessandro Carioca de Araújo, and Justus Notholt
Biogeosciences, 18, 2609–2625,Short summary
Termites are insects that are highly abundant in tropical ecosystems. It is known that termites emit CH4, an important greenhouse gas, but their absolute emission remains uncertain. In the Amazon rainforest, we measured CH4 emissions from termite nests and groups of termites. In addition, we tested a fast and non-destructive field method to estimate termite nest colony size. We found that termites play a significant role in an ecosystem's CH4 budget and probably emit more than currently assumed.
Genevieve L. Noyce and J. Patrick Megonigal
Biogeosciences, 18, 2449–2463,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to global radiative forcing. A mechanistic understanding of how wetland CH4 cycling will respond to global warming is crucial for improving prognostic models. We present results from the first 4 years of a novel whole-ecosystem warming experiment in a coastal wetland, showing that warming increases CH4 emissions and identifying four potential mechanisms that can be added to future modeling efforts.
Yanan Zhao, Cathleen Schlundt, Dennis Booge, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 18, 2161–2179,Short summary
We present a unique and comprehensive time-series study of biogenic sulfur compounds in the southwestern Baltic Sea, from 2009 to 2018. Dimethyl sulfide is one of the key players regulating global climate change, as well as dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethyl sulfoxide. Their decadal trends did not follow increasing temperature but followed some algae group abundances at the Boknis Eck Time Series Station.
Ingeborg Bussmann, Irina Fedorova, Bennet Juhls, Pier Paul Overduin, and Matthias Winkel
Biogeosciences, 18, 2047–2061,Short summary
Arctic rivers, lakes, and bays are affected by a warming climate. We measured the amount and consumption of methane in waters from Siberia under ice cover and in open water. In the lake, methane concentrations under ice cover were much higher than in summer, and methane consumption was highest. The ice cover leads to higher methane concentration under ice. In a warmer Arctic, there will be more time with open water when methane is consumed by bacteria, and less methane will escape into the air.
Elisa Vainio, Olli Peltola, Ville Kasurinen, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, and Mari Pihlatie
Biogeosciences, 18, 2003–2025,Short summary
We studied forest floor methane exchange over an area of 10 ha in a boreal pine forest. The results demonstrate high spatial variability in soil moisture and consequently in the methane flux. We detected wet patches emitting high amounts of methane in the early summer; however, these patches turned to methane uptake in the autumn. We concluded that the small-scale spatial variability of the boreal forest methane flux highlights the importance of soil chamber placement in similar studies.
Matthias Koschorreck, Yves T. Prairie, Jihyeon Kim, and Rafael Marcé
Biogeosciences, 18, 1619–1627,Short summary
The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in water samples is often measured using a gas chromatograph. Depending on the chemical composition of the water, this method can produce wrong results. We quantified the possible error and how it depends on water composition and the analytical procedure. We propose a method to correct wrong results by additionally analysing alkalinity in the samples. We provide an easily usable computer code to perform the correction calculations.
Julia Drewer, Melissa M. Leduning, Robert I. Griffiths, Tim Goodall, Peter E. Levy, Nicholas Cowan, Edward Comynn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Justin Sentian, Noreen Majalap, and Ute M. Skiba
Biogeosciences, 18, 1559–1575,Short summary
In Southeast Asia, oil palm plantations have largely replaced tropical forests. The impact of this shift in land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil microbial communities remains uncertain. We have found emission rates of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide on mineral soil to be higher from oil palm plantations than logged forest over a 2-year study and concluded that emissions have increased over the last 42 years in Sabah, with the proportion of emissions from plantations increasing.
Lutz Merbold, Charlotte Decock, Werner Eugster, Kathrin Fuchs, Benjamin Wolf, Nina Buchmann, and Lukas Hörtnagl
Biogeosciences, 18, 1481–1498,Short summary
Our study investigated the exchange of the three major greenhouse gases (GHGs) over a temperate grassland prior to and after restoration through tillage in central Switzerland. Our results show that irregular management events, such as tillage, have considerable effects on GHG emissions in the year of tillage while leading to enhanced carbon uptake and similar nitrogen losses via nitrous oxide in the years following tillage to those observed prior to tillage.
Roland Vernooij, Marcos Giongo, Marco Assis Borges, Máximo Menezes Costa, Ana Carolina Sena Barradas, and Guido R. van der Werf
Biogeosciences, 18, 1375–1393,Short summary
We used drones to measure greenhouse gas emission factors from fires in the Brazilian Cerrado. We compared early-dry-season management fires and late-dry-season fires to determine if fire management can be a tool for abating emissions. Although we found some evidence of increased CO and CH4 emission factors, the seasonal effect was smaller than that found in previous studies. For N2O, the third most important greenhouse gas, we found opposite trends in grass- and shrub-dominated areas.
Filippo Vingiani, Nicola Durighetto, Marcus Klaus, Jakob Schelker, Thierry Labasque, and Gianluca Botter
Biogeosciences, 18, 1223–1240,Short summary
Flexible foil chamber design and the anchored deployment might be useful techniques to enhance the robustness and the accuracy of CO2 measurements in low-order streams. Moreover, the study demonstrates the value of analytical and numerical techniques for the estimation of gas exchange velocities. These results may contribute to the development of novel procedures for chamber data analysis which might improve the robustness and reliability of chamber-based CO2 measurements in first-order streams.
Lauri Heiskanen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Sari Juutinen, Annalea Lohila, Timo Penttilä, Maiju Linkosalmi, Juha Mikola, Tuomas Laurila, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 18, 873–896,Short summary
We studied ecosystem- and plant-community-level carbon (C) exchange between subarctic mire and the atmosphere during 2017–2018. We found strong spatial variation in CO2 and CH4 dynamics between the main plant communities. The earlier onset of growing season in 2018 strengthened the CO2 sink of the ecosystem, but this gain was counterbalanced by a later drought period. Variation in water table level, soil temperature and vegetation explained most of the variation in ecosystem-level C exchange.
Sudhanshu Pandey, Sander Houweling, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Maria Tsivlidou, A. Anthony Bloom, Benjamin Poulter, Zhen Zhang, and Ilse Aben
Biogeosciences, 18, 557–572,Short summary
We use atmospheric methane observations from the novel TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI; Sentinel-5p) to estimate methane emissions from South Sudan's wetlands. Our emission estimates are an order of magnitude larger than the estimate of process-based wetland models. We find that this underestimation by the models is likely due to their misrepresentation of the wetlands' inundation extent and temperature dependences.
Paula Alejandra Lamprea Pineda, Marijn Bauters, Hans Verbeeck, Selene Baez, Matti Barthel, Samuel Bodé, and Pascal Boeckx
Biogeosciences, 18, 413–421,Short summary
Tropical forest soils are an important source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHGs) with tropical montane forests having been poorly studied. In this pilot study, we explored soil fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O in an Ecuadorian neotropical montane forest, where a net consumption of N2O at higher altitudes was observed. Our results highlight the importance of short-term variations in N2O and provide arguments and insights for future, more detailed studies on GHG fluxes from montane forest soils.
Bruna R. F. Oliveira, Carsten Schaller, J. Jacob Keizer, and Thomas Foken
Biogeosciences, 18, 285–302,Short summary
Forest fires have a significant impact on carbon dioxide emissions. The present study from a pine forest in Portugal is one of the few where measurements of CO2 fluxes were started immediately (1.5 months) after the forest fire. Carbon dioxide emissions were linked to soil humidity. Therefore, they started after the beginning of the rainfall in autumn. Due to the beginning of vegetation, the site was already a carbon dioxide sink the following year.
Hui Zhang, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Aino Korrensalo, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Mika Aurela, Timo Penttilä, Tuomas Laurila, Stephanie Gerin, Viivi Lindholm, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 17, 6247–6270,Short summary
We studied the impact of a stream on peatland microhabitats and CH4 emissions in a northern boreal fen. We found that there were higher water levels, lower peat temperatures, and greater oxygen concentrations close to the stream; these supported the highest biomass production but resulted in the lowest CH4 emissions. Further from the stream, the conditions were drier and CH4 emissions were also low. CH4 emissions were highest at an intermediate distance from the stream.
Simon Baumgartner, Matti Barthel, Travis William Drake, Marijn Bauters, Isaac Ahanamungu Makelele, John Kalume Mugula, Laura Summerauer, Nora Gallarotti, Landry Cizungu Ntaboba, Kristof Van Oost, Pascal Boeckx, Sebastian Doetterl, Roland Anton Werner, and Johan Six
Biogeosciences, 17, 6207–6218,Short summary
Soil respiration is an important carbon flux and key process determining the net ecosystem production of terrestrial ecosystems. The Congo Basin lacks studies quantifying carbon fluxes. We measured soil CO2 fluxes from different forest types in the Congo Basin and were able to show that, even though soil CO2 fluxes are similarly high in lowland and montane forests, the drivers were different: soil moisture in montane forests and C availability in the lowland forests.
Bettina K. Gier, Michael Buchwitz, Maximilian Reuter, Peter M. Cox, Pierre Friedlingstein, and Veronika Eyring
Biogeosciences, 17, 6115–6144,Short summary
Models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) phases 5 and 6 are compared to a satellite data product of column-averaged CO2 mole fractions (XCO2). The previously believed discrepancy of the negative trend in seasonal cycle amplitude in the satellite product, which is not seen in in situ data nor in the models, is attributed to a sampling characteristic. Furthermore, CMIP6 models are shown to have made progress in reproducing the observed XCO2 time series compared to CMIP5.
Samuel T. Wilson, Alia N. Al-Haj, Annie Bourbonnais, Claudia Frey, Robinson W. Fulweiler, John D. Kessler, Hannah K. Marchant, Jana Milucka, Nicholas E. Ray, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Brett F. Thornton, Robert C. Upstill-Goddard, Thomas S. Weber, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Hermann W. Bange, Heather M. Benway, Daniele Bianchi, Alberto V. Borges, Bonnie X. Chang, Patrick M. Crill, Daniela A. del Valle, Laura Farías, Samantha B. Joye, Annette Kock, Jabrane Labidi, Cara C. Manning, John W. Pohlman, Gregor Rehder, Katy J. Sparrow, Philippe D. Tortell, Tina Treude, David L. Valentine, Bess B. Ward, Simon Yang, and Leonid N. Yurganov
Biogeosciences, 17, 5809–5828,Short summary
The oceans are a net source of the major greenhouse gases; however there has been little coordination of oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements. The scientific community has recently embarked on a series of capacity-building exercises to improve the interoperability of dissolved methane and nitrous oxide measurements. This paper derives from a workshop which discussed the challenges and opportunities for oceanic methane and nitrous oxide research in the near future.
Najeeb Al-Amin Iddris, Marife D. Corre, Martin Yemefack, Oliver van Straaten, and Edzo Veldkamp
Biogeosciences, 17, 5377–5397,Short summary
We quantified the changes in stem and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes with forest conversion to cacao agroforestry in the Congo Basin, Cameroon. All forest and cacao trees consistently emitted N2O, contributing 8–38 % of the total (soil and stem) emissions. Forest conversion to extensively managed (>–20 years old) cacao agroforestry had no effect on stem and soil N2O fluxes. Our results highlight the importance of including tree-mediated fluxes in the ecosystem-level N2O budget.
Cédric Morana, Steven Bouillon, Vimac Nolla-Ardèvol, Fleur A. E. Roland, William Okello, Jean-Pierre Descy, Angela Nankabirwa, Erina Nabafu, Dirk Springael, and Alberto V. Borges
Biogeosciences, 17, 5209–5221,Short summary
A growing body of studies challenges the paradigm that methane (CH4) production occurs only under anaerobic conditions. Our field experiments revealed that oxic CH4 production is closely related to phytoplankton metabolism and is indeed a common feature in five contrasting African lakes. Nevertheless, we found that methanotrophic activity in surface waters and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere were predominantly fuelled by CH4 generated in sediments and physically transported to the surface.
Leandra Stephanie Emilia Praetzel, Nora Plenter, Sabrina Schilling, Marcel Schmiedeskamp, Gabriele Broll, and Klaus-Holger Knorr
Biogeosciences, 17, 5057–5078,Short summary
Small lakes are important but variable sources of greenhouse gas emissions. We performed lab experiments to determine spatial patterns and drivers of CO2 and CH4 emission and sediment gas production within a lake. The observed high spatial variability of emissions and production could be explained by the degradability of the sediment organic matter. We did not see correlations between production and emissions and suggest on-site flux measurements as the most accurate way for determing emissions.
François Clayer, Yves Gélinas, André Tessier, and Charles Gobeil
Biogeosciences, 17, 4571–4589,Short summary
Here, we quantified the sediment production of methane and carbon dioxide in lake sediments to better characterize the nature of the organic matter at the origin of these two greenhouse gases. We demonstrate that the production of these gases is not adequately represented in models for deep lake sediments. We thus propose to improve the representation of organic matter degradation reactions in current models for improving predictions of greenhouse gas cycling in aquatic sediments.
David Bastviken, Jonatan Nygren, Jonathan Schenk, Roser Parellada Massana, and Nguyen Thanh Duc
Biogeosciences, 17, 3659–3667,Short summary
This study presents a low-cost way to measure methane emissions applicable in nature and society. This facilitates widespread and affordable methane measurements, which are greatly needed for verifying that greenhouse gas mitigation is effective and for improved quantification of fluxes and how they are regulated. The paper also describes an open-source do-it-yourself methane–carbon dioxide–humidity–temperature logger, to increase the distributed capacity to measure greenhouse gases.
Fortunat Joos, Renato Spahni, Benjamin D. Stocker, Sebastian Lienert, Jurek Müller, Hubertus Fischer, Jochen Schmitt, I. Colin Prentice, Bette Otto-Bliesner, and Zhengyu Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 3511–3543,Short summary
Results of the first globally resolved simulations of terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (N) cycling and N2O emissions over the past 21 000 years are compared with reconstructed N2O emissions. Modelled and reconstructed emissions increased strongly during past abrupt warming events. This evidence appears consistent with a dynamic response of biological N fixation to increasing N demand by ecosystems, thereby reducing N limitation of plant productivity and supporting a land sink for atmospheric CO2.
Xuefei Li, Outi Wahlroos, Sami Haapanala, Jukka Pumpanen, Harri Vasander, Anne Ojala, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 17, 3409–3425,Short summary
We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes and quantified the global warming potential of different surface areas in a recently created urban wetland in Southern Finland. The ecosystem has a small net climate warming effect which was mainly contributed by the open-water areas. Our results suggest that limiting open-water areas and setting a design preference for areas of emergent vegetation in the establishment of urban wetlands can be a beneficial practice when considering solely the climate impact.
Xiao Ma, Mingshuang Sun, Sinikka T. Lennartz, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 17, 3427–3438,Short summary
Monthly measurements of dissolved methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, were conducted at Boknis Eck (BE), a time-series station in the southwestern Baltic Sea, from June 2006. In general CH4 concentrations increased with depth. High concentrations in the upper layer were linked to saline water inflow. Eckernförde Bay emitted CH4 to the atmosphere throughout the monitoring period. No significant trend was detected in CH4 concentrations or emissions during 2006–2017.
Elizabeth León-Palmero, Alba Contreras-Ruiz, Ana Sierra, Rafael Morales-Baquero, and Isabel Reche
Biogeosciences, 17, 3223–3245,Short summary
CH4 emissions from reservoirs are responsible for the majority of the climatic forcing of these ecosystems. The origin of the recurrent CH4 supersaturation in oxic waters is still controversial. We found that the dissolved CH4 concentration varied by up to 4 orders of magnitude in the water column of 12 reservoirs and was consistently supersaturated. Our findings suggest that photosynthetic picoeukaryotes can play a significant role in determining CH4 concentration in oxic waters.
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N2O emissions from permafrost soils represent up to 11.6 % of total N2O emissions from natural soils, and their contribution to the global N2O budget will likely increase due to climate change. A better understanding of N2O production from permafrost soil is needed to evaluate the role of arctic ecosystems in the global N2O budget. By studying microbial N2O production processes in N2O hotspots in permafrost peatlands, we identified denitrification as the dominant source of N2O in these surfaces.
N2O emissions from permafrost soils represent up to 11.6 % of total N2O emissions from natural...