Articles | Volume 10, issue 3
Research article 07 Mar 2013
Research article | 07 Mar 2013
A high-resolution and harmonized model approach for reconstructing and analysing historic land changes in Europe
R. Fuchs et al.
No articles found.
Maurizio Santoro, Oliver Cartus, Nuno Carvalhais, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Valerio Avitabile, Arnan Araza, Sytze de Bruin, Martin Herold, Shaun Quegan, Pedro Rodríguez-Veiga, Heiko Balzter, João Carreiras, Dmitry Schepaschenko, Mikhail Korets, Masanobu Shimada, Takuya Itoh, Álvaro Moreno Martínez, Jura Cavlovic, Roberto Cazzolla Gatti, Polyanna da Conceição Bispo, Nasheta Dewnath, Nicolas Labrière, Jingjing Liang, Jeremy Lindsell, Edward T. A. Mitchard, Alexandra Morel, Ana Maria Pacheco Pascagaza, Casey M. Ryan, Ferry Slik, Gaia Vaglio Laurin, Hans Verbeeck, Arief Wijaya, and Simon Willcock
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3927–3950,Short summary
Forests play a crucial role in Earth’s carbon cycle. To understand the carbon cycle better, we generated a global dataset of forest above-ground biomass, i.e. carbon stocks, from satellite data of 2010. This dataset provides a comprehensive and detailed portrait of the distribution of carbon in forests, although for dense forests in the tropics values are somewhat underestimated. This dataset will have a considerable impact on climate, carbon, and socio-economic modelling schemes.
Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Kaniska Mallick, Martin Schlerf, Miriam Machwitz, Martin Herold, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Biogeosciences, 17, 4443–4457,Short summary
We investigated the link between the vegetation leaf area index (LAI) and the land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes. We show that the correlation between the LAI and water and energy fluxes depends on the vegetation type and aridity. For carbon fluxes, however, the correlation with the LAI was strong and independent of vegetation and aridity. This study provides insight into when the vegetation LAI can be used to model or extrapolate land–atmosphere fluxes.
chains? – case review of HU Line
Yi Lin and Martin Herold
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
This review analyzed the possibility of anthropogenically breaking the macro-ecospatial transition zones, in the case of Hu Line in China. The contribution of this work is of fundamental implication for pointing out a scientific way of further examining the macro-ecological debates such as
China's tree-planting drive could falter in a warming world(Nature, 2019).
Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Kaniska Mallick, Adriaan J. Teuling, Martin Schlerf, Miriam Machwitz, Sibylle K. Hassler, Theresa Blume, and Martin Herold
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 2077–2091,Short summary
Satellite images are often used to estimate land water fluxes over a larger area. In this study, we investigate the link between a well-known vegetation index derived from satellite data and sap velocity, in a temperate forest in Luxembourg. We show that the link between the vegetation index and transpiration is not constant. Therefore we suggest that the use of vegetation indices to predict transpiration should be limited to ecosystems and scales where the link has been confirmed.
Jakob Zscheischler, Miguel D. Mahecha, Valerio Avitabile, Leonardo Calle, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Fabian Gans, Nicolas Gruber, Jens Hartmann, Martin Herold, Kazuhito Ichii, Martin Jung, Peter Landschützer, Goulven G. Laruelle, Ronny Lauerwald, Dario Papale, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Poulter, Deepak Ray, Pierre Regnier, Christian Rödenbeck, Rosa M. Roman-Cuesta, Christopher Schwalm, Gianluca Tramontana, Alexandra Tyukavina, Riccardo Valentini, Guido van der Werf, Tristram O. West, Julie E. Wolf, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 14, 3685–3703,Short summary
Here we synthesize a wide range of global spatiotemporal observational data on carbon exchanges between the Earth surface and the atmosphere. A key challenge was to consistently combining observational products of terrestrial and aquatic surfaces. Our primary goal is to identify today’s key uncertainties and observational shortcomings that would need to be addressed in future measurement campaigns or expansions of in situ observatories.
Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Martin Herold, Mariana C. Rufino, Todd S. Rosenstock, Richard A. Houghton, Simone Rossi, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Stephen Ogle, Benjamin Poulter, Louis Verchot, Christopher Martius, and Sytze de Bruin
Biogeosciences, 13, 5799–5819,Short summary
The land use sector (AFOLU) is a pivotal component of countries' mitigation commitments under the Paris Agreement. Global land use data are therefore important to complement and fill in countries' data gaps. But how different are the existing AFOLU datasets and why? Here we contrast six AFOLU datasets for the tropics at different levels of aggregation (spatial, gases, emission sources) and point out possible reasons for the observed differences and the next steps to improve land use emissions.
Rosa Maria Roman-Cuesta, Mariana C. Rufino, Martin Herold, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Todd S. Rosenstock, Mario Herrero, Stephen Ogle, Changsheng Li, Benjamin Poulter, Louis Verchot, Christopher Martius, John Stuiver, and Sytze de Bruin
Biogeosciences, 13, 4253–4269,Short summary
This research provides spatial data on gross emissions from the land use sector for the tropical region for the period 2000–2005. This sector contributes up to 24 % of the global emissions, but there is little understanding of where the hotspots of emissions are, how uncertain they are, and what the human activities behind these emissions are. Data provided here should assist countries to identify priority areas for mitigation action and contrast the effectiveness of their current measures.
S. Carter, M. Herold, M. C. Rufino, K. Neumann, L. Kooistra, and L. Verchot
Biogeosciences, 12, 4809–4825,Short summary
Emission from agriculture-driven deforestation can be mitigated by reducing the expansion of agriculture into forests through intensification and utilizing non-forested land for agriculture. Climate-smart agriculture can reduce emissions from existing agricultural land. Tropical countries which are priorities for action can be identified by assessing the mitigation potential of these interventions, by assessing capacity for implementation and the risks associated with these approaches.
B. Poulter, N. MacBean, A. Hartley, I. Khlystova, O. Arino, R. Betts, S. Bontemps, M. Boettcher, C. Brockmann, P. Defourny, S. Hagemann, M. Herold, G. Kirches, C. Lamarche, D. Lederer, C. Ottlé, M. Peters, and P. Peylin
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2315–2328,Short summary
Land cover is an essential variable in earth system models and determines conditions driving biogeochemical, energy and water exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere. A methodology is presented for mapping plant functional types used in global vegetation models from a updated land cover classification system and open-source conversion tool, resulting from a consultative process among map producers and modelers engaged in the European Space Agency’s Land Cover Climate Change Initiative.
Related subject area
Earth System Science/Response to Global Change: Models, Holocene/AnthropoceneModelling long-term alluvial-peatland dynamics in temperate river floodplainsVariable particle size distributions reduce the sensitivity of global export flux to climate changeClimate change will cause non-analog vegetation states in Africa and commit vegetation to long-term changeUncertainties, sensitivities and robustness of simulated water erosion in an EPIC-based global gridded crop modelTwenty-first century ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and upper-ocean nutrient and primary production decline from CMIP6 model projectionsThe capacity of northern peatlands for long-term carbon sequestrationTowards a more complete quantification of the global carbon cycleModeling seasonal and vertical habitats of planktonic foraminifera on a global scaleAn enhanced forest classification scheme for modeling vegetation–climate interactions based on national forest inventory dataSensitivity of woody carbon stocks to bark investment strategy in Neotropical savannas and forestsModelling past, present and future peatland carbon accumulation across the pan-Arctic regionBiogenic sediments from coastal ecosystems to beach–dune systems: implications for the adaptation of mixed and carbonate beaches to future sea level riseModelling Holocene peatland dynamics with an individual-based dynamic vegetation modelEffects of climate change and land management on soil organic carbon dynamics and carbon leaching in northwestern EuropeQuantifying regional, time-varying effects of cropland and pasture on vegetation fireHESFIRE: a global fire model to explore the role of anthropogenic and weather driversImpact of human population density on fire frequency at the global scaleEvaluation of biospheric components in Earth system models using modern and palaeo-observations: the state-of-the-artAnalyzing precipitationsheds to understand the vulnerability of rainfall dependent regionsA new concept for simulation of vegetated land surface dynamics – Part 1: The event driven phenology modelAlternative methods to predict actual evapotranspiration illustrate the importance of accounting for phenology – Part 2: The event driven phenology modelThe influence of land cover change in the Asian monsoon region on present-day and mid-Holocene climateSensitivity of Holocene atmospheric CO2 and the modern carbon budget to early human land use: analyses with a process-based modelSide effects and accounting aspects of hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean iron fertilizationCombined biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of large-scale forest cover changes in the MPI earth system modelProjected 21st century decrease in marine productivity: a multi-model analysisImpact of atmospheric and terrestrial CO2 feedbacks on fertilization-induced marine carbon uptake
Ward Swinnen, Nils Broothaerts, and Gert Verstraeten
Biogeosciences, 18, 6181–6212,Short summary
Here we present a new modelling framework specifically designed to simulate alluvial peat growth, taking into account the river dynamics. The results indicate that alluvial peat growth is strongly determined by the number, spacing and movement of the river channels in the floodplain, rather than by environmental changes or peat properties. As such, the amount of peat that can develop in a floodplain is strongly determined by the characteristics and dynamics of the local river network.
Shirley W. Leung, Thomas Weber, Jacob A. Cram, and Curtis Deutsch
Biogeosciences, 18, 229–250,Short summary
A global model is constrained with empirical relationships to quantify how shifts in sinking-particle sizes modulate particulate organic carbon export production changes in a warming ocean. Including the effect of dynamic particle sizes on remineralization reduces the magnitude of predicted 100-year changes in export production by ~14 %. Projections of future export could thus be improved by considering dynamic phytoplankton and particle-size-dependent remineralization depths.
Mirjam Pfeiffer, Dushyant Kumar, Carola Martens, and Simon Scheiter
Biogeosciences, 17, 5829–5847,Short summary
Lags caused by delayed vegetation response to changing environmental conditions can lead to disequilibrium vegetation states. Awareness of this issue is relevant for ecosystem conservation. We used the aDGVM vegetation model to quantify the difference between transient and equilibrium vegetation states in Africa during the 21st century for two potential climate trajectories. Lag times increased over time and vegetation was non-analog to any equilibrium state due to multi-lag composite states.
Tony W. Carr, Juraj Balkovič, Paul E. Dodds, Christian Folberth, Emil Fulajtar, and Rastislav Skalsky
Biogeosciences, 17, 5263–5283,Short summary
We generate 30-year mean water erosion estimates in global maize and wheat fields based on daily simulation outputs from an EPIC-based global gridded crop model. Evaluation against field data confirmed the robustness of the outputs for the majority of global cropland and overestimations at locations with steep slopes and strong rainfall. Additionally, we address sensitivities and uncertainties of model inputs to improve water erosion estimates in global agricultural impact studies.
Lester Kwiatkowski, Olivier Torres, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Aumont, Matthew Chamberlain, James R. Christian, John P. Dunne, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Jasmin G. John, Andrew Lenton, Hongmei Li, Nicole S. Lovenduski, James C. Orr, Julien Palmieri, Yeray Santana-Falcón, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Charles A. Stock, Alessandro Tagliabue, Yohei Takano, Jerry Tjiputra, Katsuya Toyama, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Michio Watanabe, Akitomo Yamamoto, Andrew Yool, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 3439–3470,Short summary
We assess 21st century projections of marine biogeochemistry in the CMIP6 Earth system models. These models represent the most up-to-date understanding of climate change. The models generally project greater surface ocean warming, acidification, subsurface deoxygenation, and euphotic nitrate reductions but lesser primary production declines than the previous generation of models. This has major implications for the impact of anthropogenic climate change on marine ecosystems.
Georgii A. Alexandrov, Victor A. Brovkin, Thomas Kleinen, and Zicheng Yu
Biogeosciences, 17, 47–54,
Miko U. F. Kirschbaum, Guang Zeng, Fabiano Ximenes, Donna L. Giltrap, and John R. Zeldis
Biogeosciences, 16, 831–846,Short summary
Globally, C is added to the atmosphere from fossil fuels and deforestation, balanced by ocean uptake and atmospheric increase. The difference (residual sink) is equated to plant uptake. But this omits cement carbonation; transport to oceans by dust; riverine organic C and volatile organics; and increased C in plastic, bitumen, wood, landfills, and lakes. Their inclusion reduces the residual sink from 3.6 to 2.1 GtC yr-1 and thus the inferred ability of the biosphere to alter human C emissions.
Kerstin Kretschmer, Lukas Jonkers, Michal Kucera, and Michael Schulz
Biogeosciences, 15, 4405–4429,Short summary
The fossil shells of planktonic foraminifera are widely used to reconstruct past climate conditions. To do so, information about their seasonal and vertical habitat is needed. Here we present an updated version of a planktonic foraminifera model to better understand species-specific habitat dynamics under climate change. This model produces spatially and temporally coherent distribution patterns, which agree well with available observations, and can thus aid the interpretation of proxy records.
Titta Majasalmi, Stephanie Eisner, Rasmus Astrup, Jonas Fridman, and Ryan M. Bright
Biogeosciences, 15, 399–412,Short summary
Forest management shapes forest structure and in turn surface–atmosphere interactions. We used Fennoscandian forest maps and inventory data to develop a classification system for forest structure. The classification was integrated with the ESA Climate Change Initiative land cover map to achieve complete surface representation. The result is an improved product for modeling surface–atmosphere exchanges in regions with intensively managed forests.
Anna T. Trugman, David Medvigy, William A. Hoffmann, and Adam F. A. Pellegrini
Biogeosciences, 15, 233–243,Short summary
Tree fire tolerance strategies may significantly impact woody carbon stability and the existence of tropical savannas under global climate change. We used a numerical ecosystem model to test the impacts of fire survival strategy under differing fire and rainfall regimes. We found that the high survival rate of large fire-tolerant trees reduced carbon losses with increasing fire frequency, and reduced the range of conditions leading to either complete tree loss or complete grass loss.
Nitin Chaudhary, Paul A. Miller, and Benjamin Smith
Biogeosciences, 14, 4023–4044,Short summary
We employed an individual- and patch-based dynamic global ecosystem model to quantify long-term C accumulation rates and to assess the effects of historical and projected climate change on peatland C balances across the pan-Arctic. We found that peatlands in Scandinavia, Europe, Russia and central and eastern Canada will become C sources, while Siberia, far eastern Russia, Alaska and western and northern Canada will increase their sink capacity by the end of the 21st century.
Giovanni De Falco, Emanuela Molinaroli, Alessandro Conforti, Simone Simeone, and Renato Tonielli
Biogeosciences, 14, 3191–3205,Short summary
This study quantifies the contribution of carbonate sediments, produced in seagrass meadows and in photophilic algal communities, to the sediment budget of a beach–dune system. The contribution to the beach sediment budget represents a further ecosystem service provided by seagrass. The dependence of the beach sediment budget on carbonate production associated with coastal ecosystems has implications for the adaptation of carbonate beaches to the seagrass decline and sea level rise.
Nitin Chaudhary, Paul A. Miller, and Benjamin Smith
Biogeosciences, 14, 2571–2596,Short summary
We incorporated peatland dynamics into
Arcticversion of dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS to understand the long-term evolution of northern peatlands and effects of climate change on peatland carbon balance. We found that the Stordalen mire may be expected to sequester more carbon before 2050 due to milder and wetter climate conditions, a longer growing season and CO2 fertilization effect, turning into a C source after 2050 because of higher decomposition rates in response to warming soils.
Maria Stergiadi, Marcel van der Perk, Ton C. M. de Nijs, and Marc F. P. Bierkens
Biogeosciences, 13, 1519–1536,Short summary
We modelled the effects of changes in climate and land management on soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels in sandy and loamy soils under forest, grassland, and arable land. Climate change causes a decrease in both SOC and DOC for the agricultural systems, whereas for the forest systems, SOC slightly increases. A reduction in fertilizer application leads to a decrease in SOC and DOC levels under arable land but has a negligible effect under grassland.
S. S. Rabin, B. I. Magi, E. Shevliakova, and S. W. Pacala
Biogeosciences, 12, 6591–6604,Short summary
People worldwide use fire to manage agriculture, but often also suppress fire in the landscape surrounding their fields. Here, we estimate the net result of these effects of cropland and pasture on fire at a regional, monthly level. Pasture is shown, for the first time, to contribute strongly to global patterns of burning. Our results could be used to improve representations of burning in global vegetation and climate models, improving our understanding of how people affect the Earth system.
Y. Le Page, D. Morton, B. Bond-Lamberty, J. M. C. Pereira, and G. Hurtt
Biogeosciences, 12, 887–903,
W. Knorr, T. Kaminski, A. Arneth, and U. Weber
Biogeosciences, 11, 1085–1102,
A. M. Foley, D. Dalmonech, A. D. Friend, F. Aires, A. T. Archibald, P. Bartlein, L. Bopp, J. Chappellaz, P. Cox, N. R. Edwards, G. Feulner, P. Friedlingstein, S. P. Harrison, P. O. Hopcroft, C. D. Jones, J. Kolassa, J. G. Levine, I. C. Prentice, J. Pyle, N. Vázquez Riveiros, E. W. Wolff, and S. Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 10, 8305–8328,
P. W. Keys, R. J. van der Ent, L. J. Gordon, H. Hoff, R. Nikoli, and H. H. G. Savenije
Biogeosciences, 9, 733–746,
V. Kovalskyy and G. M. Henebry
Biogeosciences, 9, 141–159,
V. Kovalskyy and G. M. Henebry
Biogeosciences, 9, 161–177,
A. Dallmeyer and M. Claussen
Biogeosciences, 8, 1499–1519,
B. D. Stocker, K. Strassmann, and F. Joos
Biogeosciences, 8, 69–88,
A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, W. Rickels, and K. Rehdanz
Biogeosciences, 7, 4017–4035,
S. Bathiany, M. Claussen, V. Brovkin, T. Raddatz, and V. Gayler
Biogeosciences, 7, 1383–1399,
M. Steinacher, F. Joos, T. L. Frölicher, L. Bopp, P. Cadule, V. Cocco, S. C. Doney, M. Gehlen, K. Lindsay, J. K. Moore, B. Schneider, and J. Segschneider
Biogeosciences, 7, 979–1005,
Biogeosciences, 6, 1603–1613,
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