Articles | Volume 12, issue 16
Biogeosciences, 12, 4979–4992, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Low oxygen environments in marine, fresh and estuarine...
21 Aug 2015
Research article | 21 Aug 2015
Assessing the potential of amino acid 13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis
T. Larsen et al.
No articles found.
Allanah Joy Paul, Lennart Thomas Bach, Javier Arístegui, Elisabeth von der Esch, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Jonna Piiparinen, Laura Ramajo, Kristian Spilling, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 19, 5911–5926,Short summary
We investigated how different deep water chemistry and biology modulate the response of surface phytoplankton communities to upwelling in the Peruvian coastal zone. Our results show that the most influential drivers were the ratio of inorganic nutrients (N : P) and the microbial community present in upwelling source water. These led to unexpected and variable development in the phytoplankton assemblage that could not be predicted by the amount of inorganic nutrients alone.
Aaron Ferderer, Zanna Chase, Fraser Kennedy, Kai G. Schulz, and Lennart T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 5375–5399,Short summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement has the capacity to remove vast quantities of carbon from the atmosphere, but its effect on marine ecosystems is largely unknown. We assessed the effect of increased alkalinity on a coastal phytoplankton community when seawater was equilibrated and not equilibrated with atmospheric CO2. We found that the phytoplankton community was moderately affected by increased alkalinity and equilibration with atmospheric CO2 had little influence on this effect.
Kristian Spilling, Jonna Piiparinen, Eric P. Achterberg, Javier Arístegui, Lennart T. Bach, Maria T. Camarena-Gómez, Elisabeth von der Esch, Martin A. Fischer, Markel Gómez-Letona, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Judith Meyer, Ruth A. Schmitz, and Ulf Riebesell
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
We carried out an enclosure experiment with surface water off Peru with different additions of deep water representing possible future ocean scenarios. In this paper we report on enzyme activity, and provide data on the decomposition of organic matter. We found very high activity of an enzyme breaking down protein, suggesting this is important for the nutrient recycling both at present and in the future ocean.
Moritz Baumann, Allanah Joy Paul, Jan Taucher, Lennart Thomas Bach, Silvan Goldenberg, Paul Stange, Fabrizio Minutolo, and Ulf Riebesell
The sinking velocity of marine particles affects how much atmospheric CO2 is stored inside our oceans. We measured particle sinking velocities in the Peruvian Upwelling System and assessed their physical and biochemical drivers. We found that sinking velocity was mainly influenced by particle size and compactness, while ballasting minerals played only a minor role. Our findings help to better understand the particle sinking dynamics in this highly productive marine system.
Jiaying Abby Guo, Robert Strzepek, Anusuya Willis, Aaron Ferderer, and Lennart Thomas Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 3683–3697,Short summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement is a CO2 removal method with significant potential, but it can lead to a perturbation of the ocean with trace metals such as nickel. This study tested the effect of increasing nickel concentrations on phytoplankton growth and photosynthesis. We found that the response to nickel varied across the 11 phytoplankton species tested here, but the majority were rather insensitive. We note, however, that responses may be different under other experimental conditions.
Charly A. Moras, Lennart T. Bach, Tyler Cyronak, Renaud Joannes-Boyau, and Kai G. Schulz
Biogeosciences, 19, 3537–3557,Short summary
This research presents the first laboratory results of quick and hydrated lime dissolution in natural seawater. These two minerals are of great interest for ocean alkalinity enhancement, a strategy aiming to decrease atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Following the dissolution of these minerals, we identified several hurdles and presented ways to avoid them or completely negate them. Finally, we proceeded to various simulations in today’s oceans to implement the strategy at its highest potential.
Clara T. Bolton, Emmeline Gray, Wolfgang Kuhnt, Ann E. Holbourn, Julia Lübbers, Katharine Grant, Kazuyo Tachikawa, Gianluca Marino, Eelco J. Rohling, Anta-Clarisse Sarr, and Nils Andersen
Clim. Past, 18, 713–738,Short summary
The timing of the initiation and evolution of the South Asian monsoon in the geological past is a subject of debate. Here, we present a new age model spanning the late Miocene (9 to 5 million years ago) and high-resolution records of past open-ocean biological productivity from the equatorial Indian Ocean that we interpret to reflect monsoon wind strength. Our data show no long-term intensification; however, strong orbital periodicities suggest insolation forcing of monsoon wind strength.
Shao-Min Chen, Ulf Riebesell, Kai G. Schulz, Elisabeth von der Esch, Eric P. Achterberg, and Lennart T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 295–312,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones in the ocean are characterized by enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and are being further acidified by increasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2. Here we report CO2 system measurements in a mesocosm study offshore Peru during a rare coastal El Niño event to investigate how CO2 dynamics may respond to ongoing ocean deoxygenation. Our observations show that nitrogen limitation, productivity, and plankton community shift play an important role in driving the CO2 dynamics.
Kai G. Schulz, Eric P. Achterberg, Javier Arístegui, Lennart T. Bach, Isabel Baños, Tim Boxhammer, Dirk Erler, Maricarmen Igarza, Verena Kalter, Andrea Ludwig, Carolin Löscher, Jana Meyer, Judith Meyer, Fabrizio Minutolo, Elisabeth von der Esch, Bess B. Ward, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 18, 4305–4320,Short summary
Upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters to the surface make eastern boundary upwelling systems hot spots of marine productivity. This leads to subsurface oxygen depletion and the transformation of bioavailable nitrogen into inert N2. Here we quantify nitrogen loss processes following a simulated deep water upwelling. Denitrification was the dominant process, and budget calculations suggest that a significant portion of nitrogen that could be exported to depth is already lost in the surface ocean.
Lennart Thomas Bach, Allanah Joy Paul, Tim Boxhammer, Elisabeth von der Esch, Michelle Graco, Kai Georg Schulz, Eric Achterberg, Paulina Aguayo, Javier Arístegui, Patrizia Ayón, Isabel Baños, Avy Bernales, Anne Sophie Boegeholz, Francisco Chavez, Gabriela Chavez, Shao-Min Chen, Kristin Doering, Alba Filella, Martin Fischer, Patricia Grasse, Mathias Haunost, Jan Hennke, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Mark Hopwood, Maricarmen Igarza, Verena Kalter, Leila Kittu, Peter Kohnert, Jesus Ledesma, Christian Lieberum, Silke Lischka, Carolin Löscher, Andrea Ludwig, Ursula Mendoza, Jana Meyer, Judith Meyer, Fabrizio Minutolo, Joaquin Ortiz Cortes, Jonna Piiparinen, Claudia Sforna, Kristian Spilling, Sonia Sanchez, Carsten Spisla, Michael Sswat, Mabel Zavala Moreira, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 17, 4831–4852,Short summary
The eastern boundary upwelling system off Peru is among Earth's most productive ocean ecosystems, but the factors that control its functioning are poorly constrained. Here we used mesocosms, moored ~ 6 km offshore Peru, to investigate how processes in plankton communities drive key biogeochemical processes. We show that nutrient and light co-limitation keep productivity and export at a remarkably constant level while stoichiometry changes strongly with shifts in plankton community structure.
Annalena A. Lochte, Ralph Schneider, Markus Kienast, Janne Repschläger, Thomas Blanz, Dieter Garbe-Schönberg, and Nils Andersen
Clim. Past, 16, 1127–1143,Short summary
The Labrador Sea is important for the modern global thermohaline circulation system through the formation of Labrador Sea Water. However, the role of the southward flowing Labrador Current in Labrador Sea convection is still debated. In order to better assess its role in deep-water formation and climate variability, we present high-resolution mid- to late Holocene records of sea surface and bottom water temperatures, freshening, and sea ice cover on the Labrador Shelf during the last 6000 years.
Giulia Faucher, Ulf Riebesell, and Lennart Thomas Bach
Clim. Past, 16, 1007–1025,Short summary
We designed five experiments choosing different coccolithophore species that have been evolutionarily distinct for millions of years. If all species showed the same morphological response to an environmental driver, this could be indicative of a response pattern that is conserved over geological timescales. We found an increase in the percentage of malformed coccoliths under altered CO2, providing evidence that this response could be used as paleo-proxy for episodes of acute CO2 perturbations.
Mark J. Hopwood, Nicolas Sanchez, Despo Polyviou, Øystein Leiknes, Julián Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Eric P. Achterberg, Murat V. Ardelan, Javier Aristegui, Lennart Bach, Sengul Besiktepe, Yohann Heriot, Ioanna Kalantzi, Tuba Terbıyık Kurt, Ioulia Santi, Tatiana M. Tsagaraki, and David Turner
Biogeosciences, 17, 1309–1326,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is formed naturally in sunlight-exposed water by photochemistry. At high concentrations it is undesirable to biological cells because it is a stressor. Here, across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments (Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard), we determine that two factors consistently affect the H2O2 concentrations irrespective of geographical location: bacteria abundance and experiment design.
Lennart Thomas Bach and Jan Taucher
Ocean Sci., 15, 1159–1175,Short summary
Diatoms are a group of phytoplankton species responsible for ~ 25 % of primary production on Earth. Ocean acidification (OA) could influence diatoms but the key question is if they become more or less important within marine food webs. We synthesize OA experiments with natural communities and found that diatoms are more likely to be positively than negatively affected by high CO2 and larger species may profit in particular. This has important implications for ecosystem services diatoms provide.
Julien Schirrmacher, Mara Weinelt, Thomas Blanz, Nils Andersen, Emília Salgueiro, and Ralph R. Schneider
Clim. Past, 15, 617–634,
Yong Zhang, Lennart T. Bach, Kai T. Lohbeck, Kai G. Schulz, Luisa Listmann, Regina Klapper, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 15, 3691–3701,Short summary
To compare variations in physiological responses to pCO2 between populations, we measured growth, POC and PIC production rates at a pCO2 range from 120 to 2630 µatm for 17 strains of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi from the Azores, Canary Islands, and Norwegian coast near Bergen. Optimal pCO2 for growth and POC production rates and tolerance to low pH was significantly higher for the Bergen population than the Azores and Canary Islands populations.
Giulia Faucher, Linn Hoffmann, Lennart T. Bach, Cinzia Bottini, Elisabetta Erba, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 14, 3603–3613,Short summary
The main goal of this study was to understand if, similarly to the fossil record, high quantities of toxic metals induce coccolith dwarfism in coccolithophore species. We investigated, for the first time, the effects of trace metals on coccolithophore species other than E. huxleyi and on coccolith morphology and size. Our data show a species-specific sensitivity to trace metal concentration, allowing the recognition of the most-, intermediate- and least-tolerant taxa to trace metal enrichments.
Silke Lischka, Lennart T. Bach, Kai-Georg Schulz, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 14, 447–466,Short summary
We conducted a large-scale field experiment using 55 m3 floating containers (mesocosms) to investigate consequences of near-future projected CO2 elevations (ocean acidification) on a Baltic Sea plankton community in Storfjärden (Finland). The focus of our study was on single- and multicelled small-sized organisms dwelling in the water column. Our results suggest that increasing CO2 concentrations may change the species composition and promote specific food web interactions.
Thomas Hornick, Lennart T. Bach, Katharine J. Crawfurd, Kristian Spilling, Eric P. Achterberg, Jason N. Woodhouse, Kai G. Schulz, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Ulf Riebesell, and Hans-Peter Grossart
Biogeosciences, 14, 1–15,
Meike Becker, Nils Andersen, Helmut Erlenkeuser, Matthew P. Humphreys, Toste Tanhua, and Arne Körtzinger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 559–570,Short summary
The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) can be used to quantify fluxes within the marine carbon system such as the exchange between ocean and atmosphere or the amount of anthropogenic carbon in the water column. In this study, an internally consistent δ13C-DIC dataset for the North Atlantic is presented. The data have undergone a secondary quality control during which systematic biases between the respective cruises have been quantified and adjusted.
Juntian Xu, Lennart T. Bach, Kai G. Schulz, Wenyan Zhao, Kunshan Gao, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 4637–4643,
Alison L. Webb, Emma Leedham-Elvidge, Claire Hughes, Frances E. Hopkins, Gill Malin, Lennart T. Bach, Kai Schulz, Kate Crawfurd, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Annegret Stuhr, Ulf Riebesell, and Peter S. Liss
Biogeosciences, 13, 4595–4613,Short summary
This paper presents concentrations of several trace gases produced by the Baltic Sea phytoplankton community during a mesocosm experiment with five different CO2 levels. Average concentrations of dimethylsulphide were lower in the highest CO2 mesocosms over a 6-week period, corresponding to previous mesocosm experiment results. No dimethylsulfoniopropionate was detected due to a methodological issue. Concentrations of iodine- and bromine-containing halocarbons were unaffected by increasing CO2.
Allanah J. Paul, Eric P. Achterberg, Lennart T. Bach, Tim Boxhammer, Jan Czerny, Mathias Haunost, Kai-Georg Schulz, Annegret Stuhr, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 3901–3913,
Monika Nausch, Lennart Thomas Bach, Jan Czerny, Josephine Goldstein, Hans-Peter Grossart, Dana Hellemann, Thomas Hornick, Eric Pieter Achterberg, Kai-Georg Schulz, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 3035–3050,Short summary
Studies investigating the effect of increasing CO2 levels on the phosphorus cycle in natural waters are lacking although phosphorus often controls phytoplankton development in aquatic systems. The aim of our study was to analyse effects of elevated CO2 levels on phosphorus pool sizes and uptake. Therefore, we conducted a CO2-manipulation mesocosm experiment in the Storfjärden (western Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea) in summer 2012. We compared the phosphorus dynamics in different mesocosm treatment
Tim Boxhammer, Lennart T. Bach, Jan Czerny, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 2849–2858,
Anna-Karin Almén, Anu Vehmaa, Andreas Brutemark, Lennart Bach, Silke Lischka, Annegret Stuhr, Sara Furuhagen, Allanah Paul, J. Rafael Bermúdez, Ulf Riebesell, and Jonna Engström-Öst
Biogeosciences, 13, 1037–1048,Short summary
We studied the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the aquatic crustacean Eurytemora affinis and measured offspring production in relation to pH, chlorophyll, algae, fatty acids, and oxidative stress. No effects on offspring production or pH effects via food were found. E. affinis seems robust against OA on a physiological level and did probably not face acute pH stress in the treatments, as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.
A. J. Paul, L. T. Bach, K.-G. Schulz, T. Boxhammer, J. Czerny, E. P. Achterberg, D. Hellemann, Y. Trense, M. Nausch, M. Sswat, and U. Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 12, 6181–6203,
L. T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 12, 4939–4951,Short summary
Calcification by marine organisms reacts to changing seawater carbonate chemistry, but it is unclear which components of the carbonate system drive the observed response. This study uncovers proportionalities between different carbonate chemistry parameters. These enable us to understand why calcification often correlates well with carbonate ion concentration, and they imply that net CaCO3 formation in high latitudes is not more vulnerable to ocean acidification than formation in low latitudes.
Related subject area
Paleobiogeoscience: Organic BiomarkersA Holocene temperature (brGDGT) record from Garba Guracha, a high-altitude lake in EthiopiaHuman and livestock faecal biomarkers at the prehistorical encampment site of Ullafelsen in the Fotsch Valley, Stubai Alps, Austria – potential and limitationsThe influence of lateral transport on sedimentary alkenone paleoproxy signalsExploring the use of compound-specific carbon isotopes as a palaeoproductivity proxy off the coast of Adélie Land, East AntarcticaDevelopment of global temperature and pH calibrations based on bacterial 3-hydroxy fatty acids in soilsLignin oxidation products in soil, dripwater and speleothems from four different sites in New ZealandFrom leaf to soil: n-alkane signal preservation, despite degradation along an environmental gradient in the tropical AndesComparison of the U37K′, LDI, TEX86H, and RI-OH temperature proxies in sediments from the northern shelf of the South China SeaReconstructing N2-fixing cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea beyond observations using 6- and 7-methylheptadecane in sediments as specific biomarkersHighly branched isoprenoids for Southern Ocean sea ice reconstructions: a pilot study from the Western Antarctic PeninsulaOrganic signatures in Pleistocene cherts from Lake Magadi (Kenya) – implications for early Earth hydrothermal depositsBiomarker evidence for the occurrence of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during Quaternary and Pliocene sapropel formationQuantification of lignin oxidation products as vegetation biomarkers in speleothems and cave drip waterIdeas and perspectives: hydrothermally driven redistribution and sequestration of early Archaean biomass – the “hydrothermal pump hypothesis”Ubiquitous production of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in global marine environments: a new source indicator for brGDGTsDiploptene δ13C values from contemporary thermokarst lake sediments show complex spatial variationImproved end-member characterisation of modern organic matter pools in the Ohrid Basin (Albania, Macedonia) and evaluation of new palaeoenvironmental proxiesDistribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in surface soils of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau: implications of brGDGTs-based proxies in cold and dry regionsBiostratigraphic evidence for dramatic Holocene uplift of Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Ridge, SE Pacific OceanA laboratory experiment on the behaviour of soil-derived core and intact polar GDGTs in aquatic environmentsTransport of branched tetraether lipids from the Tagus River basin to the coastal ocean of the Portuguese margin: consequences for the interpretation of the MBT'/CBT paleothermometerBacteriohopanepolyols record stratification, nitrogen fixation and other biogeochemical perturbations in Holocene sediments of the central Baltic SeaDetermination of the molecular signature of fossil conifers by experimental palaeochemotaxonomy – Part 1: The Araucariaceae familyImbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany)Occurrence and distribution of ladderane oxidation products in different oceanic regimesGrowth phase dependent hydrogen isotopic fractionation in alkenone-producing haptophytes
Lucas Bittner, Cindy De Jonge, Graciela Gil-Romera, Henry F. Lamb, James M. Russell, and Michael Zech
Biogeosciences, 19, 5357–5374,Short summary
With regard to global warming, an understanding of past temperature changes is becoming increasingly important. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are membrane lipids used globally to reconstruct lake water temperatures. In the Bale Mountains lakes, we find a unique composition of brGDGT isomers. We present a modified local calibration and a new high-altitude temperature reconstruction from the Horn of Africa spanning the last 12.5 kyr.
Marcel Lerch, Tobias Bromm, Clemens Geitner, Jean Nicolas Haas, Dieter Schäfer, Bruno Glaser, and Michael Zech
Biogeosciences, 19, 1135–1150,Short summary
Faecal biomarker analyses present a useful tool in geoarcheological research. For a better understanding of the lives of our ancestors in alpine regions, we investigated modern livestock faeces and Holocene soils at the prehistorical encampment site of Ullafelsen in the Fotsch Valley, Stubai Alps, Austria. Initial results show a high input of livestock faeces and a negligible input of human faeces for this archeological site. Future studies will focus on mire archives in the Fotsch Valley.
Blanca Ausín, Negar Haghipour, Elena Bruni, and Timothy Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 19, 613–627,Short summary
The preservation and distribution of alkenones – organic molecules produced by marine algae – in marine sediments allows us to reconstruct past variations in sea surface temperature, primary productivity and CO2. Here, we explore the impact of remobilization and lateral transport of sedimentary alkenones on their fate in marine sediments. We demonstrate the pervasive influence of these processes on alkenone-derived environmental signals, compromising the reliability of related paleorecords.
Kate E. Ashley, Xavier Crosta, Johan Etourneau, Philippine Campagne, Harry Gilchrist, Uthmaan Ibraheem, Sarah E. Greene, Sabine Schmidt, Yvette Eley, Guillaume Massé, and James Bendle
Biogeosciences, 18, 5555–5571,Short summary
We explore the potential for the use of carbon isotopes of algal fatty acid as a new proxy for past primary productivity in Antarctic coastal zones. Coastal polynyas are hotspots of primary productivity and are known to draw down CO2 from the atmosphere. Reconstructions of past productivity changes could provide a baseline for the role of these areas as sinks for atmospheric CO2.
Pierre Véquaud, Sylvie Derenne, Alexandre Thibault, Christelle Anquetil, Giuliano Bonanomi, Sylvie Collin, Sergio Contreras, Andrew T. Nottingham, Pierre Sabatier, Norma Salinas, Wesley P. Scott, Josef P. Werne, and Arnaud Huguet
Biogeosciences, 18, 3937–3959,Short summary
A better understanding of past climate variations is essential to apprehend future climatic changes. The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of specific organic compounds of bacterial origin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs), as temperature and pH proxies at the global level using an extended soil dataset. We show the major potential of 3-OH FAs as such proxies in terrestrial environments through the different models presented and their application for palaeoreconstruction.
Inken Heidke, Adam Hartland, Denis Scholz, Andrew Pearson, John Hellstrom, Sebastian F. M. Breitenbach, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Biogeosciences, 18, 2289–2300,Short summary
We analyzed lignin oxidation products (LOPs) in leaf litter and different soil horizons as well as dripwater and flowstone samples from four different cave sites from different vegetation zones in New Zealand using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. We test whether the original source-dependent LOP signal of the overlying vegetation is preserved and can be recovered from flowstone samples and investigate how the signal is altered by the transport from the soil to the cave.
Milan L. Teunissen van Manen, Boris Jansen, Francisco Cuesta, Susana León-Yánez, and William D. Gosling
Biogeosciences, 17, 5465–5487,Short summary
We measured plant wax in leaves and soils along an environmental gradient in the Ecuadorian Andes. These data show how the wax composition changes as the plant material degrades in different environments. Local temperature is reflected in the wax despite the level degradation. The study results warrant further research into a possible causal relationship that may lead to the development of n-alkane patterns as a novel palaeoecological proxy.
Bingbing Wei, Guodong Jia, Jens Hefter, Manyu Kang, Eunmi Park, Shizhu Wang, and Gesine Mollenhauer
Biogeosciences, 17, 4489–4508,Short summary
This research reports the applicability of four organic temperature proxies (U37K', LDI, TEX86H, and RI-OH) to the northern South China Sea shelf. The comparison with local sea surface temperature (SST) indicates the impact of terrestrial input on LDI, TEX86H, and RI-OH proxies near the coast. After excluding samples influenced by terrestrial materials, proxy temperatures exhibit different seasonality, providing valuable tools to reconstruct regional SSTs under different monsoonal conditions.
Jérôme Kaiser, Norbert Wasmund, Mati Kahru, Anna K. Wittenborn, Regina Hansen, Katharina Häusler, Matthias Moros, Detlef Schulz-Bull, and Helge W. Arz
Biogeosciences, 17, 2579–2591,Short summary
Cyanobacterial blooms represent a threat to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, causing deoxygenation of the bottom water. In order to understand the natural versus anthropogenic factors driving these blooms, it is necessary to study long-term trends beyond observations. We have produced a record of cyanobacterial blooms since 1860 using organic molecules (biomarkers) preserved in sediments. Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea are likely mainly related to temperature variability.
Maria-Elena Vorrath, Juliane Müller, Oliver Esper, Gesine Mollenhauer, Christian Haas, Enno Schefuß, and Kirsten Fahl
Biogeosciences, 16, 2961–2981,Short summary
The study highlights new approaches in the investigation of past sea ice in Antarctica to reconstruct the climate conditions in earth's history and reveal its future development under global warming. We examined the distribution of organic remains from different algae at the Western Antarctic Peninsula and compared it to fossil and satellite records. We evaluated IPSO25 – the sea ice proxy for the Southern Ocean with 25 carbon atoms – as a useful tool for sea ice reconstructions in this region.
Manuel Reinhardt, Walter Goetz, Jan-Peter Duda, Christine Heim, Joachim Reitner, and Volker Thiel
Biogeosciences, 16, 2443–2465,Short summary
Organic matter in Archean hydrothermal cherts may contain molecular traces of early life. Alteration processes during and after deposition, however, may have obliterated potential biosignatures. Our results from modern analog samples (Pleistocene cherts from Lake Magadi, Kenya) show that biomolecules can survive early hydrothermal destruction in the macromolecular fraction of the organic matter. A conservation of molecular biosignatures in Archean hydrothermal cherts therefore seems possible.
Darci Rush, Helen M. Talbot, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Ellen C. Hopmans, Ben Douglas, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 16, 2467–2479,Short summary
Sapropels are layers of sediment that regularly occur in the Mediterranean. They indicate periods when the Mediterranean Sea water contained no oxygen, a gas vital for most large organisms. This research investigated a key process in the nitrogen cycle (anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox), which removes nitrogen – an important nutrient to algae – from the water, during sapropel events. Using lipids to trace this process, we found that anammox was active during the no-oxygen times.
Inken Heidke, Denis Scholz, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Biogeosciences, 15, 5831–5845,Short summary
We developed a sensitive method to analyze the lignin composition of organic traces contained in speleothems. Lignin is a main constituent of woody plants and its composition contains information about the type of vegetation. This method offers new possibilities to reconstruct the vegetation of past millennia since it combines the advantages of lignin analysis as a highly specific vegetation biomarker with the benefits of speleothems as unique terrestrial climate archives.
Jan-Peter Duda, Volker Thiel, Thorsten Bauersachs, Helge Mißbach, Manuel Reinhardt, Nadine Schäfer, Martin J. Van Kranendonk, and Joachim Reitner
Biogeosciences, 15, 1535–1548,Short summary
The origin of organic matter in the oldest rocks on Earth is commonly ambiguous (biotic vs. abiotic). This problem culminates in the case of hydrothermal chert veins that contain abundant organic matter. Here we demonstrate a microbial origin of kerogen embedded in a 3.5 Gyr old hydrothermal chert vein. We explain this finding with the large-scale redistribution of biomass by hydrothermal fluids, emphasizing the interplay between biological and abiological processes on the early Earth.
Wenjie Xiao, Yinghui Wang, Shangzhe Zhou, Limin Hu, Huan Yang, and Yunping Xu
Biogeosciences, 13, 5883–5894,
Kimberley L. Davies, Richard D. Pancost, Mary E. Edwards, Katey M. Walter Anthony, Peter G. Langdon, and Lidia Chaves Torres
Biogeosciences, 13, 2611–2621,
J. Holtvoeth, D. Rushworth, H. Copsey, A. Imeri, M. Cara, H. Vogel, T. Wagner, and G. A. Wolff
Biogeosciences, 13, 795–816,Short summary
Lake Ohrid is situated in the southern Balkans between Albania and Macedonia. It is a unique ecosystem with remarkable biodiversity and a sediment record of past climates that goes back more than a million years. Detailed reconstructions of past climate development and human alteration of the environment require underpinned and so in this study we go the present-day lake vegetation and catchment soils and test new proxies over one of the known recent cooling events of the region 8200 years ago.
S. Ding, Y. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. He, J. Hou, L. Chen, and J.-S. He
Biogeosciences, 12, 3141–3151,
P. Sepúlveda, J. P. Le Roux, L. E. Lara, G. Orozco, and V. Astudillo
Biogeosciences, 12, 1993–2001,
F. Peterse, C. M. Moy, and T. I. Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 12, 933–943,
C. Zell, J.-H. Kim, M. Balsinha, D. Dorhout, C. Fernandes, M. Baas, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 11, 5637–5655,
M. Blumenberg, C. Berndmeyer, M. Moros, M. Muschalla, O. Schmale, and V. Thiel
Biogeosciences, 10, 2725–2735,
Y. Lu, Y. Hautevelle, and R. Michels
Biogeosciences, 10, 1943–1962,
M. Blumenberg and F. Wiese
Biogeosciences, 9, 4139–4153,
D. Rush, E. C. Hopmans, S. G. Wakeham, S. Schouten, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 9, 2407–2418,
M. D. Wolhowe, F. G. Prahl, I. Probert, and M. Maldonado
Biogeosciences, 6, 1681–1694,
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A tiny fraction of marine algae escapes decomposition and is buried in sediments. Since tools are needed to track the fate of algal organic carbon, we tested whether naturally occurring isotope variability among amino acids from algae and bacteria can be used as source diagnostic fingerprints. We found that isotope fingerprints track algal amino acid sources with high fidelity across different growth conditions, and that the fingerprints can be used to quantify bacterial amino acids in sediment.
A tiny fraction of marine algae escapes decomposition and is buried in sediments. Since tools...