Articles | Volume 14, issue 18
Research article 29 Sep 2017
Research article | 29 Sep 2017
Carbon degradation in agricultural soils flooded with seawater after managed coastal realignment
Kamilla S. Sjøgaard et al.
No articles found.
C. Sanz-Lázaro, T. Valdemarsen, and M. Holmer
Biogeosciences, 12, 4565–4575,
T. Valdemarsen, C. O. Quintana, M. R. Flindt, and E. Kristensen
Biogeosciences, 12, 1765–1779,
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Joonas J. Virtasalo, Peter Österholm, Aarno T. Kotilainen, and Mats E. Åström
Biogeosciences, 17, 6097–6113,Short summary
Rivers draining the acid sulphate soils of western Finland deliver large amounts of metals (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, and Zn) to the coastal sea. To better understand metal enrichment in the sea floor, we analysed metal contents and grain size distribution in nine sediment cores, which increased in the 1960s and 1970s and stayed at high levels afterwards. The enrichment is visible more than 25 km out from the river mouths. Organic aggregates are suggested as the key seaward metal carriers.
Marie-Sophie Maier, Cristian R. Teodoru, and Bernhard Wehrli
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Based on a 2-year monitoring study, we found that the freshwater system of the Danube Delta, Romania, releases carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. The amount of carbon released depends on the freshwater feature (river branches, channels, lakes), season and hydrologic condition, affecting the exchange with the wetland. Spatial upscaling should therefore consider these factors. Furthermore, the Danube Delta increases the amount of carbon reaching the Black Sea via the Danube River.
Anna Canning, Arne Körtzinger, Peer Fietzek, and Gregor Rehder
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
The manuscript describes a novel, fully autonomous, multi-gas flow-through setup for multiple gases that combines established high-quality oceanographic sensors in a small and robust system, designed to use across all salinities from all types of platforms. We describe the system and its performance in all relevant detail, including corrections, which improve the accuracy of these sensors. Illustrating how simultaneous multi-gas set up can provide extremely high spatiotemporal resolution.
Simon David Herzog, Per Persson, Kristina Kvashnina, and Emma Sofia Kritzberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 331–344,Short summary
Fe concentrations in boreal rivers are increasing strongly in several regions in Northern Europe. This study focuses on how Fe speciation and interaction with organic matter affect stability of Fe across estuarine salinity gradients. The results confirm a positive relationship between the relative contribution of organically complexed Fe and stability. Moreover, organically complexed Fe was more prevalent at high flow conditions and more dominant further upstream in a catchment.
Ines Bartl, Dana Hellemann, Christophe Rabouille, Kirstin Schulz, Petra Tallberg, Susanna Hietanen, and Maren Voss
Biogeosciences, 16, 3543–3564,Short summary
Irrespective of variable environmental settings in estuaries, the quality of organic particles is an important factor controlling microbial processes that facilitate a reduction of land-derived nitrogen loads to the open sea. Through the interplay of biogeochemical processing, geomorphology, and hydrodynamics, organic particles may function as a carrier and temporary reservoir of nitrogen, which has a major impact on the efficiency of nitrogen load reduction.
Moturi S. Krishna, Rongali Viswanadham, Mamidala H. K. Prasad, Vuravakonda R. Kumari, and Vedula V. S. S. Sarma
Biogeosciences, 16, 505–519,Short summary
An order-of-magnitude variability in DIC was found within the Indian estuaries due to significant variability in size of rivers, precipitation pattern and lithology in the catchments. Indian monsoonal estuaries annually export ∼ 10.3 Tg of DIC to the northern Indian Ocean, of which 75 % enters into the Bay of Bengal. Our results indicated that chemical weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals by soil CO2 is the major source of DIC in the Indian monsoonal rivers.
Tim Rixen, Birgit Gaye, Kay-Christian Emeis, and Venkitasubramani Ramaswamy
Biogeosciences, 16, 485–503,Short summary
Data obtained from sediment trap experiments in the Indian Ocean indicate that lithogenic matter ballast increases organic carbon flux rates on average by 45 % and by up to 62 % at trap locations in the river-influenced regions of the Indian Ocean. Such a strong lithogenic matter ballast effect implies that land use changes and the associated enhanced transport of lithogenic matter may significantly affect the CO2 uptake of the organic carbon pump in the receiving ocean areas.
Yongping Yuan, Ruoyu Wang, Ellen Cooter, Limei Ran, Prasad Daggupati, Dongmei Yang, Raghavan Srinivasan, and Anna Jalowska
Biogeosciences, 15, 7059–7076,Short summary
Elevated levels of nutrients in surface water, which originate from deposition of atmospheric N, drainage from agricultural fields, and discharges from sewage treatment plants, cause explosive algal blooms that impair water quality. The complex cycling of nutrients through the land, air, and water requires an integrated multimedia modeling system linking air, land surface, and stream processes to assess their sources, transport, and transformation in large river basins for decision making.
Muhammed Ojoshogu Usman, Frédérique Marie Sophie Anne Kirkels, Huub Michel Zwart, Sayak Basu, Camilo Ponton, Thomas Michael Blattmann, Michael Ploetze, Negar Haghipour, Cameron McIntyre, Francien Peterse, Maarten Lupker, Liviu Giosan, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 15, 3357–3375,
Tom Jilbert, Eero Asmala, Christian Schröder, Rosa Tiihonen, Jukka-Pekka Myllykangas, Joonas J. Virtasalo, Aarno Kotilainen, Pasi Peltola, Päivi Ekholm, and Susanna Hietanen
Biogeosciences, 15, 1243–1271,Short summary
Iron is a common dissolved element in river water, recognizable by its orange-brown colour. Here we show that when rivers reach the ocean much of this iron settles to the sediments by a process known as flocculation. The iron is then used by microbes in coastal sediments, which are important hotspots in the global carbon cycle.
Shin-Ah Lee and Guebuem Kim
Biogeosciences, 15, 1115–1122,Short summary
The fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) delivered from riverine discharges significantly affects carbon and biogeochemical cycles in coastal waters. Our results show that the terrestrial concentrations of humic-like FDOM in river water were 60–80 % higher in the summer and fall, while the in situ production of protein-like FDOM was 70–80 % higher in the spring. Our results suggest that there are large seasonal changes in riverine fluxes of FDOM components to the ocean.
Yafei Zhu, Andrew McCowan, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 14, 4423–4433,Short summary
We used a 3-D coupled hydrodynamic–biogeochemical water quality model to investigate the effects of changes in catchment nutrient loading and composition on the phytoplankton dynamics, development of hypoxia and internal nutrient dynamics in a stratified coastal lagoon system. The results highlighted the need to reduce both total nitrogen and total phosphorus for water quality improvement in estuarine systems.
Allison A. Oliver, Suzanne E. Tank, Ian Giesbrecht, Maartje C. Korver, William C. Floyd, Paul Sanborn, Chuck Bulmer, and Ken P. Lertzman
Biogeosciences, 14, 3743–3762,Short summary
Rivers draining small watersheds of the outer coastal Pacific temperate rainforest export some of the highest yields of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the world directly to the ocean. This DOC is largely derived from soils and terrestrial plants. Rainfall, temperature, and watershed characteristics such as wetlands and lakes are important controls on DOC export. This region may be significant for carbon export and linking terrestrial carbon to marine ecosystems.
Mathilde Couturier, Gwendoline Tommi-Morin, Maude Sirois, Alexandra Rao, Christian Nozais, and Gwénaëlle Chaillou
Biogeosciences, 14, 3321–3336,Short summary
At the land–ocean interface, subterranean estuaries (STEs) are a critical transition pathway of nitrogen. Environmental conditions in the groundwater lead to nitrogen transformation, altering the nitrogen species and concentrations exported to the coastal ocean. This study highlights the role of a STE in processing groundwater-derived N in a shallow boreal STE, far from anthropogenic pressures. Biogeochemical transformations provide new N species from terrestrial origin to the coastal ocean.
Elin Almroth-Rosell, Moa Edman, Kari Eilola, H. E. Markus Meier, and Jörgen Sahlberg
Biogeosciences, 13, 5753–5769,Short summary
Nutrients from land have been discussed to increase eutrophication in the open sea. This model study shows that the coastal zone works as an efficient filter. Water depth and residence time regulate the retention that occurs mostly in the sediment due to processes such as burial and denitrification. On shorter timescales the retention capacity might seem less effective when the land load of nutrients decreases, but with time the coastal zone can import nutrients from the open sea.
B. W. Abbott, J. B. Jones, S. E. Godsey, J. R. Larouche, and W. B. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 12, 3725–3740,Short summary
As high latitudes warm, carbon and nitrogen stored in permafrost soil will be vulnerable to erosion and transport to Arctic streams and rivers. We sampled outflow from 83 permafrost collapse features in Alaska. Permafrost collapse caused substantial increases in dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen but decreased methane concentration by 90%. Upland thermokarst may be a dominant linkage transferring carbon and nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems as the Arctic warms.
V. Le Fouest, M. Manizza, B. Tremblay, and M. Babin
Biogeosciences, 12, 3385–3402,
G. G. Laruelle, R. Lauerwald, J. Rotschi, P. A. Raymond, J. Hartmann, and P. Regnier
Biogeosciences, 12, 1447–1458,Short summary
This study quantifies the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the land-ocean aquatic continuum (LOAC) of the northeast North American coast, which consists of rivers, estuaries, and the coastal ocean. Our analysis reveals significant variations of the flux intensity both in time and space across the study area. Ice cover, snowmelt, and the intensity of the estuarine filter are identified as important control factors of the CO2 exchange along the LOAC.
O. Arnalds, H. Olafsson, and P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova
Biogeosciences, 11, 6623–6632,Short summary
Iceland is one of the largest dust sources on Earth. Based on two separate methods, we estimate dust emissions to range between 30 and 40 million tons annually. Ocean deposition ranges between 5.5 and 13.8 million tons. Calculated iron deposition in oceans around Iceland ranges between 0.56 to 1.4 million tons, which are distributed over wide areas. Iron is a limiting nutrient for primary production in these waters, and dust is likely to affect oceanic Fe levels around Iceland.
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Biogeosciences, 11, 6237–6250,Short summary
We studied the influence of allochthonous N inputs on primary succession and soil development of a 50-year-old volcanic island, Surtsey. Seabirds increased the ecosystem N accumulation rate inside their colony to ~47 kg ha-1 y-1, compared to 0.7 kg ha-1 y-1 outside it. A strong relationship was found between total ecosystem N stock and both total above- and belowground biomass and SOC stock, which shows how fast external N input can boost primary succession and soil formation.
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Permanent flooding of low-lying coastal areas is a growing threat due to climate-change-related sea-level rise. To reduce coastal damage, buffer zones can be created by managed coastal realignment where existing dykes are breached and new dykes are built further inland. We studied the impacts on organic matter degradation in soils flooded with seawater by managed coastal realignment and suggest that most of the organic carbon present in coastal soils will be permanently preserved after flooding.
Permanent flooding of low-lying coastal areas is a growing threat due to climate-change-related...