Articles | Volume 19, issue 12
01 Jul 2022
Research article | 01 Jul 2022
Dissolved organic matter characterization in soils and streams in a small coastal low-Arctic catchment
Niek Jesse Speetjens et al.
Niek Jesse Speetjens, Gustaf Hugelius, Thomas Gumbricht, Hugues Lantuit, Wouter Berghuijs, Philip Pika, Amanda Poste, and Jorien Vonk
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The Arctic is rapidly changing. Outside the Arctic, large databases changed how researchers look at river systems and land-to-ocean processes. We present the first integrated pan-ARctic CAtchments summary DatabasE (ARCADE) (>40,000 river catchments draining into the Arctic Ocean). It incorporates information about the drainage area with 103 geospatial, environmental, climatic, and physiographic properties and covers small watersheds , which are especially subject to change, at high resolution.
Niek Jesse Speetjens, Gustaf Hugelius, Thomas Gumbricht, Hugues Lantuit, Wouter Berghuijs, Philip Pika, Amanda Poste, and Jorien Vonk
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The Arctic is rapidly changing. Outside the Arctic, large databases changed how researchers look at river systems and land-to-ocean processes. We present the first integrated pan-ARctic CAtchments summary DatabasE (ARCADE) (>40,000 river catchments draining into the Arctic Ocean). It incorporates information about the drainage area with 103 geospatial, environmental, climatic, and physiographic properties and covers small watersheds , which are especially subject to change, at high resolution.
Juri Palmtag, Jaroslav Obu, Peter Kuhry, Andreas Richter, Matthias B. Siewert, Niels Weiss, Sebastian Westermann, and Gustaf Hugelius
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4095–4110,Short summary
The northern permafrost region covers 22 % of the Northern Hemisphere and holds almost twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. This paper presents data from 651 soil pedons encompassing more than 6500 samples from 16 different study areas across the northern permafrost region. We use this dataset together with ESA's global land cover dataset to estimate soil organic carbon and total nitrogen storage up to 300 cm soil depth, with estimated values of 813 Pg for carbon and 55 Pg for nitrogen.
Niel Verbrigghe, Niki I. W. Leblans, Bjarni D. Sigurdsson, Sara Vicca, Chao Fang, Lucia Fuchslueger, Jennifer L. Soong, James T. Weedon, Christopher Poeplau, Cristina Ariza-Carricondo, Michael Bahn, Bertrand Guenet, Per Gundersen, Gunnhildur E. Gunnarsdóttir, Thomas Kätterer, Zhanfeng Liu, Marja Maljanen, Sara Marañón-Jiménez, Kathiravan Meeran, Edda S. Oddsdóttir, Ivika Ostonen, Josep Peñuelas, Andreas Richter, Jordi Sardans, Páll Sigurðsson, Margaret S. Torn, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Erik Verbruggen, Tom W. N. Walker, Håkan Wallander, and Ivan A. Janssens
Biogeosciences, 19, 3381–3393,Short summary
In subarctic grassland on a geothermal warming gradient, we found large reductions in topsoil carbon stocks, with carbon stocks linearly declining with warming intensity. Most importantly, however, we observed that soil carbon stocks stabilised within 5 years of warming and remained unaffected by warming thereafter, even after > 50 years of warming. Moreover, in contrast to the large topsoil carbon losses, subsoil carbon stocks remained unaffected after > 50 years of soil warming.
Peter Stimmler, Mathias Goeckede, Bo Elberling, Susan Natali, Peter Kuhry, Nia Perron, Fabrice Lacroix, Gustaf Hugelius, Oliver Sonnentag, Jens Strauss, Christina Minions, Michael Sommer, and Jörg Schaller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Arctic soils store large amounts of carbon and nutrients. The availability of nutrients such as silicon, calcium, iron, aluminum, phosphorus and amorphous silica is crucial to understand future carbon fluxes in the Arctic. Here we provide for the first time a unique data set on the availability of those nutrients for the different soil layers including the currently frozen permafrost layer. We relate this data to several geographical and geological parameters.
Dirk J. Jong, Lisa Bröder, Tommaso Tesi, Kirsi H. Keskitalo, Nikita Zimov, Anna Davydova, Philip Pika, Negar Haghipour, Timothy I. Eglinton, and Jorien E. Vonk
With this study, we want to highlight the importance of studying both land and ocean together, and water and sediment together, as these systems function as a continuum and determine how organic carbon derived from permafrost is broken down, and its effect on global warming. While on one hand it appears that organic carbon is removed from sediments along the pathway of transport from river to ocean, it also appears to remain relatively ‘fresh’, despite this removal and its very old age.
Joëlle Voglimacci-Stephanopoli, Anna Wendleder, Hugues Lantuit, Alexandre Langlois, Samuel Stettner, Andreas Schmitt, Jean-Pierre Dedieu, Achim Roth, and Alain Royer
The Cryosphere, 16, 2163–2181,Short summary
Changes in the state of the snowpack in the context of observed global warming must be considered to improve our understanding of the processes within the cryosphere. This study aims to characterize an arctic snowpack using the TerraSAR-X satellite. Using a high-spatial-resolution vegetation classification, we were able to quantify the variability in snow depth, as well as the topographic soil wetness index, which provided a better understanding of the electromagnetic wave–ground interaction.
Martine Lizotte, Bennet Juhls, Atsushi Matsuoka, Philippe Massicotte, Gaëlle Mével, David Obie James Anikina, Sofia Antonova, Guislain Bécu, Marine Béguin, Simon Bélanger, Thomas Bossé-Demers, Lisa Bröder, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwénaëlle Chaillou, Jérôme Comte, Raoul-Marie Couture, Emmanuel Devred, Gabrièle Deslongchamps, Thibaud Dezutter, Miles Dillon, David Doxaran, Aude Flamand, Frank Fell, Joannie Ferland, Marie-Hélène Forget, Michael Fritz, Thomas J. Gordon, Caroline Guilmette, Andrea Hilborn, Rachel Hussherr, Charlotte Irish, Fabien Joux, Lauren Kipp, Audrey Laberge-Carignan, Hugues Lantuit, Edouard Leymarie, Antonio Mannino, Juliette Maury, Paul Overduin, Laurent Oziel, Colin Stedmon, Crystal Thomas, Lucas Tisserand, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Jorien Vonk, Dustin Whalen, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Permafrost thaw in the Mackenzie Delta region results in the release of organic matter into the coastal marine environment. What happens to this carbon-rich organic matter as it transits along the fresh to salty aquatic environments is still under-documented. Four expeditions were conducted from April to September 2019 in the coastal area of the Beaufort Sea to study the fate of organic matter. This paper describes a rich set of data characterizing the composition and sources of organic matter.
Sarah Shakil, Suzanne E. Tank, Jorien E. Vonk, and Scott Zolkos
Biogeosciences, 19, 1871–1890,Short summary
Permafrost thaw-driven landslides in the western Arctic are increasing organic carbon delivered to headwaters of drainage networks in the western Canadian Arctic by orders of magnitude. Through a series of laboratory experiments, we show that less than 10 % of this organic carbon is likely to be mineralized to greenhouse gases during transport in these networks. Rather most of the organic carbon is likely destined for burial and sequestration for centuries to millennia.
H. E. Markus Meier, Madline Kniebusch, Christian Dieterich, Matthias Gröger, Eduardo Zorita, Ragnar Elmgren, Kai Myrberg, Markus P. Ahola, Alena Bartosova, Erik Bonsdorff, Florian Börgel, Rene Capell, Ida Carlén, Thomas Carlund, Jacob Carstensen, Ole B. Christensen, Volker Dierschke, Claudia Frauen, Morten Frederiksen, Elie Gaget, Anders Galatius, Jari J. Haapala, Antti Halkka, Gustaf Hugelius, Birgit Hünicke, Jaak Jaagus, Mart Jüssi, Jukka Käyhkö, Nina Kirchner, Erik Kjellström, Karol Kulinski, Andreas Lehmann, Göran Lindström, Wilhelm May, Paul A. Miller, Volker Mohrholz, Bärbel Müller-Karulis, Diego Pavón-Jordán, Markus Quante, Marcus Reckermann, Anna Rutgersson, Oleg P. Savchuk, Martin Stendel, Laura Tuomi, Markku Viitasalo, Ralf Weisse, and Wenyan Zhang
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 457–593,Short summary
Based on the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports of this thematic issue in Earth System Dynamics and recent peer-reviewed literature, current knowledge about the effects of global warming on past and future changes in the climate of the Baltic Sea region is summarised and assessed. The study is an update of the Second Assessment of Climate Change (BACC II) published in 2015 and focuses on the atmosphere, land, cryosphere, ocean, sediments, and the terrestrial and marine biosphere.
Philippe Ciais, Ana Bastos, Frédéric Chevallier, Ronny Lauerwald, Ben Poulter, Josep G. Canadell, Gustaf Hugelius, Robert B. Jackson, Atul Jain, Matthew Jones, Masayuki Kondo, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Ana Maria Roxana Petrescu, Shilong Piao, Chunjing Qiu, Celso Von Randow, Pierre Regnier, Marielle Saunois, Robert Scholes, Anatoly Shvidenko, Hanqin Tian, Hui Yang, Xuhui Wang, and Bo Zheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1289–1316,Short summary
The second phase of the Regional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) will provide updated quantification and process understanding of CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions and sinks for ten regions of the globe. In this paper, we give definitions, review different methods, and make recommendations for estimating different components of the total land–atmosphere carbon exchange for each region in a consistent and complete approach.
David Olefeldt, Mikael Hovemyr, McKenzie A. Kuhn, David Bastviken, Theodore J. Bohn, John Connolly, Patrick Crill, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Sarah A. Finkelstein, Hélène Genet, Guido Grosse, Lorna I. Harris, Liam Heffernan, Manuel Helbig, Gustaf Hugelius, Ryan Hutchins, Sari Juutinen, Mark J. Lara, Avni Malhotra, Kristen Manies, A. David McGuire, Susan M. Natali, Jonathan A. O'Donnell, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Aleksi Räsänen, Christina Schädel, Oliver Sonnentag, Maria Strack, Suzanne E. Tank, Claire Treat, Ruth K. Varner, Tarmo Virtanen, Rebecca K. Warren, and Jennifer D. Watts
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5127–5149,Short summary
Wetlands, lakes, and rivers are important sources of the greenhouse gas methane to the atmosphere. To understand current and future methane emissions from northern regions, we need maps that show the extent and distribution of specific types of wetlands, lakes, and rivers. The Boreal–Arctic Wetland and Lake Dataset (BAWLD) provides maps of five wetland types, seven lake types, and three river types for northern regions and will improve our ability to predict future methane emissions.
Federico Dallo, Daniele Zannoni, Jacopo Gabrieli, Paolo Cristofanelli, Francescopiero Calzolari, Fabrizio de Blasi, Andrea Spolaor, Dario Battistel, Rachele Lodi, Warren Raymond Lee Cairns, Ann Mari Fjæraa, Paolo Bonasoni, and Carlo Barbante
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6005–6021,Short summary
Our work showed how the adoption of low-cost technology could be useful in environmental research and monitoring. We focused our work on tropospheric ozone, but we also showed how to make a general purpose low-cost sensing system which may be adapted and optimised to be used in many other case studies. Given the importance of providing quality data, we put a lot of effort in the sensor's calibration, and we believe that our results show how to exploit the potential of the low-cost technology.
Jens A. Hölemann, Bennet Juhls, Dorothea Bauch, Markus Janout, Boris P. Koch, and Birgit Heim
Biogeosciences, 18, 3637–3655,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean receives large amounts of river water rich in terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM), which is an important component of the Arctic carbon cycle. Our analysis shows that mixing of three major freshwater sources is the main factor that regulates the distribution of tDOM concentrations in the Siberian shelf seas. In this context, the formation and melting of the land-fast ice in the Laptev Sea and the peak spring discharge of the Lena River are of particular importance.
Jannik Martens, Evgeny Romankevich, Igor Semiletov, Birgit Wild, Bart van Dongen, Jorien Vonk, Tommaso Tesi, Natalia Shakhova, Oleg V. Dudarev, Denis Kosmach, Alexander Vetrov, Leopold Lobkovsky, Nikolay Belyaev, Robie W. Macdonald, Anna J. Pieńkowski, Timothy I. Eglinton, Negar Haghipour, Salve Dahle, Michael L. Carroll, Emmelie K. L. Åström, Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, Lee W. Cooper, Göran Possnert, and Örjan Gustafsson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2561–2572,Short summary
The paper describes the establishment, structure and current status of the first Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE (CASCADE), which is a scientific effort to harmonize and curate all published and unpublished data of carbon, nitrogen, carbon isotopes, and terrigenous biomarkers in sediments of the Arctic Ocean in one database. CASCADE will enable a variety of studies of the Arctic carbon cycle and thus contribute to a better understanding of how climate change affects the Arctic.
Zhen Zhang, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Katherine Jensen, Kyle McDonald, Gustaf Hugelius, Thomas Gumbricht, Mark Carroll, Catherine Prigent, Annett Bartsch, and Benjamin Poulter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2001–2023,Short summary
The spatiotemporal distribution of wetlands is one of the important and yet uncertain factors determining the time and locations of methane fluxes. The Wetland Area and Dynamics for Methane Modeling (WAD2M) dataset describes the global data product used to quantify the areal dynamics of natural wetlands and how global wetlands are changing in response to climate.
Philippe Massicotte, Rainer M. W. Amon, David Antoine, Philippe Archambault, Sergio Balzano, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Dominique Boeuf, Annick Bricaud, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Malik Chami, Bruno Charrière, Jing Chen, Hervé Claustre, Pierre Coupel, Nicole Delsaut, David Doxaran, Jens Ehn, Cédric Fichot, Marie-Hélène Forget, Pingqing Fu, Jonathan Gagnon, Nicole Garcia, Beat Gasser, Jean-François Ghiglione, Gaby Gorsky, Michel Gosselin, Priscillia Gourvil, Yves Gratton, Pascal Guillot, Hermann J. Heipieper, Serge Heussner, Stanford B. Hooker, Yannick Huot, Christian Jeanthon, Wade Jeffrey, Fabien Joux, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bruno Lansard, Edouard Leymarie, Heike Link, Connie Lovejoy, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Johannie Martin, Jacobo Martín, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Vanessa McKague, Alexandre Mignot, William L. Miller, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Alfonso Mucci, Kaori Ono, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Tim Papakyriakou, Marc Picheral, Louis Prieur, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Rick A. Reynolds, André Rochon, Jean-François Rontani, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Yuan Shen, Guisheng Song, Dariusz Stramski, Eri Tachibana, Alexandre Thirouard, Imma Tolosa, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Daniel Vaulot, Frédéric Vaultier, John K. Volkman, Huixiang Xie, Guangming Zheng, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1561–1592,Short summary
The MALINA oceanographic expedition was conducted in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea systems. The sampling was performed across seven shelf–basin transects to capture the meridional gradient between the estuary and the open ocean. The main goal of this research program was to better understand how processes such as primary production are influencing the fate of organic matter originating from the surrounding terrestrial landscape during its transition toward the Arctic Ocean.
Ove H. Meisel, Joshua F. Dean, Jorien E. Vonk, Lukas Wacker, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 18, 2241–2258,Short summary
Arctic permafrost lakes form thaw bulbs of unfrozen soil (taliks) beneath them where carbon degradation and greenhouse gas production are increased. We analyzed the stable carbon isotopes of Alaskan talik sediments and their porewater dissolved organic carbon and found that the top layers of these taliks are likely more actively degraded than the deeper layers. This in turn implies that these top layers are likely also more potent greenhouse gas producers than the underlying deeper layers.
Rebecca Rolph, Pier Paul Overduin, Thomas Ravens, Hugues Lantuit, and Moritz Langer
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Declining sea ice, larger waves, and increasing air temperatures are contributing to a rapidly eroding Arctic coastline. We simulate water levels using wind speed and direction, which are used with wave height, wave period, and sea surface temperature to drive an erosion model of a partially frozen cliff and beach. This provides a first step to include Arctic erosion in larger-scale earth system models. Simulated cumulative retreat rates agree within the same order of magnitude as observations.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Peter Kuhry, Jiří Bárta, Daan Blok, Bo Elberling, Samuel Faucherre, Gustaf Hugelius, Christian J. Jørgensen, Andreas Richter, Hana Šantrůčková, and Niels Weiss
Biogeosciences, 17, 361–379,
Caroline Coch, Bennet Juhls, Scott F. Lamoureux, Melissa J. Lafrenière, Michael Fritz, Birgit Heim, and Hugues Lantuit
Biogeosciences, 16, 4535–4553,Short summary
Climate change affects Arctic ecosystems. This includes thawing of permafrost (ground below 0 °C) and an increase in rainfall. Both have substantial impacts on the chemical composition of river water. We compared the composition of small rivers in the low and high Arctic with the large Arctic rivers. In comparison, dissolved organic matter in the small rivers is more susceptible to degradation; thus, it could potentially increase carbon dioxide emissions. Rainfall events have a similar effect.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Marc von Hobe, Dennis Booge, Henry C. Bittig, Tim Fischer, Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo, Kerstin B. Ksionzek, Boris P. Koch, Astrid Bracher, Rüdiger Röttgers, Birgit Quack, and Christa A. Marandino
Ocean Sci., 15, 1071–1090,Short summary
The ocean emits the gases carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2), which affect our climate. The goal of this study was to quantify the rates at which both gases are produced in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP), one of the most productive oceanic regions worldwide. Both gases are produced by reactions triggered by sunlight, but we found that the amount produced depends on different factors. Our results improve numerical models to predict oceanic concentrations of both gases.
Andrew M. Cunliffe, George Tanski, Boris Radosavljevic, William F. Palmer, Torsten Sachs, Hugues Lantuit, Jeffrey T. Kerby, and Isla H. Myers-Smith
The Cryosphere, 13, 1513–1528,Short summary
Episodic changes of permafrost coastlines are poorly understood in the Arctic. By using drones, satellite images, and historic photos we surveyed a permafrost coastline on Qikiqtaruk – Herschel Island. We observed short-term coastline retreat of 14.5 m per year (2016–2017), exceeding long-term average rates of 2.2 m per year (1952–2017). Our study highlights the value of these tools to assess understudied episodic changes of eroding permafrost coastlines in the context of a warming Arctic.
Efrén López-Blanco, Jean-François Exbrayat, Magnus Lund, Torben R. Christensen, Mikkel P. Tamstorf, Darren Slevin, Gustaf Hugelius, Anthony A. Bloom, and Mathew Williams
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 233–255,Short summary
The terrestrial CO2 exchange in Arctic ecosystems plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and is particularly sensitive to the ongoing warming experienced in recent years. To improve our understanding of the atmosphere–biosphere interplay, we evaluated the state of the terrestrial pan-Arctic carbon cycling using a promising data assimilation system in the first 15 years of the 21st century. This is crucial when it comes to making predictions about the future state of the carbon cycle.
Tim Eckhardt, Christian Knoblauch, Lars Kutzbach, David Holl, Gillian Simpson, Evgeny Abakumov, and Eva-Maria Pfeiffer
Biogeosciences, 16, 1543–1562,Short summary
We quantified the contribution of individual components governing the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and how these fluxes respond to environmental changes in a drained and water-saturated site in the polygonal tundra of northeast Siberia. This work finds both sites as a sink for atmospheric CO2 during the growing season, but sink strengths varied between the sites. Furthermore, it was shown that soil hydrological conditions were one of the key drivers for differing CO2 fluxes between the sites.
Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Thomas Kleinen, Gustaf Hugelius, Christian Knoblauch, Christian Beer, and Victor Brovkin
Clim. Past, 14, 2011–2036,Short summary
Past cold ice age temperatures and the subsequent warming towards the Holocene had large consequences for soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in perennially frozen grounds. Using an Earth system model we show how the spread in areas affected by permafrost have changed under deglacial warming, along with changes in SOC accumulation. Our model simulations suggest phases of circum-Arctic permafrost SOC gain and losses, with a net increase in SOC between the last glacial maximum and the pre-industrial.
Josefine Walz, Christian Knoblauch, Ronja Tigges, Thomas Opel, Lutz Schirrmeister, and Eva-Maria Pfeiffer
Biogeosciences, 15, 5423–5436,Short summary
We investigate potential CO2 and CH4 production in degrading ice-rich permafrost in northeastern Siberia, deposited under different climatic conditions. With laboratory incubations, it could be shown that Late Pleistocene yedoma deposits generally produced more CO2 than Holocene deposits. Thus, OM decomposability needs to be interpreted against the paleoenvironmental background. However, OM decomposability cannot be generalized solely based on the stratigraphic position.
Juri Palmtag, Stefanie Cable, Hanne H. Christiansen, Gustaf Hugelius, and Peter Kuhry
The Cryosphere, 12, 1735–1744,Short summary
This study aims to improve the previous soil organic carbon and total nitrogen storage estimates for the Zackenberg area (NE Greenland) that were based on a land cover classification approach, by using geomorphological upscaling. The landform-based approach more correctly constrains the depositional areas in alluvial fans and deltas with high SOC and TN storage. This research emphasises the need to consider geomorphology when assessing SOC pools in mountain permafrost landscapes.
Justine L. Ramage, Anna M. Irrgang, Anne Morgenstern, and Hugues Lantuit
Biogeosciences, 15, 1483–1495,Short summary
We describe the evolution of thaw slumps between 1952 and 2011 along the Yukon Coast, Canada, and calculate the contribution of the slumps to the carbon budget in this area. The number of slumps has increased by 73 % over the period. These slumps displaced more than 16 billion m3 of material and mobilized 146 t of carbon. This represents 0.6 % of the annual carbon flux released from shoreline retreat, which shows that the contribution of slumps to the nearshore carbon budget is non-negligible.
Matthias Fuchs, Guido Grosse, Jens Strauss, Frank Günther, Mikhail Grigoriev, Georgy M. Maximov, and Gustaf Hugelius
Biogeosciences, 15, 953–971,Short summary
Our paper investigates soil organic carbon and nitrogen in permafrost soils on Sobo-Sise Island and Bykovsky Peninsula in the north of eastern Siberia. We collected and analysed permafrost soil cores and upscaled carbon and nitrogen stocks to landscape level. We found large amounts of carbon and nitrogen stored in these frozen soils, reconstructed sedimentation rates and estimated the potential increase in organic carbon availability if permafrost continues to thaw and active layer deepens.
Sarah E. Chadburn, Gerhard Krinner, Philipp Porada, Annett Bartsch, Christian Beer, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Julia Boike, Altug Ekici, Bo Elberling, Thomas Friborg, Gustaf Hugelius, Margareta Johansson, Peter Kuhry, Lars Kutzbach, Moritz Langer, Magnus Lund, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Shushi Peng, Ko Van Huissteden, Tao Wang, Sebastian Westermann, Dan Zhu, and Eleanor J. Burke
Biogeosciences, 14, 5143–5169,Short summary
Earth system models (ESMs) are our main tools for understanding future climate. The Arctic is important for the future carbon cycle, particularly due to the large carbon stocks in permafrost. We evaluated the performance of the land component of three major ESMs at Arctic tundra sites, focusing on the fluxes and stocks of carbon. We show that the next steps for model improvement are to better represent vegetation dynamics, to include mosses and to improve below-ground carbon cycle processes.
Tommaso Tesi, Marc C. Geibel, Christof Pearce, Elena Panova, Jorien E. Vonk, Emma Karlsson, Joan A. Salvado, Martin Kruså, Lisa Bröder, Christoph Humborg, Igor Semiletov, and Örjan Gustafsson
Ocean Sci., 13, 735–748,Short summary
Recent Arctic studies suggest that sea-ice decline and permafrost thawing will affect the phytoplankton in the Arctic Ocean. However, in what way the plankton composition will change as the warming proceeds remains elusive. Here we show that the carbon composition of plankton might change as a function of the enhanced terrestrial organic carbon supply and progressive sea-ice thawing.
Jorien E. Vonk, Tommaso Tesi, Lisa Bröder, Henry Holmstrand, Gustaf Hugelius, August Andersson, Oleg Dudarev, Igor Semiletov, and Örjan Gustafsson
The Cryosphere, 11, 1879–1895,
Sina Muster, Kurt Roth, Moritz Langer, Stephan Lange, Fabio Cresto Aleina, Annett Bartsch, Anne Morgenstern, Guido Grosse, Benjamin Jones, A. Britta K. Sannel, Ylva Sjöberg, Frank Günther, Christian Andresen, Alexandra Veremeeva, Prajna R. Lindgren, Frédéric Bouchard, Mark J. Lara, Daniel Fortier, Simon Charbonneau, Tarmo A. Virtanen, Gustaf Hugelius, Juri Palmtag, Matthias B. Siewert, William J. Riley, Charles D. Koven, and Julia Boike
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 317–348,Short summary
Waterbodies are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. Most waterbodies are ponds with a surface area smaller than 100 x 100 m. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake Database (PeRL) for the first time maps ponds as small as 10 x 10 m. PeRL maps can be used to document changes both by comparing them to historical and future imagery. The distribution of waterbodies in the Arctic is important to know in order to manage resources in the Arctic and to improve climate predictions in the Arctic.
Sonja Kaiser, Mathias Göckede, Karel Castro-Morales, Christian Knoblauch, Altug Ekici, Thomas Kleinen, Sebastian Zubrzycki, Torsten Sachs, Christian Wille, and Christian Beer
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 333–358,Short summary
A new consistent, process-based methane module that is integrated with permafrost processes is presented. It was developed within a global land surface scheme and evaluated at a polygonal tundra site in Samoylov, Russia. The calculated methane emissions show fair agreement with field data and capture detailed differences between the explicitly modelled gas transport processes and in the gas dynamics under varying soil water and temperature conditions during seasons and on different microsites.
Annett Bartsch, Barbara Widhalm, Peter Kuhry, Gustaf Hugelius, Juri Palmtag, and Matthias Benjamin Siewert
Biogeosciences, 13, 5453–5470,Short summary
A new approach for the estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools north of the tree line has been developed based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from the ENVISAT satellite. It can be shown that measurements of C-band SAR under frozen conditions represent vegetation and surface structure properties which relate to soil properties, specifically SOC. The approach provides the first spatially consistent account of soil organic carbon across the Arctic.
Urban Johannes Wünsch, Boris Peter Koch, Matthias Witt, and Joseph Andrew Needoba
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We used a combination of continuously measuring water chemistry sensors and periodic sampling efforts to assess the seasonal variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Columbia River in spring and summer 2013. We found that our sensors can provide detailed data on carbon export that far exceed usual monitoring efforts. The detailed data help to understand the impact of short-lived events, such as rainstorms, on the overall terrestrial carbon flux in the Columbia River.
Gustaf Hugelius, Peter Kuhry, and Charles Tarnocai
Biogeosciences, 13, 2003–2010,Short summary
We investigate the properties of soils and sediments in a particular and ancient Siberian permafrost landscape. We critically examine statements from a recent study that specific permafrost landforms affected by thawed permafrost (alases) in this region contain very large quantities of peat that previous studies had failed to include because of data set biases. We conclude that there is no evidence to suggest biases in existing data sets or that alas deposits increase the northern peatland pool.
J. E. Vonk, S. E. Tank, W. B. Bowden, I. Laurion, W. F. Vincent, P. Alekseychik, M. Amyot, M. F. Billet, J. Canário, R. M. Cory, B. N. Deshpande, M. Helbig, M. Jammet, J. Karlsson, J. Larouche, G. MacMillan, M. Rautio, K. M. Walter Anthony, and K. P. Wickland
Biogeosciences, 12, 7129–7167,Short summary
In this review, we give an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding how permafrost thaw affects aquatic systems. We describe the general impacts of thaw on aquatic ecosystems, pathways of organic matter and contaminant release and degradation, resulting emissions and burial, and effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. We conclude with an overview of potential climate effects and recommendations for future research.
J. E. Vonk, S. E. Tank, P. J. Mann, R. G. M. Spencer, C. C. Treat, R. G. Striegl, B. W. Abbott, and K. P. Wickland
Biogeosciences, 12, 6915–6930,Short summary
We found that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in arctic soils and aquatic systems is increasingly degradable with increasing permafrost extent. Also, DOC seems less degradable when moving down the fluvial network in continuous permafrost regions, i.e. from streams to large rivers, suggesting that highly bioavailable DOC is lost in headwater streams. We also recommend a standardized DOC incubation protocol to facilitate future comparison on processing and transport of DOC in a changing Arctic.
B. K. Biskaborn, J.-P. Lanckman, H. Lantuit, K. Elger, D. A. Streletskiy, W. L. Cable, and V. E. Romanovsky
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 245–259,Short summary
This paper introduces the new database of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) on permafrost temperature and active layer thickness data. It describes the operability of the Data Management System and the data quality. By applying statistics on GTN-P metadata, we analyze the spatial sample representation of permafrost monitoring sites. Comparison with environmental variables and climate projection data enable identification of potential future research locations.
X. Feng, Ö. Gustafsson, R. M. Holmes, J. E. Vonk, B. E. van Dongen, I. P. Semiletov, O. V. Dudarev, M. B. Yunker, R. W. Macdonald, D. B. Montluçon, and T. I. Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 12, 4841–4860,Short summary
Currently very few studies have examined the distribution and fate of hydrolyzable organic carbon (OC) in Arctic sediments, whose fate remains unclear in the context of climate change. Our study focuses on the source, distribution and fate of hydrolyzable OC as compared with plant wax lipids and lignin phenols in the sedimentary particles of nine Arctic and sub-Arctic rivers. This multi-molecular approach allows for a comprehensive investigation of terrestrial OC transfer via Arctic rivers.
N. Gentsch, R. Mikutta, R. J. E. Alves, J. Barta, P. Čapek, A. Gittel, G. Hugelius, P. Kuhry, N. Lashchinskiy, J. Palmtag, A. Richter, H. Šantrůčková, J. Schnecker, O. Shibistova, T. Urich, B. Wild, and G. Guggenberger
Biogeosciences, 12, 4525–4542,
M. Fritz, T. Opel, G. Tanski, U. Herzschuh, H. Meyer, A. Eulenburg, and H. Lantuit
The Cryosphere, 9, 737–752,Short summary
Ground ice in permafrost has not, until now, been considered to be a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other elements that are important for ecosystems and carbon cycling. Ice wedges in the Arctic Yedoma region hold 45.2 Tg DOC (Tg = 10^12g), 33.6 Tg DIC and a freshwater reservoir of 4200 km³. Leaching of terrestrial organic matter is the most relevant process of DOC sequestration into ground ice.
M. Fuchs, P. Kuhry, and G. Hugelius
The Cryosphere, 9, 427–438,
G. Hugelius, J. Strauss, S. Zubrzycki, J. W. Harden, E. A. G. Schuur, C.-L. Ping, L. Schirrmeister, G. Grosse, G. J. Michaelson, C. D. Koven, J. A. O'Donnell, B. Elberling, U. Mishra, P. Camill, Z. Yu, J. Palmtag, and P. Kuhry
Biogeosciences, 11, 6573–6593,Short summary
This study provides an updated estimate of organic carbon stored in the northern permafrost region. The study includes estimates for carbon in soils (0 to 3 m depth) and deeper sediments in river deltas and the Yedoma region. We find that field data is still scarce from many regions. Total estimated carbon storage is ~1300 Pg with an uncertainty range of between 1100 and 1500 Pg. Around 800 Pg carbon is perennially frozen, equivalent to all carbon dioxide currently in the Earth's atmosphere.
L. Fuchslueger, E.-M. Kastl, F. Bauer, S. Kienzl, R. Hasibeder, T. Ladreiter-Knauss, M. Schmitt, M. Bahn, M. Schloter, A. Richter, and U. Szukics
Biogeosciences, 11, 6003–6015,Short summary
In mountain grasslands drought has distinct transient effects on soil nitrogen cycling and bacterial and archaeal ammonia-oxidizers (AOB and AOA), which could have been related to a niche differentiation of these two groups at increasing NH4+ levels. However, the effective strength of drought was modulated by the level of grassland management.
N. Jiao, C. Robinson, F. Azam, H. Thomas, F. Baltar, H. Dang, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, M. Johnson, D. L. Kirchman, B. P. Koch, L. Legendre, C. Li, J. Liu, T. Luo, Y.-W. Luo, A. Mitra, A. Romanou, K. Tang, X. Wang, C. Zhang, and R. Zhang
Biogeosciences, 11, 5285–5306,
B. Heim, E. Abramova, R. Doerffer, F. Günther, J. Hölemann, A. Kraberg, H. Lantuit, A. Loginova, F. Martynov, P. P. Overduin, and C. Wegner
Biogeosciences, 11, 4191–4210,
B. P. Koch, G. Kattner, M. Witt, and U. Passow
Biogeosciences, 11, 4173–4190,
G. Hugelius, J. G. Bockheim, P. Camill, B. Elberling, G. Grosse, J. W. Harden, K. Johnson, T. Jorgenson, C. D. Koven, P. Kuhry, G. Michaelson, U. Mishra, J. Palmtag, C.-L. Ping, J. O'Donnell, L. Schirrmeister, E. A. G. Schuur, Y. Sheng, L. C. Smith, J. Strauss, and Z. Yu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 393–402,
I. Preuss, C. Knoblauch, J. Gebert, and E.-M. Pfeiffer
Biogeosciences, 10, 2539–2552,
G. Hugelius, C. Tarnocai, G. Broll, J. G. Canadell, P. Kuhry, and D. K. Swanson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 3–13,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Land - Sea CouplingCarbon dynamics at the river–estuarine transition: a comparison among tributaries of Chesapeake BayFrom soil to sea: sources and transport of organic carbon traced by tetraether lipids in the monsoonal Godavari River, IndiaRegional-scale phytoplankton dynamics and their association with glacier meltwater runoff in SvalbardThe soil carbon erosion paradox reconciledRiverine nitrogen supply to the global ocean and its limited impact on global marine primary production: a feedback study using an Earth system modelRain-fed streams dilute inorganic nutrients but subsidise organic-matter-associated nutrients in coastal waters of the northeast Pacific OceanIdeas and perspectives: Biogeochemistry – some key foci for the futureSpatio-temporal variations in lateral and atmospheric carbon fluxes from the Danube DeltaTechnical note: Seamless gas measurements across the land–ocean aquatic continuum – corrections and evaluation of sensor data for CO2, CH4 and O2 from field deployments in contrasting environmentsEnrichment of trace metals from acid sulfate soils in sediments of the Kvarken Archipelago, eastern Gulf of Bothnia, Baltic SeaOrganic iron complexes enhance iron transport capacity along estuarine salinity gradients of Baltic estuariesParticulate organic matter controls benthic microbial N retention and N removal in contrasting estuaries of the Baltic SeaExport fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon to the northern Indian Ocean from the Indian monsoonal riversThe ballast effect of lithogenic matter and its influences on the carbon fluxes in the Indian OceanIntegrating multimedia models to assess nitrogen losses from the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of MexicoReconciling drainage and receiving basin signatures of the Godavari River systemImpacts of flocculation on the distribution and diagenesis of iron in boreal estuarine sedimentsSources, fluxes, and behaviors of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the Nakdong River Estuary, KoreaEffects of changes in nutrient loading and composition on hypoxia dynamics and internal nutrient cycling of a stratified coastal lagoonCarbon degradation in agricultural soils flooded with seawater after managed coastal realignmentA global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British ColumbiaNitrogen transformations along a shallow subterranean estuaryModelling nutrient retention in the coastal zone of an eutrophic seaPatterns and persistence of hydrologic carbon and nutrient export from collapsing upland permafrostModelling the impact of riverine DON removal by marine bacterioplankton on primary production in the Arctic OceanSeasonal response of air–water CO2 exchange along the land–ocean aquatic continuum of the northeast North American coast.Quantification of iron-rich volcanogenic dust emissions and deposition over the ocean from Icelandic dust sourcesEffects of seabird nitrogen input on biomass and carbon accumulation after 50 years of primary succession on a young volcanic island, SurtseyImpact of river discharge, upwelling and vertical mixing on the nutrient loading and productivity of the Canadian Beaufort ShelfSeasonal contribution of terrestrial organic matter and biological oxygen demand to the Baltic Sea from three contrasting river catchmentsAntarctic ice sheet fertilises the Southern OceanNutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China SeaBioavailability of riverine dissolved organic matter in three Baltic Sea estuaries and the effect of catchment land useSeasonal dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for two sub-tropical estuaries in south Florida, USAExport of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the Fukushima river systems at heavy rains by Typhoon Roke in September 2011The fate of riverine nutrients on Arctic shelvesExternal forcings, oceanographic processes and particle flux dynamics in Cap de Creus submarine canyon, NW Mediterranean SeaRadium-based estimates of cesium isotope transport and total direct ocean discharges from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accidentTracing inputs of terrestrial high molecular weight dissolved organic matter within the Baltic Sea ecosystemThe role of alkalinity generation in controlling the fluxes of CO2 during exposure and inundation on tidal flatsCoupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environmentSpatialized N budgets in a large agricultural Mediterranean watershed: high loading and low transferEffects of water discharge and sediment load on evolution of modern Yellow River Delta, China, over the period from 1976 to 2009Carbon isotopes and lipid biomarker investigation of sources, transport and degradation of terrestrial organic matter in the Buor-Khaya Bay, SE Laptev SeaContribution of riverine nutrients to the silicon biogeochemistry of the global ocean – a model studyMolecular and radiocarbon constraints on sources and degradation of terrestrial organic carbon along the Kolyma paleoriver transect, East Siberian SeaImpact of changes in river fluxes of silica on the global marine silicon cycle: a model comparison
Paul A. Bukaveckas
Biogeosciences, 19, 4209–4226,Short summary
Inland waters play an important role in the global carbon cycle by storing, transforming and transporting carbon from land to sea. Comparatively little is known about carbon dynamics at the river–estuarine transition. A study of tributaries of Chesapeake Bay showed that biological processes exerted a strong effect on carbon transformations. Peak carbon retention occurred during periods of elevated river discharge and was associated with trapping of particulate matter.
Frédérique M. S. A. Kirkels, Huub M. Zwart, Muhammed O. Usman, Suning Hou, Camilo Ponton, Liviu Giosan, Timothy I. Eglinton, and Francien Peterse
Biogeosciences, 19, 3979–4010,Short summary
Soil organic carbon (SOC) that is transferred to the ocean by rivers forms a long-term sink of atmospheric CO2 upon burial on the ocean floor. We here test if certain bacterial membrane lipids can be used to trace SOC through the monsoon-fed Godavari River basin in India. We find that these lipids trace the mobilisation and transport of SOC in the wet season but that these lipids are not transferred far into the sea. This suggests that the burial of SOC on the sea floor is limited here.
Thorben Dunse, Kaixing Dong, Kjetil Schanke Aas, and Leif Christian Stige
Biogeosciences, 19, 271–294,Short summary
We investigate the effect of glacier meltwater on phytoplankton dynamics in Svalbard. Phytoplankton forms the basis of the marine food web, and its seasonal dynamics depend on the availability of light and nutrients, both of which are affected by glacier runoff. We use satellite ocean color, an indicator of phytoplankton biomass, and glacier mass balance modeling to find that the overall effect of glacier runoff on marine productivity is positive within the major fjord systems of Svalbard.
Kristof Van Oost and Jo Six
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
The direction and magnitude of the net erosion-induced land-atmosphere C exchange have been the topic of a big scientific debate for more than a decade now. Many have assumed that erosion leads to a loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere, whereas others have shown that erosion ultimately leads to a carbon sink. Here, we show that the soil carbon erosion source-sink paradox is reconciled when the broad range of temporal and spatial scales at which the underlying processes operate are considered.
Miriam Tivig, David P. Keller, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 18, 5327–5350,Short summary
Nitrogen is one of the most important elements for life in the ocean. A major source is the riverine discharge of dissolved nitrogen. While global models often omit rivers as a nutrient source, we included nitrogen from rivers in our Earth system model and found that additional nitrogen affected marine biology not only locally but also in regions far off the coast. Depending on regional conditions, primary production was enhanced or even decreased due to internal feedbacks in the nitrogen cycle.
Kyra A. St. Pierre, Brian P. V. Hunt, Suzanne E. Tank, Ian Giesbrecht, Maartje C. Korver, William C. Floyd, Allison A. Oliver, and Kenneth P. Lertzman
Biogeosciences, 18, 3029–3052,Short summary
Using 4 years of paired freshwater and marine water chemistry from the Central Coast of British Columbia (Canada), we show that coastal temperate rainforest streams are sources of organic nitrogen, iron, and carbon to the Pacific Ocean but not the inorganic nutrients easily used by marine phytoplankton. This distinction may have important implications for coastal food webs and highlights the need to sample all nutrients in fresh and marine waters year-round to fully understand coastal dynamics.
Thomas S. Bianchi, Madhur Anand, Chris T. Bauch, Donald E. Canfield, Luc De Meester, Katja Fennel, Peter M. Groffman, Michael L. Pace, Mak Saito, and Myrna J. Simpson
Biogeosciences, 18, 3005–3013,Short summary
Better development of interdisciplinary ties between biology, geology, and chemistry advances biogeochemistry through (1) better integration of contemporary (or rapid) evolutionary adaptation to predict changing biogeochemical cycles and (2) universal integration of data from long-term monitoring sites in terrestrial, aquatic, and human systems that span broad geographical regions for use in modeling.
Marie-Sophie Maier, Cristian R. Teodoru, and Bernhard Wehrli
Biogeosciences, 18, 1417–1437,Short summary
Based on a 2-year monitoring study, we found that the freshwater system of the Danube Delta, Romania, releases carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. The amount of carbon released depends on the freshwater feature (river branches, channels and lakes), season and hydrologic condition, affecting the exchange with the wetland. Spatial upscaling should therefore consider these factors. Furthermore, the Danube Delta increases the amount of carbon reaching the Black Sea via the Danube River.
Anna Rose Canning, Peer Fietzek, Gregor Rehder, and Arne Körtzinger
Biogeosciences, 18, 1351–1373,Short summary
The paper describes a novel, fully autonomous, multi-gas flow-through set-up for multiple gases that combines established, high-quality oceanographic sensors in a small and robust system designed for use across all salinities and all types of platforms. We describe the system and its performance in all relevant detail, including the corrections which improve the accuracy of these sensors, and illustrate how simultaneous multi-gas set-ups can provide an extremely high spatiotemporal resolution.
Joonas J. Virtasalo, Peter Österholm, Aarno T. Kotilainen, and Mats E. Åström
Biogeosciences, 17, 6097–6113,Short summary
Rivers draining the acid sulphate soils of western Finland deliver large amounts of metals (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, and Zn) to the coastal sea. To better understand metal enrichment in the sea floor, we analysed metal contents and grain size distribution in nine sediment cores, which increased in the 1960s and 1970s and stayed at high levels afterwards. The enrichment is visible more than 25 km out from the river mouths. Organic aggregates are suggested as the key seaward metal carriers.
Simon David Herzog, Per Persson, Kristina Kvashnina, and Emma Sofia Kritzberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 331–344,Short summary
Fe concentrations in boreal rivers are increasing strongly in several regions in Northern Europe. This study focuses on how Fe speciation and interaction with organic matter affect stability of Fe across estuarine salinity gradients. The results confirm a positive relationship between the relative contribution of organically complexed Fe and stability. Moreover, organically complexed Fe was more prevalent at high flow conditions and more dominant further upstream in a catchment.
Ines Bartl, Dana Hellemann, Christophe Rabouille, Kirstin Schulz, Petra Tallberg, Susanna Hietanen, and Maren Voss
Biogeosciences, 16, 3543–3564,Short summary
Irrespective of variable environmental settings in estuaries, the quality of organic particles is an important factor controlling microbial processes that facilitate a reduction of land-derived nitrogen loads to the open sea. Through the interplay of biogeochemical processing, geomorphology, and hydrodynamics, organic particles may function as a carrier and temporary reservoir of nitrogen, which has a major impact on the efficiency of nitrogen load reduction.
Moturi S. Krishna, Rongali Viswanadham, Mamidala H. K. Prasad, Vuravakonda R. Kumari, and Vedula V. S. S. Sarma
Biogeosciences, 16, 505–519,Short summary
An order-of-magnitude variability in DIC was found within the Indian estuaries due to significant variability in size of rivers, precipitation pattern and lithology in the catchments. Indian monsoonal estuaries annually export ∼ 10.3 Tg of DIC to the northern Indian Ocean, of which 75 % enters into the Bay of Bengal. Our results indicated that chemical weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals by soil CO2 is the major source of DIC in the Indian monsoonal rivers.
Tim Rixen, Birgit Gaye, Kay-Christian Emeis, and Venkitasubramani Ramaswamy
Biogeosciences, 16, 485–503,Short summary
Data obtained from sediment trap experiments in the Indian Ocean indicate that lithogenic matter ballast increases organic carbon flux rates on average by 45 % and by up to 62 % at trap locations in the river-influenced regions of the Indian Ocean. Such a strong lithogenic matter ballast effect implies that land use changes and the associated enhanced transport of lithogenic matter may significantly affect the CO2 uptake of the organic carbon pump in the receiving ocean areas.
Yongping Yuan, Ruoyu Wang, Ellen Cooter, Limei Ran, Prasad Daggupati, Dongmei Yang, Raghavan Srinivasan, and Anna Jalowska
Biogeosciences, 15, 7059–7076,Short summary
Elevated levels of nutrients in surface water, which originate from deposition of atmospheric N, drainage from agricultural fields, and discharges from sewage treatment plants, cause explosive algal blooms that impair water quality. The complex cycling of nutrients through the land, air, and water requires an integrated multimedia modeling system linking air, land surface, and stream processes to assess their sources, transport, and transformation in large river basins for decision making.
Muhammed Ojoshogu Usman, Frédérique Marie Sophie Anne Kirkels, Huub Michel Zwart, Sayak Basu, Camilo Ponton, Thomas Michael Blattmann, Michael Ploetze, Negar Haghipour, Cameron McIntyre, Francien Peterse, Maarten Lupker, Liviu Giosan, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 15, 3357–3375,
Tom Jilbert, Eero Asmala, Christian Schröder, Rosa Tiihonen, Jukka-Pekka Myllykangas, Joonas J. Virtasalo, Aarno Kotilainen, Pasi Peltola, Päivi Ekholm, and Susanna Hietanen
Biogeosciences, 15, 1243–1271,Short summary
Iron is a common dissolved element in river water, recognizable by its orange-brown colour. Here we show that when rivers reach the ocean much of this iron settles to the sediments by a process known as flocculation. The iron is then used by microbes in coastal sediments, which are important hotspots in the global carbon cycle.
Shin-Ah Lee and Guebuem Kim
Biogeosciences, 15, 1115–1122,Short summary
The fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) delivered from riverine discharges significantly affects carbon and biogeochemical cycles in coastal waters. Our results show that the terrestrial concentrations of humic-like FDOM in river water were 60–80 % higher in the summer and fall, while the in situ production of protein-like FDOM was 70–80 % higher in the spring. Our results suggest that there are large seasonal changes in riverine fluxes of FDOM components to the ocean.
Yafei Zhu, Andrew McCowan, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 14, 4423–4433,Short summary
We used a 3-D coupled hydrodynamic–biogeochemical water quality model to investigate the effects of changes in catchment nutrient loading and composition on the phytoplankton dynamics, development of hypoxia and internal nutrient dynamics in a stratified coastal lagoon system. The results highlighted the need to reduce both total nitrogen and total phosphorus for water quality improvement in estuarine systems.
Kamilla S. Sjøgaard, Alexander H. Treusch, and Thomas B. Valdemarsen
Biogeosciences, 14, 4375–4389,Short summary
Permanent flooding of low-lying coastal areas is a growing threat due to climate-change-related sea-level rise. To reduce coastal damage, buffer zones can be created by managed coastal realignment where existing dykes are breached and new dykes are built further inland. We studied the impacts on organic matter degradation in soils flooded with seawater by managed coastal realignment and suggest that most of the organic carbon present in coastal soils will be permanently preserved after flooding.
Allison A. Oliver, Suzanne E. Tank, Ian Giesbrecht, Maartje C. Korver, William C. Floyd, Paul Sanborn, Chuck Bulmer, and Ken P. Lertzman
Biogeosciences, 14, 3743–3762,Short summary
Rivers draining small watersheds of the outer coastal Pacific temperate rainforest export some of the highest yields of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the world directly to the ocean. This DOC is largely derived from soils and terrestrial plants. Rainfall, temperature, and watershed characteristics such as wetlands and lakes are important controls on DOC export. This region may be significant for carbon export and linking terrestrial carbon to marine ecosystems.
Mathilde Couturier, Gwendoline Tommi-Morin, Maude Sirois, Alexandra Rao, Christian Nozais, and Gwénaëlle Chaillou
Biogeosciences, 14, 3321–3336,Short summary
At the land–ocean interface, subterranean estuaries (STEs) are a critical transition pathway of nitrogen. Environmental conditions in the groundwater lead to nitrogen transformation, altering the nitrogen species and concentrations exported to the coastal ocean. This study highlights the role of a STE in processing groundwater-derived N in a shallow boreal STE, far from anthropogenic pressures. Biogeochemical transformations provide new N species from terrestrial origin to the coastal ocean.
Elin Almroth-Rosell, Moa Edman, Kari Eilola, H. E. Markus Meier, and Jörgen Sahlberg
Biogeosciences, 13, 5753–5769,Short summary
Nutrients from land have been discussed to increase eutrophication in the open sea. This model study shows that the coastal zone works as an efficient filter. Water depth and residence time regulate the retention that occurs mostly in the sediment due to processes such as burial and denitrification. On shorter timescales the retention capacity might seem less effective when the land load of nutrients decreases, but with time the coastal zone can import nutrients from the open sea.
B. W. Abbott, J. B. Jones, S. E. Godsey, J. R. Larouche, and W. B. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 12, 3725–3740,Short summary
As high latitudes warm, carbon and nitrogen stored in permafrost soil will be vulnerable to erosion and transport to Arctic streams and rivers. We sampled outflow from 83 permafrost collapse features in Alaska. Permafrost collapse caused substantial increases in dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen but decreased methane concentration by 90%. Upland thermokarst may be a dominant linkage transferring carbon and nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems as the Arctic warms.
V. Le Fouest, M. Manizza, B. Tremblay, and M. Babin
Biogeosciences, 12, 3385–3402,
G. G. Laruelle, R. Lauerwald, J. Rotschi, P. A. Raymond, J. Hartmann, and P. Regnier
Biogeosciences, 12, 1447–1458,Short summary
This study quantifies the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the land-ocean aquatic continuum (LOAC) of the northeast North American coast, which consists of rivers, estuaries, and the coastal ocean. Our analysis reveals significant variations of the flux intensity both in time and space across the study area. Ice cover, snowmelt, and the intensity of the estuarine filter are identified as important control factors of the CO2 exchange along the LOAC.
O. Arnalds, H. Olafsson, and P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova
Biogeosciences, 11, 6623–6632,Short summary
Iceland is one of the largest dust sources on Earth. Based on two separate methods, we estimate dust emissions to range between 30 and 40 million tons annually. Ocean deposition ranges between 5.5 and 13.8 million tons. Calculated iron deposition in oceans around Iceland ranges between 0.56 to 1.4 million tons, which are distributed over wide areas. Iron is a limiting nutrient for primary production in these waters, and dust is likely to affect oceanic Fe levels around Iceland.
N. I. W. Leblans, B. D. Sigurdsson, P. Roefs, R. Thuys, B. Magnússon, and I. A. Janssens
Biogeosciences, 11, 6237–6250,Short summary
We studied the influence of allochthonous N inputs on primary succession and soil development of a 50-year-old volcanic island, Surtsey. Seabirds increased the ecosystem N accumulation rate inside their colony to ~47 kg ha-1 y-1, compared to 0.7 kg ha-1 y-1 outside it. A strong relationship was found between total ecosystem N stock and both total above- and belowground biomass and SOC stock, which shows how fast external N input can boost primary succession and soil formation.
J.-É. Tremblay, P. Raimbault, N. Garcia, B. Lansard, M. Babin, and J. Gagnon
Biogeosciences, 11, 4853–4868,
H. E. Reader, C. A. Stedmon, and E. S. Kritzberg
Biogeosciences, 11, 3409–3419,
R. Death, J. L. Wadham, F. Monteiro, A. M. Le Brocq, M. Tranter, A. Ridgwell, S. Dutkiewicz, and R. Raiswell
Biogeosciences, 11, 2635–2643,
R. H. Li, S. M. Liu, Y. W. Li, G. L. Zhang, J. L. Ren, and J. Zhang
Biogeosciences, 11, 481–506,
E. Asmala, R. Autio, H. Kaartokallio, L. Pitkänen, C. A. Stedmon, and D. N. Thomas
Biogeosciences, 10, 6969–6986,
C. Buzzelli, Y. Wan, P. H. Doering, and J. N. Boyer
Biogeosciences, 10, 6721–6736,
S. Nagao, M. Kanamori, S. Ochiai, S. Tomihara, K. Fukushi, and M. Yamamoto
Biogeosciences, 10, 6215–6223,
V. Le Fouest, M. Babin, and J.-É. Tremblay
Biogeosciences, 10, 3661–3677,
A. Rumín-Caparrós, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. Calafat, M. Canals, J. Martín, P. Puig, and R. Pedrosa-Pàmies
Biogeosciences, 10, 3493–3505,
M. A. Charette, C. F. Breier, P. B. Henderson, S. M. Pike, I. I. Rypina, S. R. Jayne, and K. O. Buesseler
Biogeosciences, 10, 2159–2167,
B. Deutsch, V. Alling, C. Humborg, F. Korth, and C. M. Mörth
Biogeosciences, 9, 4465–4475,
P. A. Faber, A. J. Kessler, J. K. Bull, I. D. McKelvie, F. J. R. Meysman, and P. L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 9, 4087–4097,
M. E. Dueker, G. D. O'Mullan, K. C. Weathers, A. R. Juhl, and M. Uriarte
Biogeosciences, 9, 803–813,
L. Lassaletta, E. Romero, G. Billen, J. Garnier, H. García-Gómez, and J. V. Rovira
Biogeosciences, 9, 57–70,
J. Yu, Y. Fu, Y. Li, G. Han, Y. Wang, D. Zhou, W. Sun, Y. Gao, and F. X. Meixner
Biogeosciences, 8, 2427–2435,
E. S. Karlsson, A. Charkin, O. Dudarev, I. Semiletov, J. E. Vonk, L. Sánchez-García, A. Andersson, and Ö. Gustafsson
Biogeosciences, 8, 1865–1879,
C. Y. Bernard, H. H. Dürr, C. Heinze, J. Segschneider, and E. Maier-Reimer
Biogeosciences, 8, 551–564,
J. E. Vonk, L. Sánchez-García, I. Semiletov, O. Dudarev, T. Eglinton, A. Andersson, and Ö. Gustafsson
Biogeosciences, 7, 3153–3166,
C. Y. Bernard, G. G. Laruelle, C. P. Slomp, and C. Heinze
Biogeosciences, 7, 441–453,
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Climate change and warming in the Arctic exceed global averages. As a result, permanently frozen soils (permafrost) which store vast quantities of carbon in the form of dead plant material (organic matter) are thawing. Our study shows that as permafrost landscapes degrade, high concentrations of organic matter are released. Partly, this organic matter is degraded rapidly upon release, while another significant fraction enters stream networks and enters the Arctic Ocean.
Climate change and warming in the Arctic exceed global averages. As a result, permanently frozen...