Articles | Volume 14, issue 7
07 Apr 2017
Research article | 07 Apr 2017
The roles of resuspension, diffusion and biogeochemical processes on oxygen dynamics offshore of the Rhône River, France: a numerical modeling study
Julia M. Moriarty et al.
No articles found.
Arnaud Laurent, Haiyan Zhang, and Katja Fennel
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
The Changjiang is the main terrestrial source of nutrients to the East China Sea (ECS). Nutrient delivery to the ECS has been increasing since the 1960s resulting in low oxygen (hypoxia) during phytoplankton decomposition in summer. River phosphorus (P) has increased less than nitrogen and therefore, despite the large nutrient delivery, phytoplankton growth can be limited by the lack of P. Here, we investigate this link between P limitation, phytoplankton production/decomposition and hypoxia.
Stanley Ifeanyi Nmor, Eric Viollier, Lucie Pastor, Bruno Lansard, Christophe Rabouille, and Karline Soetaert
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The coastal marine environment serves as a transition zone in the land-ocean continuum and is susceptible to episodic phenomena such as flash floods, which cause massive organic matter deposition. Here, we present a model of sediment early diagenesis that explicitly describes this type of deposition while also incorporating unique flood deposit characteristics. This model can be used to investigate the temporal evolution of marine sediments following abrupt changes in environmental conditions.
Krysten Rutherford, Katja Fennel, Dariia Atamanchuk, Douglas Wallace, and Helmuth Thomas
Biogeosciences, 18, 6271–6286,Short summary
Using a regional model of the northwestern North Atlantic shelves in combination with a surface water time series and repeat transect observations, we investigate surface CO2 variability on the Scotian Shelf. The study highlights a strong seasonal cycle in shelf-wide pCO2 and spatial variability throughout the summer months driven by physical events. The simulated net flux of CO2 on the Scotian Shelf is out of the ocean, deviating from the global air–sea CO2 flux trend in continental shelves.
Bin Wang, Katja Fennel, and Liuqian Yu
Ocean Sci., 17, 1141–1156,Short summary
We demonstrate that even sparse BGC-Argo profiles can substantially improve biogeochemical prediction via a priori model tuning. By assimilating satellite surface chlorophyll and physical observations, subsurface distributions of physical properties and nutrients were improved immediately. The improvement of subsurface chlorophyll was modest initially but was greatly enhanced after adjusting the parameterization for light attenuation through further a priori tuning.
Felipe S. Freitas, Philip A. Pika, Sabine Kasten, Bo B. Jørgensen, Jens Rassmann, Christophe Rabouille, Shaun Thomas, Henrik Sass, Richard D. Pancost, and Sandra Arndt
Biogeosciences, 18, 4651–4679,Short summary
It remains challenging to fully understand what controls carbon burial in marine sediments globally. Thus, we use a model–data approach to identify patterns of organic matter reactivity at the seafloor across distinct environmental conditions. Our findings support the notion that organic matter reactivity is a dynamic ecosystem property and strongly influences biogeochemical cycling and exchange. Our results are essential to improve predictions of future changes in carbon cycling and climate.
Thomas S. Bianchi, Madhur Anand, Chris T. Bauch, Donald E. Canfield, Luc De Meester, Katja Fennel, Peter M. Groffman, Michael L. Pace, Mak Saito, and Myrna J. Simpson
Biogeosciences, 18, 3005–3013,Short summary
Better development of interdisciplinary ties between biology, geology, and chemistry advances biogeochemistry through (1) better integration of contemporary (or rapid) evolutionary adaptation to predict changing biogeochemical cycles and (2) universal integration of data from long-term monitoring sites in terrestrial, aquatic, and human systems that span broad geographical regions for use in modeling.
Arnaud Laurent, Katja Fennel, and Angela Kuhn
Biogeosciences, 18, 1803–1822,Short summary
CMIP5 and CMIP6 models, and a high-resolution regional model, were evaluated by comparing historical simulations with observations in the northwest North Atlantic, a climate-sensitive and biologically productive ocean margin region. Many of the CMIP models performed poorly for biological properties. There is no clear link between model resolution and skill in the global models, but there is an overall improvement in performance in CMIP6 from CMIP5. The regional model performed best.
Haiyan Zhang, Katja Fennel, Arnaud Laurent, and Changwei Bian
Biogeosciences, 17, 5745–5761,Short summary
In coastal seas, low oxygen, which is detrimental to coastal ecosystems, is increasingly caused by man-made nutrients from land. This is especially so near mouths of major rivers, including the Changjiang in the East China Sea. Here a simulation model is used to identify the main factors determining low-oxygen conditions in the region. High river discharge is identified as the prime cause, while wind and intrusions of open-ocean water modulate the severity and extent of low-oxygen conditions.
Zhengchen Zang, Z. George Xue, Kehui Xu, Samuel J. Bentley, Qin Chen, Eurico J. D'Sa, Le Zhang, and Yanda Ou
Biogeosciences, 17, 5043–5055,
Christopher Gordon, Katja Fennel, Clark Richards, Lynn K. Shay, and Jodi K. Brewster
Biogeosciences, 17, 4119–4134,Short summary
We describe a method for correcting errors in oxygen optode measurements on autonomous platforms in the ocean. The errors result from the relatively slow response time of the sensor. The correction method includes an in situ determination of the effective response time and requires the time stamps of the individual measurements. It is highly relevant for the BGC-Argo program and also applicable to gliders. We also explore if diurnal changes in oxygen can be obtained from profiling floats.
Bin Wang, Katja Fennel, Liuqian Yu, and Christopher Gordon
Biogeosciences, 17, 4059–4074,Short summary
We assess trade-offs between different types of biological observations, specifically satellite ocean color and BGC-Argo profiles and the benefits of combining both for optimizing a biogeochemical model of the Gulf of Mexico. Using all available observations leads to significant improvements in observed and unobserved variables (including primary production and C export). Our results highlight the significant benefits of BGC-Argo measurements for biogeochemical model optimization and validation.
Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth H. Shadwick, Hanqin Tian, and Yuanzhi Yao
Biogeosciences, 17, 3779–3796,Short summary
Over the past century, estuaries have experienced global (atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperature) and regional changes (river inputs, land use), but their relative impact remains poorly known. In the Chesapeake Bay, we find that global and regional changes have worked together to enhance how much atmospheric CO2 is taken up by the estuary. The increased uptake is roughly equally due to the global and regional changes, providing crucial perspective for managers of the bay's watershed.
Fabian Große, Katja Fennel, Haiyan Zhang, and Arnaud Laurent
Biogeosciences, 17, 2701–2714,Short summary
In the East China Sea, hypoxia occurs frequently from spring to fall due to high primary production and subsequent decomposition of organic matter. Nitrogen inputs from the Changjiang and the open ocean have been suggested to contribute to hypoxia formation. We used a numerical modelling approach to quantify the relative contributions of these nitrogen sources. We found that the Changjiang dominates, which suggests that nitrogen management in the watershed would improve oxygen conditions.
Jens Rassmann, Eryn M. Eitel, Bruno Lansard, Cécile Cathalot, Christophe Brandily, Martial Taillefert, and Christophe Rabouille
Biogeosciences, 17, 13–33,Short summary
In this paper, we use a large set of measurements made using in situ and lab techniques to elucidate the cause of dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes in sediments from the Rhône delta and its companion compound alkalinity, which carries the absorption capacity of coastal waters with respect to atmospheric CO2. We show that sediment processes (sulfate reduction, FeS precipitation and accumulation) are crucial in generating the alkalinity fluxes observed in this study by in situ incubation chambers.
Liuqian Yu, Katja Fennel, Bin Wang, Arnaud Laurent, Keith R. Thompson, and Lynn K. Shay
Ocean Sci., 15, 1801–1814,Short summary
We present a first direct comparison of nonidentical versus identical twin approaches for an ocean data assimilation system. We show that the identical twin approach overestimates the value of assimilating satellite observations and undervalues the benefit of assimilating temperature and salinity profiles. Misleading assessments such as undervaluing the impact of observational assets are problematic and can lead to misguided decisions on balancing investments among different observing assets.
Ines Bartl, Dana Hellemann, Christophe Rabouille, Kirstin Schulz, Petra Tallberg, Susanna Hietanen, and Maren Voss
Biogeosciences, 16, 3543–3564,Short summary
Irrespective of variable environmental settings in estuaries, the quality of organic particles is an important factor controlling microbial processes that facilitate a reduction of land-derived nitrogen loads to the open sea. Through the interplay of biogeochemical processing, geomorphology, and hydrodynamics, organic particles may function as a carrier and temporary reservoir of nitrogen, which has a major impact on the efficiency of nitrogen load reduction.
Katja Fennel, Simone Alin, Leticia Barbero, Wiley Evans, Timothée Bourgeois, Sarah Cooley, John Dunne, Richard A. Feely, Jose Martin Hernandez-Ayon, Xinping Hu, Steven Lohrenz, Frank Muller-Karger, Raymond Najjar, Lisa Robbins, Elizabeth Shadwick, Samantha Siedlecki, Nadja Steiner, Adrienne Sutton, Daniela Turk, Penny Vlahos, and Zhaohui Aleck Wang
Biogeosciences, 16, 1281–1304,Short summary
We review and synthesize available information on coastal ocean carbon fluxes around North America (NA). There is overwhelming evidence, compiled and discussed here, that the NA coastal margins act as a sink. Our synthesis shows the great diversity in processes driving carbon fluxes in different coastal regions, highlights remaining gaps in observations and models, and discusses current and anticipated future trends with respect to carbon fluxes and acidification.
Angela M. Kuhn, Katja Fennel, and Ilana Berman-Frank
Biogeosciences, 15, 7379–7401,Short summary
Recent studies demonstrate that marine N2 fixation can be carried out without light. However, direct measurements of N2 fixation in dark environments are relatively scarce. This study uses a model that represents biogeochemical cycles at a deep-ocean location in the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Different model versions are used to test assumptions about N2 fixers. Relaxing light limitation for marine N2 fixers improved the similarity between model results and observations of deep nitrate and oxygen.
Krysten Rutherford and Katja Fennel
Ocean Sci., 14, 1207–1221,Short summary
Using a regional model of the northwestern North Atlantic shelves, we calculate transport timescales and pathways in order to understand the transport processes that underlie the rapid oxygen loss, air–sea CO2 flux, and supply of plankton seed populations on the Scotian Shelf. Study results highlight the limited connectivity between the Scotian Shelf and adjacent slope waters; instead, the dominant southwestward currents bring Grand Banks and Gulf of St. Lawrence waters to the Scotian Shelf.
Katja Fennel and Arnaud Laurent
Biogeosciences, 15, 3121–3131,Short summary
Increasing human-derived nutrient inputs to coastal oceans lead to spreading dead zones around the world. Here a biogeochemical model for the northern Gulf of Mexico, where nutrients from the Mississippi River create the largest dead zone in North American coastal waters, is used for the first time to show the effects of single and dual nutrient reductions of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Significant reductions in N or N&P load would be required to significantly reduce hypoxia in this system.
Christopher R. Sherwood, Alfredo L. Aretxabaleta, Courtney K. Harris, J. Paul Rinehimer, Romaric Verney, and Bénédicte Ferré
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1849–1871,Short summary
Cohesive sediment (mud) is ubiquitous in the world's coastal regions, but its behavior is complicated and often oversimplified by computer models. This paper describes extensions to a widely used open-source coastal ocean model that allow users to simulate important components of cohesive sediment transport.
Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs, Fei Da, and Kyle E. Hinson
Biogeosciences, 15, 2649–2668,Short summary
We use an estuarine-watershed modeling system of the Chesapeake Bay to examine the impact climate change may have on the ability of nutrient reduction regulations to increase dissolved oxygen. We find that climate change will move the onset of hypoxia ~7 days earlier, while also decreasing oxygen in the bay primarily due to increased temperature. While this effect is smaller than the increase in oxygen due to nutrient reduction, it is enough to limit the regulation's future effectiveness.
Jonathan Lemay, Helmuth Thomas, Susanne E. Craig, William J. Burt, Katja Fennel, and Blair J. W. Greenan
Biogeosciences, 15, 2111–2123,Short summary
We report a detailed mechanistic investigation of the impact of Hurricane Arthur on the CO2 cycling on the Scotian Shelf. We can show that in contrast to common thinking, the deepening of the surface during the summer months can lead to increased CO2 uptake as carbon-poor waters from subsurface water are brought up to the surface. Only during prolonged storm events is the deepening of the mixed layer strong enough to bring the (expected) carbon-rich water to the surface.
Daniele Brigolin, Christophe Rabouille, Bruno Bombled, Silvia Colla, Salvatrice Vizzini, Roberto Pastres, and Fabio Pranovi
Biogeosciences, 15, 1347–1366,Short summary
We present the result of a study carried out in the north-western Adriatic Sea by combining two different types of models with field sampling. A mussel farm was taken as a local source of perturbation to the natural flux of particulate organic carbon to the sediment. Differences in fluxes were primarily associated with mussel physiological conditions. Although restricted, these changes in particulate organic carbon fluxes induced visible effects on sediment biogeochemistry.
Daniel E. Kaufman, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs, John C. P. Hemmings, and Walker O. Smith Jr.
Biogeosciences, 15, 73–90,Short summary
Computer simulations of the highly variable phytoplankton in the Ross Sea demonstrated how incorporating data from different sources (satellite, ship, or glider) results in different system interpretations. For example, simulations assimilating satellite-based data produced lower carbon export estimates. Combining observations with models in this remote, harsh, and biologically variable environment should include consideration of the potential impacts of data frequency, duration, and coverage.
Jens Rassmann, Bruno Lansard, Lara Pozzato, and Christophe Rabouille
Biogeosciences, 13, 5379–5394,Short summary
In situ O2 and pH measurements as well as determination of porewater concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, sulfate and calcium have been measured in the sediments of the Rhône prodelta. Biogeochemical activity decreased with distance from the river mouth. Oxic processes decreased the carbonate saturation state (Ω) by lowering pH, whereas anaerobic organic matter degradation, dominated by sulfate reduction, was accompanied by increasing Ω and carbonate precipitation.
Zuo Xue, Ruoying He, Katja Fennel, Wei-Jun Cai, Steven Lohrenz, Wei-Jen Huang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, and Zhengchen Zang
Biogeosciences, 13, 4359–4377,Short summary
In this study we used a state-of-the-science coupled physical–biogeochemical model to simulate and examine temporal and spatial variability of sea surface CO2 concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. Our model revealed the Gulf was a net CO2 sink with a flux of 1.11 ± 0.84 × 1012 mol C yr−1. We also found that biological uptake was the primary driver making the Gulf an overall CO2 sink and that the carbon flux in the northern Gulf was very susceptible to changes in river inputs.
Isaac D. Irby, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs, Carl T. Friedrichs, Aaron J. Bever, Raleigh R. Hood, Lyon W. J. Lanerolle, Ming Li, Lewis Linker, Malcolm E. Scully, Kevin Sellner, Jian Shen, Jeremy Testa, Hao Wang, Ping Wang, and Meng Xia
Biogeosciences, 13, 2011–2028,Short summary
A comparison of eight hydrodynamic-oxygen models revealed that while models have difficulty resolving key drivers of dissolved oxygen (DO) variability, all models exhibit skill in reproducing the variability of DO itself. Further, simple oxygen models and complex biogeochemical models reproduced observed DO variability similarly well. Future advances in hypoxia simulations will depend more on the ability to reproduce the depth of the mixed layer than the degree of the vertical density gradient.
A. Laurent, K. Fennel, R. Wilson, J. Lehrter, and R. Devereux
Biogeosciences, 13, 77–94,Short summary
In low oxygen environments, the lack of oxygen influences sediment biogeochemistry and in turn sediment-water fluxes. These nonlinear interactions are often missing from biogeochemical circulation models because sediment models are computationally expensive. A method for parameterizing realistic sediment-water fluxes is presented and applied to the Mississippi River Dead Zone where high primary production, stimulated by excess nutrient loads, promotes low bottom water conditions in summer.
L. Yu, K. Fennel, A. Laurent, M. C. Murrell, and J. C. Lehrter
Biogeosciences, 12, 2063–2076,Short summary
Our study suggests that a combination of physical processes and sediment oxygen consumption determine the spatial extent and temporal dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf. In summer, stratification isolates oxygen-rich surface waters from hypoxic bottom waters; oxygen outgasses to the atmosphere at this time. A large fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer, but this primary production does not strongly affect the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters.
K.-K. Liu, C.-K. Kang, T. Kobari, H. Liu, C. Rabouille, and K. Fennel
Biogeosciences, 11, 7061–7075,Short summary
This paper provides background info on the East China Sea, Japan/East Sea and South China Sea and highlights major findings in the special issue on their biogeochemical conditions and ecosystem functions. The three seas are subject to strong impacts from human activities and/or climate forcing. Because these continental margins sustain arguably some of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world, changes in these stressed ecosystems may threaten the livelihood of a large human population.
Y. Xiao and M. A. M. Friedrichs
Biogeosciences, 11, 3015–3030,
Z. Xue, R. He, K. Fennel, W.-J. Cai, S. Lohrenz, and C. Hopkinson
Biogeosciences, 10, 7219–7234,
W. J. Burt, H. Thomas, K. Fennel, and E. Horne
Biogeosciences, 10, 53–66,
Related subject area
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Florian Gausepohl, Anne Hennke, Timm Schoening, Kevin Köser, and Jens Greinert
Biogeosciences, 17, 1463–1493,Short summary
In the course of former German environmental impact studies associated with manganese-nodule mining, the DISCOL experiment was conducted in 1989 in the Peru Basin. The disturbance tracks created by a plough harrow in the area are still apparent and could be located by high-resolution mapping techniques. The analysis presented in this study reveals the age sequence and the temporal change of the tracks which facilitates more detailed sample interpretations within the area.
Hans van Haren
Biogeosciences, 15, 4387–4403,Short summary
This paper presents high-resolution temperature observations and turbulence estimates from a hilly abyssal "plain" in Pacific nodule areas. Although turbulence levels are considerably lower than over steep topography, a bottom boundary layer, if existent, varies in height over scales far exceeding that of an Ekman layer. This variation is associated with internal wave motions affecting the near-bottom turbulence and thus probably the associated sediment reworking.
P. Berg, C. E. Reimers, J. H. Rosman, M. Huettel, M. L. Delgard, M. A. Reidenbach, and H. T. Özkan-Haller
Biogeosciences, 12, 6721–6735,Short summary
Extracting benthic oxygen fluxes from eddy covariance data measured in the presence of wave motions requires careful consideration of the temporal alignment of the vertical velocity and the oxygen concentration. We show that substantial errors in flux estimates can arise if these two variables are not aligned correctly in time. Due to the limited time response of all oxygen sensors used today, such a misalignment cannot be entirely avoided. We finally propose a new correction for this problem.
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In coastal aquatic environments, resuspension of sediment and organic material from the seabed into the overlying water can impact biogeochemistry. Here, we used a novel modeling approach to quantify this impact for the Rhône River delta. In the model, resuspension increased oxygen consumption during individual resuspension events, and when results were averaged over 2 months. This implies that observations and models that only represent calm conditions may underestimate net oxygen consumption.
In coastal aquatic environments, resuspension of sediment and organic material from the seabed...