Articles | Volume 19, issue 1
03 Jan 2022
Research article | 03 Jan 2022
Pelagic primary production in the coastal Mediterranean Sea: variability, trends, and contribution to basin-scale budgets
Paula Maria Salgado-Hernanz et al.
No articles found.
Rainer Kiko, Marc Picheral, David Antoine, Marcel Babin, Léo Berline, Tristan Biard, Emmanuel Boss, Peter Brandt, Francois Carlotti, Svenja Christiansen, Laurent Coppola, Leandro de la Cruz, Emilie Diamond-Riquier, Xavier Durrieu de Madron, Amanda Elineau, Gabriel Gorsky, Lionel Guidi, Helena Hauss, Jean-Olivier Irisson, Lee Karp-Boss, Johannes Karstensen, Dong-gyun Kim, Rachel M. Lekanoff, Fabien Lombard, Rubens M. Lopes, Claudie Marec, Andrew M. P. McDonnell, Daniela Niemeyer, Margaux Noyon, Stephanie H. O'Daly, Mark Ohman, Jessica L. Pretty, Andreas Rogge, Sarah Searson, Masashi Shibata, Yuji Tanaka, Toste Tanhua, Jan Taucher, Emilia Trudnowska, Jessica S. Turner, Anya Waite, and Lars Stemmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESSDShort summary
The term "marine particles" comprises detrital aggregates, fecal pellets, but also bacterio-, phyto-, zooplankton and even fish. Here we present a global dataset that contains 8805 vertical particle size distribution profiles obtained with Underwater Vision Profiler 5 (UVP5) camera systems. This data is valuable to the scientific community as it can be used to constrain important biogeochemical processes in the Ocean, such as the flux of carbon to the deep sea.
Michael P. Hemming, Jan Kaiser, Jacqueline Boutin, Liliane Merlivat, Karen J. Heywood, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Gareth A. Lee, Marcos Cobas García, David Antoine, and Kiminori Shitashima
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for OSShort summary
An underwater glider mission was carried out in spring 2016 near a mooring in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The glider deployment served as a test of a prototype ion-sensitive field-effect transistor pH sensor. Mean net community production rates were estimated from glider and buoy measurements of dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon concentrations before and during the spring bloom. Incorporating advection is important for accurate mass budgets. Unexpected metabolic quotients were found.
Liliane Merlivat, Michael Hemming, Jacqueline Boutin, David Antoine, Vincenzo Vellucci, Melek Golbol, Gareth A. Lee, and Laurence Beaumont
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We use in-situ high temporal measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon and atmospheric parameters at the air-sea interface to analyze the initiation of the phytoplankton bloom identified as net rate of biological carbon uptake in the Mediterranean Sea. The shift from wind-driven mixing to buoyancy-driven creates the conditions for blooms to begin. Active mixing at the air-sea interface lead to the onset of the phytoplankton bloom due to the relaxation of wind speed following storms.
Paolo Lazzari, Stefano Salon, Elena Terzić, Watson W. Gregg, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Vincenzo Vellucci, Emanuele Organelli, and David Antoine
Ocean Sci., 17, 675–697,Short summary
Multispectral optical sensors and models are increasingly adopted to study marine systems. In this work, bio-optical mooring and biogeochemical Argo float optical observations are combined with the Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) to analyse the variability of sunlight at the sea surface. We show that the model skill in simulating data varies according to the wavelength of light and temporal scale considered and that it is significantly affected by cloud dynamics.
Philippe Massicotte, Rainer M. W. Amon, David Antoine, Philippe Archambault, Sergio Balzano, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Dominique Boeuf, Annick Bricaud, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Malik Chami, Bruno Charrière, Jing Chen, Hervé Claustre, Pierre Coupel, Nicole Delsaut, David Doxaran, Jens Ehn, Cédric Fichot, Marie-Hélène Forget, Pingqing Fu, Jonathan Gagnon, Nicole Garcia, Beat Gasser, Jean-François Ghiglione, Gaby Gorsky, Michel Gosselin, Priscillia Gourvil, Yves Gratton, Pascal Guillot, Hermann J. Heipieper, Serge Heussner, Stanford B. Hooker, Yannick Huot, Christian Jeanthon, Wade Jeffrey, Fabien Joux, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bruno Lansard, Edouard Leymarie, Heike Link, Connie Lovejoy, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Johannie Martin, Jacobo Martín, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Vanessa McKague, Alexandre Mignot, William L. Miller, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Alfonso Mucci, Kaori Ono, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Tim Papakyriakou, Marc Picheral, Louis Prieur, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Rick A. Reynolds, André Rochon, Jean-François Rontani, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Yuan Shen, Guisheng Song, Dariusz Stramski, Eri Tachibana, Alexandre Thirouard, Imma Tolosa, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Daniel Vaulot, Frédéric Vaultier, John K. Volkman, Huixiang Xie, Guangming Zheng, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1561–1592,Short summary
The MALINA oceanographic expedition was conducted in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea systems. The sampling was performed across seven shelf–basin transects to capture the meridional gradient between the estuary and the open ocean. The main goal of this research program was to better understand how processes such as primary production are influencing the fate of organic matter originating from the surrounding terrestrial landscape during its transition toward the Arctic Ocean.
Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Bernard Gentili, David Antoine, and David Doxaran
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1697–1709,Short summary
Light is a key ocean variable shaping the composition of benthic and pelagic communities by controlling the three-dimensional distribution of primary producers. It also plays a major role in the global carbon cycle. We provide a continuous monthly data set of the global distribution of light reaching the seabed. It is 4 times longer (21 vs 5 years) than the previous data set, the spatial resolution is better (4.6 vs 9.3 km), and the bathymetric resolution is also better (0.46 vs 3.7 km).
André Valente, Shubha Sathyendranath, Vanda Brotas, Steve Groom, Michael Grant, Malcolm Taberner, David Antoine, Robert Arnone, William M. Balch, Kathryn Barker, Ray Barlow, Simon Bélanger, Jean-François Berthon, Şükrü Beşiktepe, Yngve Borsheim, Astrid Bracher, Vittorio Brando, Elisabetta Canuti, Francisco Chavez, Andrés Cianca, Hervé Claustre, Lesley Clementson, Richard Crout, Robert Frouin, Carlos García-Soto, Stuart W. Gibb, Richard Gould, Stanford B. Hooker, Mati Kahru, Milton Kampel, Holger Klein, Susanne Kratzer, Raphael Kudela, Jesus Ledesma, Hubert Loisel, Patricia Matrai, David McKee, Brian G. Mitchell, Tiffany Moisan, Frank Muller-Karger, Leonie O'Dowd, Michael Ondrusek, Trevor Platt, Alex J. Poulton, Michel Repecaud, Thomas Schroeder, Timothy Smyth, Denise Smythe-Wright, Heidi M. Sosik, Michael Twardowski, Vincenzo Vellucci, Kenneth Voss, Jeremy Werdell, Marcel Wernand, Simon Wright, and Giuseppe Zibordi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1037–1068,Short summary
A compiled set of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the compilation of global bio-optical in situ data (spanning from 1997 to 2018) used for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The compilation merges and harmonizes several in situ data sources into a simple format that could be used directly for the evaluation of satellite-derived ocean-colour data.
Liliane Merlivat, Jacqueline Boutin, David Antoine, Laurence Beaumont, Melek Golbol, and Vincenzo Vellucci
Biogeosciences, 15, 5653–5662,Short summary
The fugacity of carbon dioxide in seawater (fCO2) was measured hourly in the surface waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea during two 3-year sequences separated by 18 years. A decrease of pH of 0.0022 yr−1 was computed. About 85 % of the accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) comes from chemical equilibration with increasing atmospheric CO2; the remaining 15 % accumulation is consistent with estimates of transfer of Atlantic waters through the Gibraltar Strait.
André Valente, Shubha Sathyendranath, Vanda Brotas, Steve Groom, Michael Grant, Malcolm Taberner, David Antoine, Robert Arnone, William M. Balch, Kathryn Barker, Ray Barlow, Simon Bélanger, Jean-François Berthon, Şükrü Beşiktepe, Vittorio Brando, Elisabetta Canuti, Francisco Chavez, Hervé Claustre, Richard Crout, Robert Frouin, Carlos García-Soto, Stuart W. Gibb, Richard Gould, Stanford Hooker, Mati Kahru, Holger Klein, Susanne Kratzer, Hubert Loisel, David McKee, Brian G. Mitchell, Tiffany Moisan, Frank Muller-Karger, Leonie O'Dowd, Michael Ondrusek, Alex J. Poulton, Michel Repecaud, Timothy Smyth, Heidi M. Sosik, Michael Twardowski, Kenneth Voss, Jeremy Werdell, Marcel Wernand, and Giuseppe Zibordi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 235–252,Short summary
A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the compilation of global bio-optical in situ data (spanning from 1997 to 2012) used for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The compilation merges and harmonizes several in situ data sources into a simple format that could be used directly for the evaluation of satellite-derived ocean-colour data.
D. Antoine, S. B. Hooker, S. Bélanger, A. Matsuoka, and M. Babin
Biogeosciences, 10, 4493–4509,
C. Guinet, X. Xing, E. Walker, P. Monestiez, S. Marchand, B. Picard, T. Jaud, M. Authier, C. Cotté, A. C. Dragon, E. Diamond, D. Antoine, P. Lovell, S. Blain, F. D'Ortenzio, and H. Claustre
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 15–29,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Coastal OceanUnprecedented summer hypoxia in southern Cape Cod Bay: an ecological response to regional climate change?Interannual variabilities, long-term trends, and regulating factors of low-oxygen conditions in the coastal waters off Hong KongCauses of the extensive hypoxia in the Gulf of Riga in 2018Trawling effects on biogeochemical processes are mediated by fauna in high-energy biogenic-reef-inhabited coastal sedimentsDrought recorded by Ba∕Ca in coastal benthic foraminiferaA nitrate budget of the Bohai Sea based on an isotope mass balance modelSuspended particulate matter drives the spatial segregation of nitrogen turnover along the hyper-turbid Ems estuaryBenthic Alkalinity fluxes from coastal sediments of the Baltic and North Seas: Comparing approaches and identifying knowledge gapsMarine CO2 system variability along the northeast Pacific Inside Passage determined from an Alaskan ferryReviews and syntheses: Spatial and temporal patterns in seagrass metabolic fluxesMixed layer depth dominates over upwelling in regulating the seasonality of ecosystem functioning in the Peruvian upwelling systemTemporal dynamics of surface ocean carbonate chemistry in response to natural and simulated upwelling events during the 2017 coastal El Niño near Callao, PeruInvestigating the effect of nickel concentration on phytoplankton growth to inform the assessment of ocean alkalinity enhancementContrasting patterns of carbon cycling and dissolved organic matter processing in two phytoplankton–bacteria communitiesBiophysical controls on seasonal changes in the structure, growth, and grazing of the size-fractionated phytoplankton community in the northern South China SeaSeasonal dispersal of fjord meltwaters as an important source of iron and manganese to coastal Antarctic phytoplanktonModeling cyanobacteria life cycle dynamics and historical nitrogen fixation in the Baltic ProperSimultaneous assessment of oxygen- and nitrate-based net community production in a temperate shelf sea from a single ocean gliderReviews and syntheses: Physical and biogeochemical processes associated with upwelling in the Indian OceanParticulate organic carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Lion shelf (NW Mediterranean) using a coupled hydrodynamic–biogeochemical modelTechnical note: Novel triple O2 sensor aquatic eddy covariance instrument with improved time shift correction reveals central role of microphytobenthos for carbon cycling in coral reef sandsLong-term spatiotemporal variations in and expansion of low-oxygen conditions in the Pearl River estuary: a study synthesizing observations during 1976–2017Fe-binding organic ligands in coastal and frontal regions of the western Antarctic PeninsulaTemporal variability and driving factors of the carbonate system in the Aransas Ship Channel, TX, USA: a time series studyNitrogen loss processes in response to upwelling in a Peruvian coastal setting dominated by denitrification – a mesocosm approachRetracing hypoxia in Eckernförde Bight (Baltic Sea)The impact of the freeze–melt cycle of land-fast ice on the distribution of dissolved organic matter in the Laptev and East Siberian seas (Siberian Arctic)The fate of upwelled nitrate off Peru shaped by submesoscale filaments and frontsCoastal processes modify projections of some climate-driven stressors in the California Current SystemUpwelling-induced trace gas dynamics in the Baltic Sea inferred from 8 years of autonomous measurements on a ship of opportunityDestruction and reinstatement of coastal hypoxia in the South China Sea off the Pearl River estuaryHypersaline tidal flats as important “blue carbon” systems: a case study from three ecosystemsDrivers and impact of the seasonal variability of the organic carbon offshore transport in the Canary upwelling systemOrganic carbon densities and accumulation rates in surface sediments of the North Sea and SkagerrakAn observation-based evaluation and ranking of historical Earth system model simulations in the northwest North Atlantic OceanCharacterizing the origins of dissolved organic carbon in coastal seawater using stable carbon isotope and light absorption characteristicsWarming and ocean acidification may decrease estuarine dissolved organic carbon export to the oceanChemical characterization of the Punta de Fuencaliente CO2-enriched system (La Palma, NE Atlantic Ocean): a new natural laboratory for ocean acidification studiesThe seasonal phases of an Arctic lagoon reveal the discontinuities of pH variability and CO2 flux at the air–sea interfaceThe northern European shelf as an increasing net sink for CO2Impacts of biogenic polyunsaturated aldehydes on metabolism and community composition of particle-attached bacteria in coastal hypoxiaA Lagrangian study of the contribution of the Canary coastal upwelling to the nitrogen budget of the open North AtlanticDenitrification by benthic foraminifera and their contribution to N-loss from a fjord environmentA numerical model study of the main factors contributing to hypoxia and its interannual and short-term variability in the East China SeaThe effects of decomposing invasive jellyfish on biogeochemical fluxes and microbial dynamics in an ultra-oligotrophic seaUsing 226Ra and 228Ra isotopes to distinguish water mass distribution in the Canadian Arctic ArchipelagoFactors controlling plankton community production, export flux, and particulate matter stoichiometry in the coastal upwelling system off PeruReconstructing extreme climatic and geochemical conditions during the largest natural mangrove dieback on recordTechnical note: Measurements and data analysis of sediment–water oxygen flux using a new dual-optode eddy covariance instrumentThe impact of intertidal areas on the carbonate system of the southern North Sea
Malcolm E. Scully, W. Rockwell Geyer, David Borkman, Tracy L. Pugh, Amy Costa, and Owen C. Nichols
Biogeosciences, 19, 3523–3536,Short summary
For two consecutive summers, the bottom waters in southern Cape Cod Bay became severely depleted of dissolved oxygen. Low oxygen levels in bottom waters have never been reported in this area before, and this unprecedented occurrence is likely the result of a new algae species that recently began blooming during the late-summer months. We present data suggesting that blooms of this new species are the result of regional climate change including warmer waters and changes in summer winds.
Zheng Chen, Bin Wang, Chuang Xu, Zhongren Zhang, Shiyu Li, and Jiatang Hu
Biogeosciences, 19, 3469–3490,Short summary
Deterioration of low-oxygen conditions in the coastal waters off Hong Kong was revealed by monitoring data over two decades. The declining wind forcing and the increasing nutrient input contributed significantly to the areal expansion and intense deterioration of low-oxygen conditions. Also, the exacerbated eutrophication drove a shift in the dominant source of organic matter from terrestrial inputs to in situ primary production, which has probably led to an earlier onset of hypoxia in summer.
Stella-Theresa Stoicescu, Jaan Laanemets, Taavi Liblik, Māris Skudra, Oliver Samlas, Inga Lips, and Urmas Lips
Biogeosciences, 19, 2903–2920,Short summary
Coastal basins with high input of nutrients often suffer from oxygen deficiency. In summer 2018, the extent of oxygen depletion was exceptional in the Gulf of Riga. We analyzed observational data and found that extensive oxygen deficiency appeared since the water layer close to the seabed, where oxygen is consumed, was separated from the surface layer. The problem worsens if similar conditions restricting vertical transport of oxygen occur more frequently in the future.
Justin C. Tiano, Jochen Depestele, Gert Van Hoey, João Fernandes, Pieter van Rijswijk, and Karline Soetaert
Biogeosciences, 19, 2583–2598,Short summary
This study gives an assessment of bottom trawling on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics in a location known for its strong currents and variable habitats. Although trawl gears only removed the top 1 cm of the seabed surface, impacts on reef-building tubeworms significantly decreased carbon and nutrient cycling. Lighter trawls slightly reduced the impact on fauna and nutrients. Tubeworms were strongly linked to biogeochemical and faunal aspects before but not after trawling.
Inda Brinkmann, Christine Barras, Tom Jilbert, Tomas Næraa, K. Mareike Paul, Magali Schweizer, and Helena L. Filipsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 2523–2535,Short summary
The concentration of the trace metal barium (Ba) in coastal seawater is a function of continental input, such as riverine discharge. Our geochemical records of the severely hot and dry year 2018, and following wet year 2019, reveal that prolonged drought imprints with exceptionally low Ba concentrations in benthic foraminiferal calcium carbonates of coastal sediments. This highlights the potential of benthic Ba / Ca to trace past climate extremes and variability in coastal marine records.
Shichao Tian, Birgit Gaye, Jianhui Tang, Yongming Luo, Wenguo Li, Niko Lahajnar, Kirstin Dähnke, Tina Sanders, Tianqi Xiong, Weidong Zhai, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 19, 2397–2415,Short summary
We constrain the nitrogen budget and in particular the internal sources and sinks of nitrate in the Bohai Sea by using a mass-based and dual stable isotope approach based on δ15N and δ18O of nitrate. Based on available mass fluxes and isotope data an updated nitrogen budget is proposed. Compared to previous estimates, it is more complete and includes the impact of the interior cycle (nitrification) on the nitrate pool. The main external nitrogen sources are rivers contributing 19.2 %–25.6 %.
Gesa Schulz, Tina Sanders, Justus E. E. van Beusekom, Yoana G. Voynova, Andreas Schöl, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 19, 2007–2024,Short summary
Estuaries can significantly alter nutrient loads before reaching coastal waters. Our study of the heavily managed Ems estuary (Northern Germany) reveals three zones of nitrogen turnover along the estuary with water-column denitrification in the most upstream hyper-turbid part, nitrate production in the middle reaches and mixing/nitrate uptake in the North Sea. Suspended particulate matter was the overarching control on nitrogen cycling in the hyper-turbid estuary.
Bryce Van Dam, Nele Lehmann, Mary Zeller, Andreas Neumann, Daniel Pröfrock, Marko Lipka, Helmuth Thomas, and Michael E. Böttcher
We quantified sediment-water exchange at shallow sites in the North and Baltic Seas. We found that porewater irrigation rates in the former were approximately twice as high as previously estimated, likely driven by relatively high bio-irrigative activity. In contrast, we found small net fluxes of alkalinity, ranging from -35 µmol m-2 hr-1 (uptake) to 53 µmol m-2 hr-1 (release). We attribute this to low net denitrification, carbonate mineral (re)precipitation and sulfide (re)oxidation.
Wiley Evans, Geoffrey T. Lebon, Christen D. Harrington, Yuichiro Takeshita, and Allison Bidlack
Biogeosciences, 19, 1277–1301,Short summary
Information on the marine carbon dioxide system along the northeast Pacific Inside Passage has been limited. To address this gap, we instrumented an Alaskan ferry in order to characterize the marine carbon dioxide system in this region. Data over a 2-year period were used to assess drivers of the observed variability, identify the timing of severe conditions, and assess the extent of contemporary ocean acidification as well as future levels consistent with a 1.5 °C warmer climate.
Melissa Ward, Tye L. Kindinger, Heidi K. Hirsh, Tessa M. Hill, Brittany M. Jellison, Sarah Lummis, Emily B. Rivest, George G. Waldbusser, Brian Gaylord, and Kristy J. Kroeker
Biogeosciences, 19, 689–699,Short summary
Here, we synthesize the results from 62 studies reporting in situ rates of seagrass metabolism to highlight spatial and temporal variability in oxygen fluxes and inform efforts to use seagrass to mitigate ocean acidification. Our analyses suggest seagrass meadows are generally autotrophic and variable in space and time, and the effects on seawater oxygen are relatively small in magnitude.
Tianfei Xue, Ivy Frenger, A. E. Friederike Prowe, Yonss Saranga José, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 19, 455–475,Short summary
The Peruvian system supports 10 % of the world's fishing yield. In the Peruvian system, wind and earth’s rotation bring cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface and allow phytoplankton to grow. But observations show that it grows worse at high upwelling. Using a model, we find that high upwelling happens when air mixes the water the most. Then phytoplankton is diluted and grows slowly due to low light and cool upwelled water. This study helps to estimate how it might change in a warming climate.
Shao-Min Chen, Ulf Riebesell, Kai G. Schulz, Elisabeth von der Esch, Eric P. Achterberg, and Lennart T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 295–312,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones in the ocean are characterized by enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and are being further acidified by increasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2. Here we report CO2 system measurements in a mesocosm study offshore Peru during a rare coastal El Niño event to investigate how CO2 dynamics may respond to ongoing ocean deoxygenation. Our observations show that nitrogen limitation, productivity, and plankton community shift play an important role in driving the CO2 dynamics.
Jiaying Abby Guo, Robert Strzepek, Anusuya Willis, Aaron Ferderer, and Lennart Thomas Bach
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement is a carbon removal method, but it may cause a significant perturbation of the ocean with trace metals such as Nickel (Ni). This study tested the effect of increasing Ni concentrations on phytoplankton growth and photosynthesis. We found that the response to Ni varied across the 11 phytoplankton species tested here but the majority were insensitive. This may be due to the use of nitrate as the nitrogen source and due to high ligand concentrations (low Ni2+) in media.
Samu Elovaara, Eeva Eronen-Rasimus, Eero Asmala, Tobias Tamelander, and Hermanni Kaartokallio
Biogeosciences, 18, 6589–6616,Short summary
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a significant carbon pool in the marine environment. The composition of the DOM pool, as well as its interaction with microbes, is complex, yet understanding it is important for understanding global carbon cycling. This study shows that two phytoplankton species have different effects on the composition of the DOM pool and, through the DOM they produce, on the ensuing microbial community. These communities in turn have different effects on DOM composition.
Yuan Dong, Qian P. Li, Zhengchao Wu, Yiping Shuai, Zijia Liu, Zaiming Ge, Weiwen Zhou, and Yinchao Chen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6423–6434,Short summary
Temporal change of plankton growth and grazing are less known in the coastal ocean, not to mention the relevant controlling mechanisms. Here, we performed monthly size-specific dilution experiments outside a eutrophic estuary over a 1-year cycle. Phytoplankton growth was correlated to nutrients and grazing mortality to total chlorophyll a. A selective grazing on small cells may be important for maintaining high abundance of large-chain-forming diatoms in this eutrophic system.
Kiefer O. Forsch, Lisa Hahn-Woernle, Robert M. Sherrell, Vincent J. Roccanova, Kaixuan Bu, David Burdige, Maria Vernet, and Katherine A. Barbeau
Biogeosciences, 18, 6349–6375,Short summary
We show that for an unperturbed cold western Antarctic Peninsula fjord, the seasonality of iron and manganese is linked to the dispersal of metal-rich meltwater sources. Geochemical measurements of trace metals in meltwaters, porewaters, and seawater, collected during two expeditions, showed a seasonal cycle of distinct sources. Finally, model results revealed that the dispersal of surface meltwater and meltwater plumes originating from under the glacier is sensitive to katabatic wind events.
Jenny Hieronymus, Kari Eilola, Malin Olofsson, Inga Hense, H. E. Markus Meier, and Elin Almroth-Rosell
Biogeosciences, 18, 6213–6227,Short summary
Dense blooms of cyanobacteria occur every summer in the Baltic Proper and can add to eutrophication by their ability to turn nitrogen gas into dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Being able to correctly estimate the size of this nitrogen fixation is important for management purposes. In this work, we find that the life cycle of cyanobacteria plays an important role in capturing the seasonality of the blooms as well as the size of nitrogen fixation in our ocean model.
Tom Hull, Naomi Greenwood, Antony Birchill, Alexander Beaton, Matthew Palmer, and Jan Kaiser
Biogeosciences, 18, 6167–6180,Short summary
The shallow shelf seas play a large role in the global cycling of CO2 and also support large fisheries. We use an autonomous underwater vehicle in the central North Sea to measure the rates of change in oxygen and nutrients. Using these data we determine the amount of carbon dioxide taken out of the atmosphere by the sea and measure how productive the region is. These observations will be useful for improving our predictive models and help us predict and adapt to a changing ocean.
Puthenveettil Narayana Menon Vinayachandran, Yukio Masumoto, Michael J. Roberts, Jenny A. Huggett, Issufo Halo, Abhisek Chatterjee, Prakash Amol, Garuda V. M. Gupta, Arvind Singh, Arnab Mukherjee, Satya Prakash, Lynnath E. Beckley, Eric Jorden Raes, and Raleigh Hood
Biogeosciences, 18, 5967–6029,Short summary
Upwelling in the coastal ocean triggers biological productivity and thus enhances fisheries. Therefore, understanding the phenomenon of upwelling and the underlying mechanisms is important. In this paper, the present understanding of the upwelling along the coastline of the Indian Ocean from the coast of Africa all the way up to the coast of Australia is reviewed. The review provides a synthesis of the physical processes associated with upwelling and its impact on the marine ecosystem.
Gaël Many, Caroline Ulses, Claude Estournel, and Patrick Marsaleix
Biogeosciences, 18, 5513–5538,Short summary
The Gulf of Lion shelf is one of the most productive areas in the Mediterranean. A model is used to study the mechanisms that drive the particulate organic carbon (POC). The model reproduces the annual cycle of primary production well. The shelf appears as an autotrophic ecosystem with a high production and as a source of POC for the adjacent basin. The increase in temperature induced by climate change could impact the trophic status of the shelf.
Alireza Merikhi, Peter Berg, and Markus Huettel
Biogeosciences, 18, 5381–5395,Short summary
The aquatic eddy covariance technique is a powerful method for measurements of solute fluxes across the sediment–water interface. Data measured by conventional eddy covariance instruments require a time shift correction that can result in substantial flux errors. We introduce a triple O2 sensor eddy covariance instrument that by design eliminates these errors. Deployments next to a conventional instrument in the Florida Keys demonstrate the improvements achieved through the new design.
Jiatang Hu, Zhongren Zhang, Bin Wang, and Jia Huang
Biogeosciences, 18, 5247–5264,Short summary
In situ observations over 42 years were used to explore the long-term changes to low-oxygen conditions in the Pearl River estuary. Apparent expansion of the low-oxygen conditions in summer was identified, primarily due to the combined effects of increased anthropogenic inputs and decreased sediment load. Large areas of severe low-oxygen events were also observed in early autumn and were formed by distinct mechanisms. The estuary seems to be growing into a seasonal, estuary-wide hypoxic zone.
Indah Ardiningsih, Kyyas Seyitmuhammedov, Sylvia G. Sander, Claudine H. Stirling, Gert-Jan Reichart, Kevin R. Arrigo, Loes J. A. Gerringa, and Rob Middag
Biogeosciences, 18, 4587–4601,Short summary
Organic Fe speciation is investigated along a natural gradient of the western Antarctic Peninsula from an ice-covered shelf to the open ocean. The two major fronts in the region affect the distribution of ligands. The excess ligands not bound to dissolved Fe (DFe) comprised up to 80 % of the total ligand concentrations, implying the potential to solubilize additional Fe input. The ligands on the shelf can increase the DFe residence time and fuel local primary production upon ice melt.
Melissa R. McCutcheon, Hongming Yao, Cory J. Staryk, and Xinping Hu
Biogeosciences, 18, 4571–4586,Short summary
We used 5+ years of discrete samples and 10 months of hourly sensor measurements to explore temporal variability and environmental controls on pH and pCO2 at the Aransas Ship Channel. Seasonal and diel variability were both present but small compared to other regions in the literature. Despite the small tidal range, tidal control often surpassed biological control. In comparison with sensor data, discrete samples were generally representative of mean annual and seasonal carbonate chemistry.
Kai G. Schulz, Eric P. Achterberg, Javier Arístegui, Lennart T. Bach, Isabel Baños, Tim Boxhammer, Dirk Erler, Maricarmen Igarza, Verena Kalter, Andrea Ludwig, Carolin Löscher, Jana Meyer, Judith Meyer, Fabrizio Minutolo, Elisabeth von der Esch, Bess B. Ward, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 18, 4305–4320,Short summary
Upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters to the surface make eastern boundary upwelling systems hot spots of marine productivity. This leads to subsurface oxygen depletion and the transformation of bioavailable nitrogen into inert N2. Here we quantify nitrogen loss processes following a simulated deep water upwelling. Denitrification was the dominant process, and budget calculations suggest that a significant portion of nitrogen that could be exported to depth is already lost in the surface ocean.
Heiner Dietze and Ulrike Löptien
Biogeosciences, 18, 4243–4264,Short summary
In recent years fish-kill events caused by oxygen deficit have been reported in Eckernförde Bight (Baltic Sea). This study sets out to understand the processes causing respective oxygen deficits by combining high-resolution coupled ocean circulation biogeochemical modeling, monitoring data, and artificial intelligence.
Jens A. Hölemann, Bennet Juhls, Dorothea Bauch, Markus Janout, Boris P. Koch, and Birgit Heim
Biogeosciences, 18, 3637–3655,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean receives large amounts of river water rich in terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM), which is an important component of the Arctic carbon cycle. Our analysis shows that mixing of three major freshwater sources is the main factor that regulates the distribution of tDOM concentrations in the Siberian shelf seas. In this context, the formation and melting of the land-fast ice in the Laptev Sea and the peak spring discharge of the Lena River are of particular importance.
Jaard Hauschildt, Soeren Thomsen, Vincent Echevin, Andreas Oschlies, Yonss Saranga José, Gerd Krahmann, Laura A. Bristow, and Gaute Lavik
Biogeosciences, 18, 3605–3629,Short summary
In this paper we quantify the subduction of upwelled nitrate due to physical processes on the order of several kilometers in the coastal upwelling off Peru and its effect on primary production. We also compare the prepresentation of these processes in a high-resolution simulation (~2.5 km) with a more coarsely resolved simulation (~12 km). To do this, we combine high-resolution shipboard observations of physical and biogeochemical parameters with a complex biogeochemical model configuration.
Samantha A. Siedlecki, Darren Pilcher, Evan M. Howard, Curtis Deutsch, Parker MacCready, Emily L. Norton, Hartmut Frenzel, Jan Newton, Richard A. Feely, Simone R. Alin, and Terrie Klinger
Biogeosciences, 18, 2871–2890,Short summary
Future ocean conditions can be simulated using projected trends in fossil fuel use paired with Earth system models. Global models generally do not include local processes important to coastal ecosystems. These coastal processes can alter the degree of change projected. Higher-resolution models that include local processes predict modified changes in carbon stressors when compared to changes projected by global models in the California Current System.
Erik Jacobs, Henry C. Bittig, Ulf Gräwe, Carolyn A. Graves, Michael Glockzin, Jens D. Müller, Bernd Schneider, and Gregor Rehder
Biogeosciences, 18, 2679–2709,Short summary
We use a unique data set of 8 years of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) surface water measurements from a commercial ferry to study upwelling in the Baltic Sea. Its seasonality and regional and interannual variability are examined. Strong upwelling events drastically increase local surface CO2 and CH4 levels and are mostly detected in late summer after long periods of impaired mixing. We introduce an extrapolation method to estimate regional upwelling-induced trace gas fluxes.
Yangyang Zhao, Khanittha Uthaipan, Zhongming Lu, Yan Li, Jing Liu, Hongbin Liu, Jianping Gan, Feifei Meng, and Minhan Dai
Biogeosciences, 18, 2755–2775,Short summary
In situ oxygen consumption rates were estimated for the first time during destruction of coastal hypoxia as disturbed by a typhoon and its reinstatement in the South China Sea off the Pearl River estuary. The reinstatement of summer hypoxia was rapid with a comparable timescale with that of its initial disturbance from frequent tropical cyclones, which has important implications for better understanding the intermittent nature of coastal hypoxia and its prediction in a changing climate.
Dylan R. Brown, Humberto Marotta, Roberta B. Peixoto, Alex Enrich-Prast, Glenda C. Barroso, Mario L. G. Soares, Wilson Machado, Alexander Pérez, Joseph M. Smoak, Luciana M. Sanders, Stephen Conrad, James Z. Sippo, Isaac R. Santos, Damien T. Maher, and Christian J. Sanders
Biogeosciences, 18, 2527–2538,Short summary
Hypersaline tidal flats (HTFs) are coastal ecosystems with freshwater deficits often occurring in arid or semi-arid regions near mangrove supratidal zones with no major fluvial contributions. This study shows that HTFs are important carbon and nutrient sinks which may be significant given their extensive coverage. Our findings highlight a previously unquantified carbon as well as a nutrient sink and suggest that coastal HTF ecosystems could be included in the emerging blue carbon framework.
Giulia Bonino, Elisa Lovecchio, Nicolas Gruber, Matthias Münnich, Simona Masina, and Doroteaciro Iovino
Biogeosciences, 18, 2429–2448,Short summary
Seasonal variations of processes such as upwelling and biological production that happen along the northwestern African coast can modulate the temporal variability of the biological activity of the adjacent open North Atlantic hundreds of kilometers away from the coast thanks to the lateral transport of coastal organic carbon. This happens with a temporal delay, which is smaller than a season up to roughly 500 km from the coast due to the intense transport by small-scale filaments.
Markus Diesing, Terje Thorsnes, and Lilja Rún Bjarnadóttir
Biogeosciences, 18, 2139–2160,Short summary
The upper 10 cm of the seafloor of the North Sea and Skagerrak contain 231×106 t of carbon in organic form. The Norwegian Trough, the deepest sedimentary basin in the studied area, stands out as a zone of strong organic carbon accumulation with rates on par with neighbouring fjords. Conversely, large parts of the North Sea are characterised by rapid organic carbon degradation and negligible accumulation. This dual character is likely typical for continental shelf sediments worldwide.
Arnaud Laurent, Katja Fennel, and Angela Kuhn
Biogeosciences, 18, 1803–1822,Short summary
CMIP5 and CMIP6 models, and a high-resolution regional model, were evaluated by comparing historical simulations with observations in the northwest North Atlantic, a climate-sensitive and biologically productive ocean margin region. Many of the CMIP models performed poorly for biological properties. There is no clear link between model resolution and skill in the global models, but there is an overall improvement in performance in CMIP6 from CMIP5. The regional model performed best.
Heejun Han, Jeomshik Hwang, and Guebuem Kim
Biogeosciences, 18, 1793–1801,Short summary
The main source of excess DOC occurring in coastal seawater off an artificial lake, which is enclosed by a dike along the western coast of South Korea, was determined using a combination of various biogeochemical tools including DOC and nutrient concentrations, stable carbon isotope, and optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter in two different seasons (March 2017 and September 2018).
Michelle N. Simone, Kai G. Schulz, Joanne M. Oakes, and Bradley D. Eyre
Biogeosciences, 18, 1823–1838,Short summary
Estuaries are responsible for a large contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the global C cycle, but it is unknown how this will change in the future. DOC fluxes from unvegetated sediments were investigated ex situ subject to conditions of warming and ocean acidification. The future climate shifted sediment fluxes from a slight DOC source to a significant sink, with global coastal DOC export decreasing by 80 %. This has global implications for C cycling and long-term C storage.
Sara González-Delgado, David González-Santana, Magdalena Santana-Casiano, Melchor González-Dávila, Celso A. Hernández, Carlos Sangil, and José Carlos Hernández
Biogeosciences, 18, 1673–1687,Short summary
We describe the carbon system dynamics of a new CO2 seep system located off the coast of La Palma. We explored for over a year, finding points with lower levels of pH and alkalinity; high levels of carbon; and poorer levels of aragonite and calcite, both essential for calcifying species. The seeps are a key feature for robust experimental designs, aimed at comprehending how life has persisted through past eras or at predicting the consequences of ocean acidification in the marine realm.
Cale A. Miller, Christina Bonsell, Nathan D. McTigue, and Amanda L. Kelley
Biogeosciences, 18, 1203–1221,Short summary
We report here the first year-long high-frequency pH data set for an Arctic lagoon that captures ice-free and ice-covered seasons. pH and salinity correlation varies by year as we observed positive correlation and independence. Photosynthesis is found to drive high pH values, and small changes in underwater solar radiation can result in rapid decreases in pH. We estimate that arctic lagoons may act as sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially offsetting the Arctic Ocean's CO2 sink capacity.
Meike Becker, Are Olsen, Peter Landschützer, Abdirhaman Omar, Gregor Rehder, Christian Rödenbeck, and Ingunn Skjelvan
Biogeosciences, 18, 1127–1147,Short summary
We developed a simple method to refine existing open-ocean maps towards different coastal seas. Using a multi-linear regression, we produced monthly maps of surface ocean fCO2 in the northern European coastal seas (the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Norwegian Coast and the Barents Sea) covering a time period from 1998 to 2016. Based on this fCO2 map, we calculate trends in surface ocean fCO2, pH and the air–sea gas exchange.
Zhengchao Wu, Qian P. Li, Zaiming Ge, Bangqin Huang, and Chunming Dong
Biogeosciences, 18, 1049–1065,Short summary
Seasonal hypoxia in the nearshore bottom waters frequently occurs in the Pearl River estuary. Aerobic respiration is the ultimate cause of local hypoxia. We found an elevated level of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the bottom water outside the estuary, which promoted the growth and metabolism of special groups of particle-attached bacteria and thus contributed to oxygen depletion in hypoxic waters. Our results may be important for understanding coastal hypoxia and its linkages to eutrophication.
Derara Hailegeorgis, Zouhair Lachkar, Christoph Rieper, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 18, 303–325,Short summary
Using a Lagrangian modeling approach, this study provides a quantitative analysis of water and nitrogen offshore transport in the Canary Current System. We investigate the timescales, reach and structure of offshore transport and demonstrate that the Canary upwelling is a key source of nutrients to the open North Atlantic Ocean. Our findings stress the need for improving the representation of the Canary system and other eastern boundary upwelling systems in global coarse-resolution models.
Constance Choquel, Emmanuelle Geslin, Edouard Metzger, Helena L. Filipsson, Nils Risgaard-Petersen, Patrick Launeau, Manuel Giraud, Thierry Jauffrais, Bruno Jesus, and Aurélia Mouret
Biogeosciences, 18, 327–341,Short summary
Marine microorganisms such as foraminifera are able to live temporarily without oxygen in sediments. In a Swedish fjord subjected to seasonal oxygen scarcity, a change in fauna linked to the decrease in oxygen and the increase in an invasive species was shown. The invasive species respire nitrate until 100 % of the nitrate porewater in the sediment and could be a major contributor to nitrogen balance in oxic coastal ecosystems. But prolonged hypoxia creates unfavorable conditions to survive.
Haiyan Zhang, Katja Fennel, Arnaud Laurent, and Changwei Bian
Biogeosciences, 17, 5745–5761,Short summary
In coastal seas, low oxygen, which is detrimental to coastal ecosystems, is increasingly caused by man-made nutrients from land. This is especially so near mouths of major rivers, including the Changjiang in the East China Sea. Here a simulation model is used to identify the main factors determining low-oxygen conditions in the region. High river discharge is identified as the prime cause, while wind and intrusions of open-ocean water modulate the severity and extent of low-oxygen conditions.
Tamar Guy-Haim, Maxim Rubin-Blum, Eyal Rahav, Natalia Belkin, Jacob Silverman, and Guy Sisma-Ventura
Biogeosciences, 17, 5489–5511,Short summary
The availability of nutrients in oligotrophic marine ecosystems is limited. Following jellyfish blooms, large die-off events result in the release of high amounts of nutrients to the water column and sediment. Our study assessed the decomposition effects of an infamous invasive jellyfish in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea. We found that jellyfish decomposition favored heterotrophic bacteria and altered biogeochemical fluxes, further impoverishing this nutrient-poor ecosystem.
Chantal Mears, Helmuth Thomas, Paul B. Henderson, Matthew A. Charette, Hugh MacIntyre, Frank Dehairs, Christophe Monnin, and Alfonso Mucci
Biogeosciences, 17, 4937–4959,Short summary
Major research initiatives have been undertaken within the Arctic Ocean, highlighting this area's global importance and vulnerability to climate change. In 2015, the international GEOTRACES program addressed this importance by devoting intense research activities to the Arctic Ocean. Among various tracers, we used radium and carbonate system data to elucidate the functioning and vulnerability of the hydrographic regime of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, bridging the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Lennart Thomas Bach, Allanah Joy Paul, Tim Boxhammer, Elisabeth von der Esch, Michelle Graco, Kai Georg Schulz, Eric Achterberg, Paulina Aguayo, Javier Arístegui, Patrizia Ayón, Isabel Baños, Avy Bernales, Anne Sophie Boegeholz, Francisco Chavez, Gabriela Chavez, Shao-Min Chen, Kristin Doering, Alba Filella, Martin Fischer, Patricia Grasse, Mathias Haunost, Jan Hennke, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Mark Hopwood, Maricarmen Igarza, Verena Kalter, Leila Kittu, Peter Kohnert, Jesus Ledesma, Christian Lieberum, Silke Lischka, Carolin Löscher, Andrea Ludwig, Ursula Mendoza, Jana Meyer, Judith Meyer, Fabrizio Minutolo, Joaquin Ortiz Cortes, Jonna Piiparinen, Claudia Sforna, Kristian Spilling, Sonia Sanchez, Carsten Spisla, Michael Sswat, Mabel Zavala Moreira, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 17, 4831–4852,Short summary
The eastern boundary upwelling system off Peru is among Earth's most productive ocean ecosystems, but the factors that control its functioning are poorly constrained. Here we used mesocosms, moored ~ 6 km offshore Peru, to investigate how processes in plankton communities drive key biogeochemical processes. We show that nutrient and light co-limitation keep productivity and export at a remarkably constant level while stoichiometry changes strongly with shifts in plankton community structure.
James Z. Sippo, Isaac R. Santos, Christian J. Sanders, Patricia Gadd, Quan Hua, Catherine E. Lovelock, Nadia S. Santini, Scott G. Johnston, Yota Harada, Gloria Reithmeir, and Damien T. Maher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4707–4726,Short summary
In 2015–2016, a massive mangrove dieback event occurred along ~1000 km of coastline in Australia. Multiple lines of evidence from climate data, wood and sediment samples suggest low water availability within the dead mangrove forest. Wood and sediments also reveal a large increase in iron concentrations in mangrove sediments during the dieback. This study supports the hypothesis that the forest dieback was associated with low water availability driven by a climate-change-related ENSO event.
Markus Huettel, Peter Berg, and Alireza Merikhi
Biogeosciences, 17, 4459–4476,Short summary
Oxygen fluxes are a valued proxy for organic carbon production and mineralization at the seafloor. These fluxes can be measured non-invasively with the aquatic eddy covariance instrument, but the fast, fragile oxygen sensor it uses often causes questionable flux data. We developed a dual-O2-optode instrument and data evaluation method that allow improved flux measurements. Deployments over carbonate sands in the shallow shelf demonstrate that the instrument can produce reliable oxygen flux data.
Fabian Schwichtenberg, Johannes Pätsch, Michael Ernst Böttcher, Helmuth Thomas, Vera Winde, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 17, 4223–4245,Short summary
Ocean acidification has a range of potentially harmful consequences for marine organisms. It is related to total alkalinity (TA) mainly produced in oxygen-poor situations like sediments in tidal flats. TA reduces the sensitivity of a water body to acidification. The decomposition of organic material and subsequent TA release in the tidal areas of the North Sea (Wadden Sea) is responsible for reduced acidification in the southern North Sea. This is shown with the results of an ecosystem model.
Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W.: ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute global relief model: Procedures, data sources and analysis, NOAA Tech. Memo. NESDIS NGDC-24, (March), 19, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.769615, 2009.
Antoine, D. and André, M.: Algal pigment distribution and primary production in the eastern Mediterranean as derived from coastal zone color scanner observations, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 193–209, 1995.
Antoine, D. and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production, 1. Adaptation of a spectral light-photosynthesis model in view of application to satellite chlorophyll observations, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 43–55, 1996.
Antoine, D., André, J.-M. and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production 2, Estimation at global scale from satellite (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) chlorophyll, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 57–69, https://doi.org/10.1029/95GB02832, 1996.
Barale, V., Jaquet, J. M., and Ndiaye, M.: Algal blooming patterns and anomalies in the Mediterranean Sea as derived from the SeaWiFS data set (1998–2003), Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 3300–3313, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2007.10.014, 2008.
Basterretxea, G., Tovar-Sanchez, A., Beck, A. J., Masqué, P., Bokuniewicz, H. J., Coffey, R., Duarte, C. M., Garcia-Orellana, J., Garcia-Solsona, E., Martinez-Ribes, L., and Vaquer-Sunyer, R.: Submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal environment of a Mediterranean island (Majorca, Spain): Ecosystem and biogeochemical significance, Ecosystems, 13, 629–643, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-010-9334-5, 2010.
Basterretxea, G., Font-Muñoz, J. S., Salgado-Hernanz, P. M., Arrieta, J., and Hernández-Carrasco, I.: Patterns of chlorophyll interannual variability in Mediterranean biogeographical regions, Remote Sens. Environ., 215, 7–17, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.05.027, 2018.
Bauer, J. E., Cai, W., Raymond, P. A., Bianchi, T. S., Hopkinson, C. S., and Regnier, P. A. G.: The changing carbon cycle of the coastal ocean, Nature, 504, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12857, 2013.
Behrenfeld, M. J., O'Malley, R. T., Siegel, D. A., McClain, C. R., Sarmiento, J. L., Feldman, G. C., Milligan, A. J., Falkowski, P. G., Letelier, R. M., and Boss, E. S.: Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity, Nature, 444, 752–755, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05317, 2006.
Béjaoui, B., Ben Ismail, S., Othmani, A., Ben Abdallah-Ben Hadj Hamida, O., Chevalier, C., Feki-Sahnoun, W., Harzallah, A., Ben Hadj Hamida, N., Bouaziz, R., Dahech, S., Diaz, F., Tounsi, K., Sammari, C., Pagano, M., and Bel Hassen, M.: Synthesis review of the Gulf of Gabes (eastern Mediterranean Sea, Tunisia): Morphological, climatic, physical oceanographic, biogeochemical and fisheries features, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 219, 395–408, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2019.01.006, 2019.
Belgrano, A., Lindahl, O., and Hernroth, B.: North Atlantic Oscillation primary productivity and toxic phytoplankton in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden (1986–1996), R. Soc. Publ., 266, 425–430, 2008.
Ben Mustapha, Z., Alvain, S., Jamet, C., Loisel, H., and Dessailly, D.: Automatic classification of water-leaving radiance anomalies from global SeaWiFS imagery: Application to the detection of phytoplankton groups in open ocean waters, Remote Sens. Environ., 146, 97–112, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2013.08.046, 2014.
Berthon, J. F. and Zibordi, G.: Bio-optical relationships for the northern Adriatic Sea, Int. J. Remote Sens., 25, 1527–1532, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160310001592544, 2004.
Bethoux, J. P.: Oxygen consumption, new production, vertical advection and environmental evolution in the Mediterranean Sea, Deep-Sea Res., 36, 769–781, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(89)90150-7, 1989.
Béthoux, J. P., Morin, P., Chaumery, C., Connan, O., Gentili, B., and Ruiz-Pino, D.: Nutrients in the Mediterranean Sea, mass balance and statistical analysis of concentrations with respect to environmental change, Mar. Chem., 63, 155–169, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(98)00059-0, 1998.
Beusen, A. H. W., Bouwman, A. F., Van Beek, L. P. H., Mogollón, J. M., and Middelburg, J. J.: Global riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the 20th century despite increased retention along the aquatic continuum, Biogeosciences, 13, 2441–2451, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-2441-2016, 2016.
Boldrin, A., Miserocchi, S., Rabitti, S., Turchetto, M. M., Balboni, V., and Socal, G.: Particulate matter in the southern Adriatic and Ionian Sea: Characterisation and downward fluxes, J. Marine Syst., 33–34, 389–410, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00068-4, 2002.
Bosc, E., Bricaud, A., and Antoine, D.: Seasonal and interannual variability in algal biomass and primary production in the Mediterranean Sea, as derived from 4 years of SeaWiFS observations, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 18, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003gb002034, 2004.
Bricaud, A., Bosc, E., and Antoine, D.: Algal biomass and sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Basin, Remote Sens. Environ., 81, 163–178, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(01)00335-2, 2002.
Cai, W.: Estuarine and coastal ocean Carbon paradox: CO2 sinks or sites of terrestrial carbon incineration?, Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 3, 123–45, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-120709-142723, 2011.
Campbell, J., Antoine, D., Armstrong, R., Arrigo, K., Balch, W., Barber, R., Behrenfeld, M., Bidigare, R., Bishop, J., Carr, M., Esaias, W., Falkowski, P., Hoepffner, N., Iverson, R., Kiefer, D., Lohrenz, S., and Marra, J.: Comparison of algorithms for estimating ocean primary production from surface chlorophyll, temperature, and irradiance, Global Biochem. Cy., 16, 419–422, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/7.1.57, 2002.
Capuzzo, E., Lynam, C. P., Barry, J., Stephens, D., Forster, R. M., Greenwood, N., McQuatters-Gollop, A., Silva, T., van Leeuwen, S. M., and Engelhard, G. H.: A decline in primary production in the North Sea over 25 years, associated with reductions in zooplankton abundance and fish stock recruitment, Glob. Chang. Biol., 24, e352–e364, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13916, 2018.
Carlson, C. A., Bates, N. R., Hansell, D. A., and Steinberg, D. K.: Carbon cycle, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 390–400, Elsevier Ltd., 2001.
Carr, M. E., Friedrichs, M. A. M., Schmeltz, M., Noguchi Aita, M., Antoine, D., Arrigo, K. R., Asanuma, I., Aumont, O., Barber, R., Behrenfeld, M., Bidigare, R., Buitenhuis, E. T., Campbell, J., Ciotti, A., Dierssen, H., Dowell, M., Dunne, J., Esaias, W., Gentili, B., Gregg, W., Groom, S., Hoepffner, N., Ishizaka, J., Kameda, T., Le Quéré, C., Lohrenz, S., Marra, J., Mélin, F., Moore, K., Morel, A., Reddy, T. E., Ryan, J., Scardi, M., Smyth, T., Turpie, K., Tilstone, G., Waters, K., and Yamanaka, Y.: A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 53, 741–770, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.01.028, 2006.
Cebrian, J.: Variability and control of carbon consumption, export, and accumulation in marine communities, Limnol. Oceanogr., 47, 11–22, 2002.
Charantonis, A. A., Badran, F., and Thiria, S.: Retrieving the evolution of vertical profiles of Chlorophyll-a from satellite observations using Hidden Markov Models and Self-Organizing Topological Maps, Remote Sens. Environ., 163, 229–239, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.03.019, 2015.
Chassot, E., Bonhommeau, S., Dulvy, N. K., Mélin, F., Watson, R., Gascuel, D., and Le Pape, O.: Global marine primary production constrains fisheries catches, Ecol. Lett., 13, 495–505, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01443.x, 2010.
Chavez, F. P., Messi, M., and Pennington, J. T.: Marine primary production in relation to climate bariability and change, Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 3, 227–260, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163917, 2011.
Civitarese, G., Gačić, M., Lipizer, M., and Eusebi Borzelli, G. L.: On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS) on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean), Biogeosciences, 7, 3987–3997, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-3987-2010, 2010.
Cloern, J. E. and Jassby, A. D.: Complex seasonal patterns of primary producers at the land-sea interface, Ecol. Lett., 11, 1294–1303, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01244.x, 2008.
Cloern, J. E., Jassby, A. D., Thompson, J. K., and Hieb, K. A.: A cold phase of the East Pacific triggers new phytoplankton blooms in San Francisco Bay, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 18561–18565, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0706151104, 2007.
Cole, J. J., Prairie, Y. T., Caraco, N. F., Mcdowell, W. H., Tranvik, L. J., Striegl, R. G., Duarte, C. M., Kortelainen, P., Downing, J. A., Middelburg, J. J. and Melack, J.: Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget, Ecosystems, 10, 171–184, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-006-9013-8, 2007.
Colella, S., D'Ortenzio, F., Marullo, S., Santoleri, R., Ragni, M., and D'Alcala, M. R.: Primary production variability in the Mediterranean Sea from SeaWiFS data, in: Primary production variability in the Mediterranean Sea from SeaWiFS data, vol. 5233, pp. 371–383, Proceedings of SPIE – The International Society for Optical Engineering., 2003.
Colella, S., Falcini, F., Rinaldi, E., Sammartino, M., and Santoleri, R.: Mediterranean ocean colour chlorophyll trends, PLoS One, 11, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155756, 2016.
Coll, M., Piroddi, C., Steenbeek, J. G., Kaschner, K., Froglia, C., Guilhaumon, F., Coll, M., Piroddi, C., Steenbeek, J., Kaschner, K., Ben, F., Lasram, R., Ballesteros, E., Bianchi, C. N., Corbera, J., Dailianis, T., Kesner-reyes, K., Kitsos, M., Rius-barile, J., Martin, D., Mouillot, D., Oro, D., Turon, X., Villanueva, R., and Voultsiadou, E.: The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, patterns and threats, PLoS One, 5, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011842, 2010.
Conan, P., Pujo-Pay, M., Raimbault, P., and Leveau, M.: Variabilité hydrologique et biologique du golfe du Lion. II. Productivité sur le bord interne du courant, Oceanol. Acta, 21, 767–782, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0399-1784(99)80004-8, 1998.
Conley, D. J., Paerl, H. W., Howarth, R. W., Boesch, D. F., Seitzinger, S. P., Havens, K. E., Lancelot, C., and Likens, G. E.: Controlling Eutrophication: Nitrogen and Phosphorus, Science 323, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1167755, 2009.
Cramer, W., Guiot, J., Fader, M., Garrabou, J., Gattuso, J. P., Iglesias, A., Lange, M. A., Lionello, P., Llasat, M. C., Paz, S., Peñuelas, J., Snoussi, M., Toreti, A., Tsimplis, M. N., and Xoplaki, E.: Climate change and interconnected risks to sustainable development in the Mediterranean, Nat. Clim. Chang., 8, 972–980, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0299-2, 2018.
Criado-Aldeanueva, F. and Soto-Navarro, F. J.: The mediterranean oscillation teleconnection index: Station-based versus principal component paradigms, Adv. Meteorol., 2013, https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/738501, 2013.
Cushman-Roisin, B., Gačić, M., Poulain, P.-M. and Artegiani, A.: Physical Oceanography of the Adriatic Sea. Past, Present and Future, Kluwer Academic Publishers., 2001.
D'Alimonte, D. and Zibordi, G.: Phytoplankton determination in an optically complex coastal region using a multilayer perceptron neural network, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 41, 2861–2868, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2003.817682, 2003.
Deegan, L. A., Johnson, D. S., Warren, R. S., Peterson, B. J., Fleeger, J. W., Fagherazzi, S., and Wollheim, W. M.: Coastal eutrophication as a driver of salt marsh loss, Nature, 490, 388–392, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11533, 2012.
Djakovac, T., Degobbis, D., Supic, N., Precali, R., Supić, N., and Precali, R.: Marked reduction of eutrophication pressure in the northeastern Adriatic in the period 2000–2009, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 115, 25–32, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.03.029, 2012.
Drira, Z., Hamza, A., Belhassen, M., and Ayadi, H.: Dynamics of dinoflagellates and environmental factors during the summer in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea), Sci. Mar., 72, 59–71, 2008.
Ducklow, H. W., Steinberg, D. K., and Buesseler, K. O.: Upper ocean carbon export and the Biological Pump, Oceanography, 14, 50–58, 2001.
Ducklow, H. and McCallister, S. L.: The biogeochemistry of carbon dioxide in the coastal oceans, in The sea, Harvard University Press, 13, 269–315, 2004.
Dunne, J. P., Sarmiento, J. L., and Gnanadesikan, A.: A synthesis of global particle export from the surface ocean and cycling through the ocean interior and on the seafloor, Global Biochem. Cy., 21, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GB002907, 2007.
Durrieu De Madron, X., Houpert, L., Puig, P., Sanchez-Vidal, A., Testor, P., Bosse, A., Estournel, C., Somot, S., Bourrin, F., Bouin, M. N., Beauverger, M., Beguery, L., Calafat, A., Canals, M., Cassou, C., Coppola, L., Dausse, D., D'Ortenzio, F., Font, J., Heussner, S., Kunesch, S., Lefevre, D., Le Goff, H., Martín, J., Mortier, L., Palanques, A., and Raimbault, P.: Interaction of dense shelf water cascading and open-sea convection in the northwestern Mediterranean during winter 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1379–1385, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50331, 2013.
EEA: Europe's Environment – The Dobris Assessment, available from: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/92-826-5409-5 (last access: 1 October 2020), 1995.
Efthymiadis, D., Goodess, C. M., and Jones, P. D.: Trends in Mediterranean gridded temperature extremes and large-scale circulation influences, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 2199–2214, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-11-2199-2011, 2011.
Estrada, M.: Primary production in the northwestern Mediterranean, Sci. Mar., 60, 55–64, 1996.
Farikou, O., Sawadogo, S., Niang, A., Diouf, D., Brajard, J., Mejia, C., Dandonneau, Y., Gasc, G., Crepon, M., and Thiria, S.: Inferring the seasonal evolution of phytoplankton groups in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region from satellite ocean-color spectral measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 120, 6581–6601, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JC010738, 2015.
Field, C. B., Behrenfeld, M. J. and Randerson, J. T.: Primary Production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components, Science, 281, 237–240, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.281.5374.237, 1998.
Friedrichs, M. A. M., Carr, M., Barber, R. T., Scardi, M., Antoine, D., Armstrong, R. A., Asanuma, I., Behrenfeld, M. J., Buitenhuis, E. T., Chai, F., Christian, J. R., Ciotti, A. M., Doney, S. C., Dowell, M., Dunne, J., Gentili, B., Gregg, W., Hoepffner, N., Ishizaka, J., Kameda, T., Lima, I., Marra, J., Mélin, F., Moore, J. K., Morel, A., Malley, R. T. O., Reilly, J. O., Saba, V. S., Schmeltz, M., Smyth, T. J., Tjiputra, J., Waters, K., Westberry, T. K., and Winguth, A.: Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Marine Syst., 76, 113–133, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.010, 2009.
Font, J., Puig, P., Salat, J., Palanques, A., and Emelianov, M.: Sequence of hydrographic changes in NW mediterranean deep water due to the exceptional winter of 2005, Sci. Mar., 71, 339–346, https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2007.71n2339, 2007.
Garcia-gorriz, E. and Carr, M. E.: Physical control of phytoplankton distributions in the Alboran Sea: A numerical and satellite approach, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 106, 16795–16805, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999jc000029, 2001.
Gasol, J. M., Cardelús, C., Morán, X. A. G., Balagué, V., Forn, I., Marrasé, C., Massana, R., Pedrós-Alió, C., Sala, M. M., Simó, R., Vaqué, D., and Estrada, M.: Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site | Regularidades estacionales en la producción primaria y los parámetros fotosintéticos en una estación costera del NO Mediterráneo, Sci. Mar., 80, 63–77, https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04480.06E, 2016.
Gattuso, J. P., Frankignoulle, M., and Wollast, R.: Carbon and carbonate metabolism in coastal aquatic ecosystems, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 29, 405–434, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.29.1.405, 1998.
Giani, M., Djakovac, T., Degobbis, D., Cozzi, S., Solidoro, C., and Umani, S. F.: Recent changes in the marine ecosystems of the northern Adriatic Sea, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 115, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.08.023, 2012.
Goffart, A., Hecq, J. H., and Legendre, L.: Changes in the development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Calvi (NW Mediterranean) over the last two decades: A response to changing climate?, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 236, 45–60, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps236045, 2002.
Grbec, B., Morović, M., Beg Paklar, G., Kušpilić, G., Matijević, S., Matić, F., and Gladan, Ž. N.: The relationship between the atmospheric variability and productivity in the adriatic Sea area, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 89, 1549–1558, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315409000708, 2009.
Gregg, W. W., Conkright, M. E., Ginoux, P., O'Reilly, J. E., and Casey, N. W.: Ocean primary production and climate: Global decadal changes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 10–13, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL016889, 2003.
Hamza-Chaffai, A., Amiard-Triquet, C., and El Abed, A.: Metallothionein-like protein: Is it an efficient biomarker of metal contamination? A case study based on fish from the Tunisian coast, Arch. Environ. Con. Tox., 33, 53–62, https://doi.org/10.1007/s002449900223, 1997.
Hernández-Carrasco, I. and Orfila, A.: The Role of an Intense Front on the Connectivity of the Western Mediterranean Sea: The Cartagena-Tenes Front, J. Geophys. Res. Ocean., 123, 4398–4422, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017JC013613, 2018.
Henson, S. A., Sarmiento, J. L., Dunne, J. P., Bopp, L., Lima, I., Doney, S. C., John, J., and Beaulieu, C.: Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity, Biogeosciences, 7, 621–640, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-621-2010, 2010.
Herut, B., Collier, R., and Krom, M. D.: The role of dust in supplying nitrogen and phosphorus to the Southeast Mediterranean, Limnol. Oceanogr., 47, 870–878, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2002.47.3.0870, 2002.
Hurrell, J. W.: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation, Science, 269, 7–10, 1995.
Hurrell, J. W. and Van Loon, H.: Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic oscillation, Clim. Change, 36, 301–326, https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1005314315270, 1997.
Kahru, M., Brotas, V., Manzano-Sarabia, M., and Mitchell, B. G.: Are phytoplankton blooms occurring earlier in the Arctic?, Glob. Change Biol., 17, 1733–1739, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02312.x, 2011.
Katlane, R., Nechad, B., Ruddick, K., and Zargouni, F.: Optical remote sensing of turbidity and total suspended matter in the Gulf of Gabes, Arab. J. Geosci., 6, 1527–1535, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-011-0438-9, 2011.
Kohonen, T.: Self-organized Formation of topologically correct feature maps, Biol. Cybern., 43, 59–69, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00337288, 1982.
Kohonen, T.: Self-Organizing Maps, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelbergh, Berlin Heidelberg, 2001.
Kress, N. and Herut, B.: Spatial and seasonal evolution of dissolved oxygen and nutrients in the Southern Levantine Basin (Eastern Mediterranean Sea): Chemical characterization of the water masses and inferences on the N: P ratios, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 48, 2347–2372, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(01)00022-X, 2001.
Lacroix, G. and Nival, P.: Influence of meteorological variability on primary production dynamics in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) with a 1D hydrodynamic/biological model, J. Marine Syst., 16, 23–50, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(97)00098-5, 1998.
Laws, E. A., Falkowski, P. G., Smith, W. O., Ducklow, H., and McCarthy, J. J.: Temperature effects on export production in the open ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 14, 1231–1246, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GB001229, 2000.
Laws, E. A., D'Sa, E., and Naik, P.: Simple equations to estimate ratios of new or export production to total production from satellite-derived estimates of sea surface temperature and primary production, Limnol. Oceanogr.-Meth., 9, 593–601, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2011.9.593, 2011.
Lazzari, P., Solidoro, C., Ibello, V., Salon, S., Teruzzi, A., Béranger, K., Colella, S., and Crise, A.: Seasonal and inter-annual variability of plankton chlorophyll and primary production in the Mediterranean Sea: a modelling approach, Biogeosciences, 9, 217–233, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-217-2012, 2012.
Lionello, P. and Scarascia, L.: The relation between climate change in the Mediterranean region and global warming, Reg. Environ. Change, 18, 1481–1493, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-018-1290-1, 2018.
Liu, K.-K., Iseki, K., and Chao, Y.: Continental margin carbon fluxes, in The Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle: A Midterm Synthesis of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, Hanson, R. B., Ducklow, H. W., and Field, J. G. (Eds.), Cambridge University Press., 2000.
Liu, Y. and Weisberg, R. H.: Patterns of ocean current variability on the West Florida Shelf using the self-organizing map, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 110, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002786, 2005.
Liu, Y., Weisberg, R. H. H., and Mooers, C. N. K. N. K.: Performance evaluation of the self-organizing map for feature extraction, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 111, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003117, 2006.
Liu, K.-K., Atkinson, L., Quiñones, R. A., and Talaue-McManus, L.: Biogeochemistry of continental margins in a global context, in Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins, GlobalChange – The IGBP Series, Springer-Verlag, 2010.
Lohrenz, S. E., Wiesenburg, D. A., DePalma, I. P., Johnson, K. S., and Gustafson, D. E.: Interrelationships among primary production, chlorophyll, and environmental conditions in frontal regions of the western Mediterranean Sea, Deep-Sea Res., 35, 793–810, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(88)90031-3, 1988.
Ludwig, W., Dumont, E., Meybeck, M., and Heussner, S.: River discharges of water and nutrients to the Mediterranean and Black Sea: Major drivers for ecosystem changes during past and future decades?, Prog. Oceanogr., 80, 199–217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2009.02.001, 2009.
Macias, D. M., Garcia-Gorriz, E., and Stips, A.: Productivity changes in the Mediterranean Sea for the twenty-first century in response to changes in the regional atmospheric forcing, Front. Mar. Sci., 2, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2015.00079, 2015.
Macias, D., Garcia-Gorriz, E., and Stips, A.: Major fertilization sources and mechanisms for Mediterranean Sea coastal ecosystems, Limnol. Oceanogr., 63, 897–914, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10677, 2017.
Marshall, J., Kushnir, Y., Battisti, D., Chang, P., Czaja, A., Dickson, R., Hurrell, J., McCartney, M., Saravanan, R., Visbeck, M., Robert, D., Hurrel, J., McCartney, M., Saravanan, R., and Visbeck, M.: Review: North Atlantic climate variability: Phenomena, impacts and mechanisms, Int. J. Climatol., 21, 1863–1898, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.693, 2001.
Martínez-Asensio, A., Marcos, M., Tsimplis, M. N., Gomis, D., Josey, S., and Jordà, G.: Impact of the atmospheric climate modes on Mediterranean sea level variability, Global Planet Change, 118, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.03.007, 2014.
Marty, J. C.: The DYFAMED time-series program (French-JGOFS), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 1963–1964, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00021-8, 2002.
Marty, J. C. and Chiavérini, J.: Hydrological changes in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean, DYFAMED site) during 1995–2007 and biogeochemical consequences, Biogeosciences, 7, 2117–2128, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-2117-2010, 2010.
Marty, J. C., Chiavérini, J., Pizay, M. D., and Avril, B.: Seasonal and interannual dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton pigments in the western Mediterranean Sea at the DYFAMED time-series station (1991–1999), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 1965–1985, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00022-X, 2002.
Massey, F. J., Frank, J., and Maseey, J.: The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for Goodness of Fit, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 46, 68–78, https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3758(90)90051-U, 1951.
Micheli, F., Halpern, B. S., Walbridge, S., Ciriaco, S., Ferretti, F., Fraschetti, S., Lewison, R., Nykjaer, L., and Rosenberg, A. A.: Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: Assessing current pressures and opportunities, PLoS One, 8, e79889, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079889, 2013.
Mihanović, H., Vilibić, I., Carniel, S., Tudor, M., Russo, A., Bergamasco, A., Bubić, N., Ljubešić, Z., Viličić, D., Boldrin, A., Malačič, V., Celio, M., Comici, C., and Raicich, F.: Exceptional dense water formation on the Adriatic shelf in the winter of 2012, Ocean Sci., 9, 561–572, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-9-561-2013, 2013.
Molinero, J. C., Ibanez, F., Nival, P., Buecher, E., and Souissi, S.: North Atlantic climate and northwestern Mediterranean plankton variability, Limnol. Oceanogr., 50, 1213–1220, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2005.50.4.1213, 2005.
Morán, X. A. G. and Estrada, M.: Short-term variability of photosynthetic parameters and particulate and dissolved primary production in the Alboran sea (SW Mediterranean), Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 212, 53–67, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps212053, 2001.
Morel, A.: Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications, Prog. Oceanogr., 26, 263–306, https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-6611(91)90004-6, 1991.
Morel, A. and André, J.-M.: Pigment distribution and primary production in the Western Mediterranean as derived and modeled from Coastal Zone Color Scanner Observations, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 685–698, https://doi.org/10.1029/95JC00466, 1991.
Morel, A. and Berthon, J.-F.: Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and potential production of the euphotic layer: Relationships reinvestigated in view of remote-sensing applications, Limnol. Oceanogr., 34, 1545–1562, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.19188.8.131.525, 1989.
Morel, A. and Maritorena, S.: Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 106, 7163–7180, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000jc000319, 2001.
Morel, A., Antoine, D., Babin, M., and Dandonneau, Y.: Measured and modeled primary production in the northeast Atlantic (EUMELI JGOFS program): The impact of natural variations in photosynthetic parameters on model predictive skill, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 43, 1273–1304, https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0637(96)00059-3, 1996.
Morel, A., Gentili, B., Chami, M., and Ras, J.: Bio-optical properties of high chlorophyll Case 1 waters and of yellow-substance-dominated Case 2 waters, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 53, 1439–1459, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2006.07.007, 2006.
Moutin, T. and Raimbault, P.: Primary production, carbon export and nutrients availability in western and eastern Mediterranean Sea in early summer 1996 (MINOS cruise), J. Marine Syst., 33–34, 273–288, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(02)00062-3, 2002.
Muller-Karger, F. E., Varela, R., Thunell, R., Luerssen, R., Hu, C., and Walsh, J. J.: The importance of continental margins in the global carbon cycle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, 10–13, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021346, 2005.
Nixon, S. W.: Replacing the Nile: Are anthropogenic nutrients providing the fertility once brought to the Mediterranean by a great river?, Ambio A J. Hum. Environ., 32, 30–39, https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-32.1.30, 2003.
Nixon, S. W.: The Artificial Nile: The Aswan High Dam blocked and diverted nutrients and destroyed a Mediterranean fishery, but human activities may have revived it, Am. Sci., 92, 158–165, 2004.
Nykjaer, L.: Mediterranean Sea surface warming 1985–2006, Clim. Res., 39, 11–17, https://doi.org/10.3354/cr00794, 2009.
O'Reilly, J. and Sherman, K.: Chapter 5.1. Primary productivity patterns and trends, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, 2016.
Pace, M. L., Knauer, G. A., Karl, D. M., and Martin, J. H.: Primary production, new production and vertical flux in the eastern Pacific Ocean, Nature, 325, 803–804, https://doi.org/10.1038/325803a0, 1987.
Paerl, H. w., Willey, J. D., Go, M., Peierls, B. L., Pinckney, J. L., and Fogel, M. L.: Rainfall stimulation of primary production in western Atlantic Ocean waters: roles of different nitrogen sources and CO-limiting nutrients, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 176, 205–214, 1999.
Palutikof, J.: Analysis of Mediterranean Climate Data: Measured and Modelled, in Mediterranean Climate: Variability and Trends, H. J. Bolle (Ed.), 125–132, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2003.
Pastor, F., Valiente, J. A. and Palau, J. L.: Sea Surface Temperature in the Mediterranean: Trends and Spatial Patterns (1982-2016), Pure Appl. Geophys., 175, 4017–4029, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1739-z, 2017.
Pauly, D. and Christensen, V.: Primary production required to sustain global fisheries, Lett. to Nat., 374, 255–257, 1995.
Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Guénette, S., Pitcher, T. J., Sumaila, U. R., Walters, C. J., Watson, R., and Zeller, D.: Towards sustainability in world fisheries, Nat. Publ. Gr., 418, 689–695, 2002.
Pinardi, N., Zavatarelli, M., Arneri, E., Crise, A., and Ravaioli, M.: Chapter 32. The physical, sedimentary and ecological structure and variability of shelf areas in the Mediterranean Sea (27,S), in: The Sea. The Global Coastal Ocean, vol. 14, Robinson, A. R. and Brink, K. H. (Eds.), pp. 1243–1272., 2006.
Piroddi, C., Coll, M., Liquete, C., Macias, D., Greer, K., Buszowski, J., Steenbeek, J., Danovaro, R., and Christensen, V.: Historical changes of the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem: Modelling the role and impact of primary productivity and fisheries changes over time, Sci. Rep., 7, 1–18, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep44491, 2017.
Powley, H. R., Dürr, H. H., Lima, A. T., Krom, M. D., and Van Cappellen, P.: Direct Discharges of Domestic Wastewater are a Major Source of Phosphorus and Nitrogen to the Mediterranean Sea, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 8722–8730, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b01742, 2016.
Pugnetti, A., Bazzoni, A. M., Beran, A., Bernardi Aubry, F., Camatti, E., Celussi, M., Coppola, J., Crevatin, E., Del Negro, P., and Paoli, A.: Changes in biomass structure and trophic status of the plankton communities in a highly dynamic ecosystem (Gulf of Venice, Northern Adriatic Sea), Mar. Ecol., 29, 367–374, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0485.2008.00237.x, 2008.
Rahav, E., Herut, B., Levi, A., Mulholland, M. R., and Berman-Frank, I.: Springtime contribution of dinitrogen fixation to primary production across the Mediterranean Sea, Ocean Sci., 9, 489–498, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-9-489-2013, 2013.
Raicich, F., Malacic, V., Celio, M., Giaiotti, D., Cantoni, C., Colucci, R. R., Cermelj, B., and Pucillo, A.: Extreme air-sea interactions in the Gulf of Trieste (North Adriatic) during the strong Bora event in winter 2012, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 5238–5250, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20398, 2013a.
Raicich, F., Malačič, V., Celio, M., Giaiotti, D., Cantoni, C., Colucci, R. R., Čermelj, B., and Pucillo, A.: Extreme air-sea interactions in the Gulf of Trieste (North Adriatic) during the strong Bora event in winter 2012, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 5238–5250, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20398, 2013b.
Regaudie-de-Gioux, A., Vaquer-Sunyer, R., and Duarte, C. M.: Patterns in planktonic metabolism in the Mediterranean Sea, Biogeosciences, 6, 3081–3089, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-3081-2009, 2009.
Rodellas, V., Garcia-Orellana, J., Masqué, P., Feldman, M., Weinstein, Y., and Boyle, E. A.: Submarine groundwater discharge as a major source of nutrients to the Mediterranean Sea, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 3926–3930, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1419049112, 2015.
Ryan, J.: Crop nutrients for sustainable agricultural production in the drought-stressed mediterranean region, J. Agric. Sci. Technol., 10, 295–306, 2008.
Saba, V. S., Friedrichs, M. A. M., Antoine, D., Armstrong, R. A., Asanuma, I., Behrenfeld, M. J., Ciotti, A. M., Dowell, M., Hoepffner, N., Hyde, K. J. W., Ishizaka, J., Kameda, T., Marra, J., Mélin, F., Morel, A., O'Reilly, J., Scardi, M., Smith Jr., W. O., Smyth, T. J., Tang, S., Uitz, J., Waters, K., and Westberry, T. K.: An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe, Biogeosciences, 8, 489–503, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-489-2011, 2011.
Salgado-Hernanz, P. M., Racault, M. F., Font-Muñoz, J. S., and Basterretxea, G.: Trends in phytoplankton phenology in the Mediterranean Sea based on ocean-colour remote sensing, Remote Sens. Environ., 221, 50–64, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.10.036, 2019.
Salmi, T., Maatta, A., Anttila, P., Ruoho-Airola, T., and Amnell, T.: Detecting Trends of Annual Values of Atmospheric Pollutants by the Mann-Kendall Test and Sen's Solpe Estimates the Excel Template Application MAKESENS, 2002.
Schroeder, K., Ribotti, A., Borghini, M., Sorgente, R., Perilli, A., and Gasparini, G. P.: An extensive western Mediterranean deep water renewal between 2004 and 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, 1–7, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035146, 2008.
Sen, P. K.: Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall ' s Tau Pranab Kumar Sen, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 63, 1379–1389, 1968.
Simpson, J. H.: Physical processes in the ROFI regime, J. Marine Syst., 12, 3–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-7963(96)00085-1, 1997.
Skoulikidis, N. T., Economou, A. N., Gritzalis, K. C., and Zogaris, S.: Rivers of the Balkans, in Rivers of Europe, 421–466, Elsevier Ltd., 2009.
Smith, S. V. and Hollibaugh, J. T.: Coastal Metabolism and the Oceanic Organic Carbon Balance, Rev. Geophys., 31, 75–89, 1993.
ŠoliŠ, M., Krstulović, N., VilibiŠ, I., KušpiliŠ, G., ŠŠestanoviŠ, S., Šanti'c, D., and Ordulj, M.: The role of water mass dynamics in controlling bacterial abundance and production in the middle Adriatic Sea, Mar. Environ. Res., 65, 388–404, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.01.004, 2008.
Sournia, A.: La production primaire planctonique en Méditerranée: Essai de mise à jour. Bulletin Etude en Commun de la Méditerranée, 5, 128pp., 1973.
Stambler, N.: The Mediterranean Sea – Primary Productivity, in: The Mediterranean Sea: Its history and present challenges, Goffredo, S. and Dubinsky, Z., (Eds.), pp. 113–121, Springer, 2014.
Tiselius, P., Belgrano, A., Andersson, L., and Lindahl, O.: Primary productivity in a coastal ecosystem: A trophic perspective on a long-term time series, J. Plankton Res., 38, 1092–1102, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbv094, 2016.
Tockner, K., Uehlinger, U., and Robinson, C.: Rivers of Europe, 1st ed., Academic Press, Elsevier., 2008.
Törnros, T.: On the relationship between the Mediterranean Oscillation and winter precipitation in the Southern Levant, Atmos. Sci. Lett., 14, 287–293, https://doi.org/10.1002/asl2.450, 2013.
Tovar-Sánchez, A., Basterretxea, G., Rodellas, V., Sánchez-Quiles, D., García-Orellana, J., Masqué, P., Jordi, A., López, J. M., and Garcia-Solsona, E.: Contribution of groundwater discharge to the coastal dissolved nutrients and trace metal concentrations in Majorca Island: Karstic vs. detrital systems, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 11819–11827, https://doi.org/10.1021/es502958t, 2014.
Tovar-Sánchez, A., Basterretxea, G., Ben Omar, M., Jordi, A., Sánchez-Quiles, D., Makhani, M., Mouna, D., Muya, C., and Anglès, S.: Nutrients, trace metals and B-vitamin composition of the Moulouya River: A major North African river discharging into the Mediterranean Sea, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 176, 47–57, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.04.006, 2016.
Trigo, R., Xoplaki, E., Zorita, E., Luterbacher, J., Krichak, S. O., Alpert, P., Jucundus, J., Sáens, J., Fernández, J., González-Rouco, F., Garcia-Herrera, R., Rodo, X., Brunetti, M., Nanni, T., Maugeri, M., Türkes, M., Gimeno, L., Ribera, P., Brunet, M., Trigo, I. F., Crepon, M., and Mariotti, A.: Relations between Variability in the Mediterranean Region and Mid-Latitude Variability, in: Developements in Earth and Environmental Sciences: Mediterranean., Lionello, P. , Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., and Boscolo, R., (Eds.), 179–226, Elsevier., 2006.
Turley, C. M.: The changing Mediterranean Sea – A sensitive ecosystem?, Prog. Oceanogr., 44, 387–400, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00033-6, 1999.
Uitz, J., Claustre, H., Morel, A., and Hooker, S. B.: Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: An assessment based on surface chlorophyll, J. Geophys. Res. Ocean., 111, 1–23, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003207, 2006.
Uitz, J., Claustre, H., Gentili, B., and Stramski, D.: Phytoplankton class-specific primary production in the world's oceans: Seasonal and interannual variability from satellite observations, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 24, 1–19, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GB003680, 2010.
Umani, S. F.: Pelagic production and biomass in the Adriatic Sea, Sci. Mar., 60, 65–77, 1996.
Umani, S. F., Del Negro, P., Larato, C., De Vittor, C., Cabrini, M., Celio, M., Falconi, C., Tamberlich, F., and Azam, F.: Major inter-annual variations in microbial dynamics in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and their ecosystem implications, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 46, 163–175, https://doi.org/10.3354/ame046163, 2007.
Van Wambeke, F., Lefèvre, D., Prieur, L., Sempéré, R., Bianchi, M., Oubelkheir, K., and Bruyant, F.: Distribution of microbial biomass, production, respiration, dissolved organic carbon and factors controlling bacterial production across a geostrophic front (Almeria-Oran, SW Mediterranean Sea), Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 269, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps269001, 2004.
Vesanto, J., Alhoniemi, E., and Member, S.: Clustering of the Self-Organizing Map, IEEE T. Neural Networ., 11, 586–600, 2000a.
Vesanto, J., Himberg, J., Alhoniemi, E., and Parhankangas, J.: SOM Toolbox for Matlab 5, (Report A57). Hensinki University of Technological, Espoo, Finland, 2000b.
Vidussi, F., Claustre, H., Manca, B. B., Luchetta, A., and Marty, J.-C.: Phytoplankton pigment distribution in relation to upper thermocline circulation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea during winter, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 939–956, 2001.
Vilibić, I., Matijević, S., Šepić, J., and Kušpilić, G.: Changes in the Adriatic oceanographic properties induced by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient, Biogeosciences, 9, 2085–2097, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-2085-2012, 2012.
Volpe, G., Colella, S., Brando, V. E., Forneris, V., La Padula, F., Di Cicco, A., Sammartino, M., Bracaglia, M., Artuso, F., and Santoleri, R.: Mediterranean ocean colour Level 3 operational multi-sensor processing, Ocean Sci., 15, 127–146, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-15-127-2019, 2019.
Wang, X. T., Cohen, A. L., Luu, V., Ren, H., Su, Z., Haug, G. H., and Sigman, D. M.: Natural forcing of the North Atlantic nitrogen cycle in the Anthropocene, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 201801049, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1801049115, 2018.
Woodson, C. B. and Litvin, S. Y.: Ocean fronts drive marine fishery production and biogeochemical cycling, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 1710–1715, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1417143112, 2014.
Zairi, M. and Rouis, M. J.: Impacts environnementaux du stockage du phosphogypse à Sfax (Tunisie), Bull. des Lab. des ponts chaussées, 219, 29–40, 1999.
Zalidis, G., Stamatiadis, S., Takavakoglou, V., Eskridge, K., and Misopolinos, N.: Impacts of agricultural practices on soil and water quality in the Mediterranean region and proposed assessment methodology, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 88, 137–146, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00249-3, 2002.
Zoppini, A., Pettine, M., Totti, C., Puddu, A., Artegiani, A., and Pagnotta, R.: Nutrients, standing crop and primary production in western coastal waters of the adriatic sea, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 41, 493–513, https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-7714(95)90024-1, 1995.
For the first time, this study presents the characteristics of primary production in coastal regions of the Mediterranean Sea based on satellite-borne observations for the period 2002–2016. The study concludes that there are significant spatial and temporal variations among different regions. Quantifying primary production is of special importance in the marine food web and in the sequestration of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the deep waters.
For the first time, this study presents the characteristics of primary production in coastal...