Articles | Volume 14, issue 12
Biogeosciences, 14, 2929–2953, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Climate–carbon–cryosphere interactions in the...
20 Jun 2017
Research article | 20 Jun 2017
Pore water geochemistry along continental slopes north of the East Siberian Sea: inference of low methane concentrations
Clint M. Miller et al.
No articles found.
Johan Nilsson, Eef van Dongen, Martin Jakobsson, Matt O'Regan, and Christian Stranne
We investigate how topographical sills suppress basal glacier melt in Greenlandic fjords. The basal melt drives an exchange flow over the sill, but there is an upper flow limit set by the Atlantic Water features outside the fjord. If this limit is reached, the flow enters a new regime where the melt is suppressed and its sensitivity on the Atlantic Water temperature is reduced.
Gabriel West, Darrell S. Kaufman, Martin Jakobsson, and Matt O'Regan
Preprint under review for GChronShort summary
We report aspartic and glutamic acid racemization analyses on Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi from the Arctic Ocean (AO). The rates of racemization in the species are compared. Calibrating the rate of racemization in C. wuellerstorfi for the past 400 ka allows the estimation of sample ages from the central AO. Estimated ages are older than existing age assignments (as previously observed for N. pachyderma), confirming that differences are not due to taxonomic effects.
Raisa Alatarvas, Matt O'Regan, and Kari Strand
Clim. Past, 18, 1867–1881,Short summary
This research contributes to efforts solving research questions related to the history of ice sheet decay in the Northern Hemisphere. The East Siberian continental margin sediments provide ideal material for identifying the mineralogical signature of ice sheet derived material. Heavy mineral analysis from marine glacial sediments from the De Long Trough and Lomonosov Ridge was used in interpreting the activity of the East Siberian Ice Sheet in the Arctic region.
Jaclyn Clement Kinney, Karen M. Assmann, Wieslaw Maslowski, Göran Björk, Martin Jakobsson, Sara Jutterström, Younjoo J. Lee, Robert Osinski, Igor Semiletov, Adam Ulfsbo, Irene Wåhlström, and Leif G. Anderson
Ocean Sci., 18, 29–49,Short summary
We use data crossing Herald Canyon in the Chukchi Sea collected in 2008 and 2014 together with numerical modelling to investigate the circulation in the western Chukchi Sea. A large fraction of water from the Chukchi Sea enters the East Siberian Sea south of Wrangel Island and circulates in an anticyclonic direction around the island. To assess the differences between years, we use numerical modelling results, which show that high-frequency variability dominates the flow in Herald Canyon.
Henrieka Detlef, Brendan Reilly, Anne Jennings, Mads Mørk Jensen, Matt O'Regan, Marianne Glasius, Jesper Olsen, Martin Jakobsson, and Christof Pearce
The Cryosphere, 15, 4357–4380,Short summary
Here we examine the Nares Strait sea ice dynamics over the last 7000 years and their implications for the late Holocene readvance of the floating part of Petermann Glacier. We propose that the historically observed sea ice dynamics are a relatively recent feature, while most of the mid-Holocene was marked by variable sea ice conditions in Nares Strait. Nonetheless, major advances of the Petermann ice tongue were preceded by a shift towards harsher sea ice conditions in Nares Strait.
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The first continuously measured transfer functions that quantify the age difference between the Greenland Ice-Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) and the U-Th timescale are presented. The transfer functions were generated using a novel probabilistic algorithm for the synchronization of proxy signals. The results greatly improve the accuracy and precision of previous synchronization estimates and reveal that the annual-layer counting error of GICC05 is less systematic than previously assumed.
Matt O'Regan, Thomas M. Cronin, Brendan Reilly, Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Laura Gemery, Anna Golub, Larry A. Mayer, Mathieu Morlighem, Matthias Moros, Ole L. Munk, Johan Nilsson, Christof Pearce, Henrieka Detlef, Christian Stranne, Flor Vermassen, Gabriel West, and Martin Jakobsson
The Cryosphere, 15, 4073–4097,Short summary
Ryder Glacier is a marine-terminating glacier in north Greenland discharging ice into the Lincoln Sea. Here we use marine sediment cores to reconstruct its retreat and advance behavior through the Holocene. We show that while Sherard Osborn Fjord has a physiography conducive to glacier and ice tongue stability, Ryder still retreated more than 40 km inland from its current position by the Middle Holocene. This highlights the sensitivity of north Greenland's marine glaciers to climate change.
Colin Ware, Larry Mayer, Paul Johnson, Martin Jakobsson, and Vicki Ferrini
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 375–384,Short summary
Geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) are widely used in geospatial applications, and terrains are often defined by regular grids in geographic coordinates. However, because of convergence of lines of longitude near the poles there is oversampling in the latitude (zonal) direction. Also, there is no standard way of defining a hierarchy of grids to consistently deal with data having different spatial resolutions. The proposed global geographic grid system solves both problems.
Francesco Muschitiello, Matt O'Regan, Jannik Martens, Gabriel West, Örjan Gustafsson, and Martin Jakobsson
Geochronology, 2, 81–91,Short summary
In this study we present a new marine chronology of the last ~30 000 years for a sediment core retrieved from the central Arctic Ocean. Our new chronology reveals substantially faster sedimentation rates during the end of the last glacial cycle, the Last Glacial Maximum, and deglaciation than previously reported, thus implying a substantial re-interpretation of paleoceanographic reconstructions from this sector of the Arctic Ocean.
Zhongshi Zhang, Qing Yan, Ran Zhang, Florence Colleoni, Gilles Ramstein, Gaowen Dai, Martin Jakobsson, Matt O'Regan, Stefan Liess, Denis-Didier Rousseau, Naiqing Wu, Elizabeth J. Farmer, Camille Contoux, Chuncheng Guo, Ning Tan, and Zhengtang Guo
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Whether an ice sheet once grew over Northeast Siberia-Beringia has been debated for decades. By comparing climate modelling with paleoclimate and glacial records from around the North Pacific, this study shows that the Laurentide-Eurasia-only ice sheet configuration fails in explaining these records, while a scenario involving the ice sheet over Northeast Siberia-Beringia succeeds. It highlights the complexity in glacial climates and urges new investigations across Northeast Siberia-Beringia.
Kelly A. Hogan, Martin Jakobsson, Larry Mayer, Brendan T. Reilly, Anne E. Jennings, Joseph S. Stoner, Tove Nielsen, Katrine J. Andresen, Egon Nørmark, Katrien A. Heirman, Elina Kamla, Kevin Jerram, Christian Stranne, and Alan Mix
The Cryosphere, 14, 261–286,Short summary
Glacial sediments in fjords hold a key record of environmental and ice dynamic changes during ice retreat. Here we use a comprehensive geophysical survey from the Petermann Fjord system in NW Greenland to map these sediments, identify depositional processes and calculate glacial erosion rates for the retreating palaeo-Petermann ice stream. Ice streaming is the dominant control on glacial erosion rates which vary by an order of magnitude during deglaciation and are in line with modern rates.
Martin Jakobsson, Matt O'Regan, Carl-Magnus Mörth, Christian Stranne, Elizabeth Weidner, Jim Hansson, Richard Gyllencreutz, Christoph Humborg, Tina Elfwing, Alf Norkko, Joanna Norkko, Björn Nilsson, and Arne Sjöström
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 1–15,Short summary
We studied coastal sea floor terraces in parts of the Baltic Sea using various types of sonar data, sediment cores, and video. Terraces (~1 m high, > 100 m long) are widespread in depths < 15 m and are formed in glacial clay. Our study supports an origin from groundwater flow through silty layers, undermining overlying layers when discharged at the sea floor. Submarine groundwater discharge like this may be a significant source of freshwater to the Baltic Sea that needs to be studied further.
Gabriel West, Darrell S. Kaufman, Francesco Muschitiello, Matthias Forwick, Jens Matthiessen, Jutta Wollenburg, and Matt O'Regan
Geochronology, 1, 53–67,Short summary
We report amino acid racemization analyses of foraminifera from well-dated sediment cores from the Yermak Plateau, Arctic Ocean. Sample ages are compared with model predictions, revealing that the rates of racemization generally conform to a global compilation of racemization rates at deep-sea sites. These results highlight the need for further studies to test and explain the origin of the purportedly high rate of racemization indicated by previous analyses of central Arctic sediments.
Christian Stranne, Matt O'Regan, Martin Jakobsson, Volker Brüchert, and Marcelo Ketzer
Solid Earth, 10, 1541–1554,
Christopher J. Hollis, Tom Dunkley Jones, Eleni Anagnostou, Peter K. Bijl, Margot J. Cramwinckel, Ying Cui, Gerald R. Dickens, Kirsty M. Edgar, Yvette Eley, David Evans, Gavin L. Foster, Joost Frieling, Gordon N. Inglis, Elizabeth M. Kennedy, Reinhard Kozdon, Vittoria Lauretano, Caroline H. Lear, Kate Littler, Lucas Lourens, A. Nele Meckler, B. David A. Naafs, Heiko Pälike, Richard D. Pancost, Paul N. Pearson, Ursula Röhl, Dana L. Royer, Ulrich Salzmann, Brian A. Schubert, Hannu Seebeck, Appy Sluijs, Robert P. Speijer, Peter Stassen, Jessica Tierney, Aradhna Tripati, Bridget Wade, Thomas Westerhold, Caitlyn Witkowski, James C. Zachos, Yi Ge Zhang, Matthew Huber, and Daniel J. Lunt
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3149–3206,Short summary
The Deep-Time Model Intercomparison Project (DeepMIP) is a model–data intercomparison of the early Eocene (around 55 million years ago), the last time that Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeded 1000 ppm. Previously, we outlined the experimental design for climate model simulations. Here, we outline the methods used for compilation and analysis of climate proxy data. The resulting climate
atlaswill provide insights into the mechanisms that control past warm climate states.
Martin Jakobsson, Christian Stranne, Matt O'Regan, Sarah L. Greenwood, Bo Gustafsson, Christoph Humborg, and Elizabeth Weidner
Ocean Sci., 15, 905–924,Short summary
The bottom topography of the Baltic Sea is analysed using the digital depth model from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) published in 2018. Analyses include depth distribution vs. area and seafloor depth variation on a kilometre scale. The limits for the Baltic Sea and analysed sub-basins are from HELCOM. EMODnet is compared with the previously most widely used depth model and the area of deep water exchange between the Bothnian Sea and the Northern Baltic Proper.
Birgit Wild, Natalia Shakhova, Oleg Dudarev, Alexey Ruban, Denis Kosmach, Vladimir Tumskoy, Tommaso Tesi, Hanna Joß, Helena Alexanderson, Martin Jakobsson, Alexey Mazurov, Igor Semiletov, and Örjan Gustafsson
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The thaw and degradation of subsea permafrost on the Arctic Ocean shelves is one of the key uncertainties concerning natural greenhouse gas emissions since difficult access limits the availability of observational data. In this study, we describe sediment properties and age constraints of a unique set of three subsea permafrost cores from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, as well as content, origin and degradation state of organic matter at the current thaw front.
Robert McKay, Neville Exon, Dietmar Müller, Karsten Gohl, Michael Gurnis, Amelia Shevenell, Stuart Henrys, Fumio Inagaki, Dhananjai Pandey, Jessica Whiteside, Tina van de Flierdt, Tim Naish, Verena Heuer, Yuki Morono, Millard Coffin, Marguerite Godard, Laura Wallace, Shuichi Kodaira, Peter Bijl, Julien Collot, Gerald Dickens, Brandon Dugan, Ann G. Dunlea, Ron Hackney, Minoru Ikehara, Martin Jutzeler, Lisa McNeill, Sushant Naik, Taryn Noble, Bradley Opdyke, Ingo Pecher, Lowell Stott, Gabriele Uenzelmann-Neben, Yatheesh Vadakkeykath, and Ulrich G. Wortmann
Sci. Dril., 24, 61–70,
Zhongshi Zhang, Qing Yan, Elizabeth J. Farmer, Camille Li, Gilles Ramstein, Terence Hughes, Martin Jakobsson, Matt O'Regan, Ran Zhang, Ning Tan, Camille Contoux, Christophe Dumas, and Chuncheng Guo
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Our study challenges the widely accepted idea that the Laurentide-Eurasian ice sheets gradually extended across North America and Northwest Eurasia, and suggests the growth of the NH ice sheets is much more complicated. We find climate feedbacks regulate the distribution of the NH ice sheets, producing swings between two distinct ice sheet configurations: the Laurentide-Eurasian and a circum-Arctic configuration, where large ice sheets existed over Northeast Siberia and the Canadian Rockies.
Christian Stranne, Larry Mayer, Martin Jakobsson, Elizabeth Weidner, Kevin Jerram, Thomas C. Weber, Leif G. Anderson, Johan Nilsson, Göran Björk, and Katarina Gårdfeldt
Ocean Sci., 14, 503–514,Short summary
The ocean surface mixed layer depth (MLD) is an important parameter within several research disciplines, as variations in the MLD influence air–sea CO2 exchange and ocean primary production. A new method is presented in which acoustic mapping of the MLD is done remotely by means of echo sounders. This method allows for observations of high-frequency variability in the MLD, as horizontal and temporal resolutions can be increased by orders of magnitude compared to traditional in situ measurements.
Göran Björk, Martin Jakobsson, Karen Assmann, Leif G. Andersson, Johan Nilsson, Christian Stranne, and Larry Mayer
Ocean Sci., 14, 1–13,Short summary
This study presents detailed bathymetric data along with hydrographic data at two deep passages across the Lomonosov Ridge in the Arctic Ocean. The southern channel is relatively smooth with a sill depth close to 1700 m. Hydrographic data reveals an eastward flow in the southern part and opposite in the northern part. The northern passage is characterized by a narrow and steep ridge with a sill depth of 1470 m. Here, water exchange appears to occur in well-defined but irregular vertical layers.
Laura Gemery, Thomas M. Cronin, Robert K. Poirier, Christof Pearce, Natalia Barrientos, Matt O'Regan, Carina Johansson, Andrey Koshurnikov, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1473–1489,Short summary
Continuous, highly abundant and well-preserved fossil ostracodes were studied from radiocarbon-dated sediment cores collected on the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic Ocean) that indicate varying oceanographic conditions during the last ~50 kyr. Ostracode assemblages from cores taken during the SWERUS-C3 2014 Expedition, Leg 2, reflect paleoenvironmental changes during glacial, deglacial, and interglacial transitions, including changes in sea-ice cover and Atlantic Water inflow into the Eurasian Basin.
Alexander N. Charkin, Michiel Rutgers van der Loeff, Natalia E. Shakhova, Örjan Gustafsson, Oleg V. Dudarev, Maxim S. Cherepnev, Anatoly N. Salyuk, Andrey V. Koshurnikov, Eduard A. Spivak, Alexey Y. Gunar, Alexey S. Ruban, and Igor P. Semiletov
The Cryosphere, 11, 2305–2327,Short summary
This study tests the hypothesis that SGD exists in the Siberian Arctic shelf seas, but its dynamics may be largely controlled by complicated geocryological conditions such as permafrost. The permafrost cements rocks, forms a confining bed, and as a result makes it difficult for the groundwater escape to the shelf surface. However, the discovery of subterranean outcrops of groundwater springs in the Buor-Khaya Gulf are clear evidence that a groundwater flow system exists in the environment.
Matt O'Regan, Jan Backman, Natalia Barrientos, Thomas M. Cronin, Laura Gemery, Nina Kirchner, Larry A. Mayer, Johan Nilsson, Riko Noormets, Christof Pearce, Igor Semiletov, Christian Stranne, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1269–1284,Short summary
Past glacial activity on the East Siberian continental margin is poorly known, partly due to the lack of geomorphological evidence. Here we present geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope revealing the presence of a glacially excavated cross-shelf trough reaching to the continental shelf edge north of the De Long Islands. The data provide direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum.
Thomas M. Cronin, Matt O'Regan, Christof Pearce, Laura Gemery, Michael Toomey, Igor Semiletov, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1097–1110,Short summary
Global sea level rise during the last deglacial flooded the Siberian continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean. Sediment cores, radiocarbon dating, and microfossils show that the regional sea level in the Arctic rose rapidly from about 12 500 to 10 700 years ago. Regional sea level history on the Siberian shelf differs from the global deglacial sea level rise perhaps due to regional vertical adjustment resulting from the growth and decay of ice sheets.
Martin Jakobsson, Christof Pearce, Thomas M. Cronin, Jan Backman, Leif G. Anderson, Natalia Barrientos, Göran Björk, Helen Coxall, Agatha de Boer, Larry A. Mayer, Carl-Magnus Mörth, Johan Nilsson, Jayne E. Rattray, Christian Stranne, Igor Semiletov, and Matt O'Regan
Clim. Past, 13, 991–1005,Short summary
The Arctic and Pacific oceans are connected by the presently ~53 m deep Bering Strait. During the last glacial period when the sea level was lower than today, the Bering Strait was exposed. Humans and animals could then migrate between Asia and North America across the formed land bridge. From analyses of sediment cores and geophysical mapping data from Herald Canyon north of the Bering Strait, we show that the land bridge was flooded about 11 000 years ago.
Johan Nilsson, Martin Jakobsson, Chris Borstad, Nina Kirchner, Göran Björk, Raymond T. Pierrehumbert, and Christian Stranne
The Cryosphere, 11, 1745–1765,Short summary
Recent data suggest that a 1 km thick ice shelf extended over the glacial Arctic Ocean during MIS 6, about 140 000 years ago. Here, we theoretically analyse the development and equilibrium features of such an ice shelf. The ice shelf was effectively dammed by the Fram Strait and the mean ice-shelf thickness was controlled primarily by the horizontally integrated mass balance. Our results can aid in resolving some outstanding questions of the state of the glacial Arctic Ocean.
Leif G. Anderson, Göran Björk, Ola Holby, Sara Jutterström, Carl Magnus Mörth, Matt O'Regan, Christof Pearce, Igor Semiletov, Christian Stranne, Tim Stöven, Toste Tanhua, Adam Ulfsbo, and Martin Jakobsson
Ocean Sci., 13, 349–363,Short summary
We use data collected in 2014 to show that the outflow of nutrient-rich water occurs much further to the west than has been reported in the past. We suggest that this is due to much less summer sea-ice coverage in the northwestern East Siberian Sea than in the past decades. Further, our data support a more complicated flow pattern in the region where the Mendeleev Ridge reaches the shelf compared to the general cyclonic circulation within the individual basins as suggested historically.
Christof Pearce, Aron Varhelyi, Stefan Wastegård, Francesco Muschitiello, Natalia Barrientos, Matt O'Regan, Thomas M. Cronin, Laura Gemery, Igor Semiletov, Jan Backman, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 303–316,Short summary
The eruption of the Alaskan Aniakchak volcano of 3.6 thousand years ago was one of the largest Holocene eruptions worldwide. The resulting ash is found in several Alaskan sites and as far as Newfoundland and Greenland. In this study, we found ash from the Aniakchak eruption in a marine sediment core from the western Chukchi Sea in the Arctic Ocean. Combined with radiocarbon dates on mollusks, the volcanic age marker is used to calculate the marine radiocarbon reservoir age at that time.
Erik Gustafsson, Christoph Humborg, Göran Björk, Christian Stranne, Leif G. Anderson, Marc C. Geibel, Carl-Magnus Mörth, Marcus Sundbom, Igor P. Semiletov, Brett F. Thornton, and Bo G. Gustafsson
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this study we quantify key carbon cycling processes on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. A specific aim is to determine the pathways of terrestrial organic carbon (OC) supplied by rivers and coastline erosion – and particularly to what extent degradation of terrestrial OC contributes to air-sea CO2 exchange. We estimate that the shelf is a weak CO2 sink, although this sink is considerably reduced mainly by degradation of eroded OC and to a lesser extent by degradation of riverine OC.
Valeria Luciani, Gerald R. Dickens, Jan Backman, Eliana Fornaciari, Luca Giusberti, Claudia Agnini, and Roberta D'Onofrio
Clim. Past, 12, 981–1007,Short summary
The symbiont-bearing planktic foraminiferal genera Morozovella and Acarinina were among the most important calcifiers of the early Paleogene tropical and subtropical oceans. However, a remarkable and permanent switch in the relative abundance of these genera happened in the early Eocene. We show that this switch occurred at low-latitude sites near the start of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), a multi-million-year interval when Earth surface temperatures reached their Cenozoic maximum.
Claudia Agnini, David J. A. Spofforth, Gerald R. Dickens, Domenico Rio, Heiko Pälike, Jan Backman, Giovanni Muttoni, and Edoardo Dallanave
Clim. Past, 12, 883–909,Short summary
In this paper we present records of stable C and O isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages in a upper Paleocene-lower Eocene rocks now exposed in northeast Italy. Modifications of nannoplankton assemblages and carbon isotopes are strictly linked one to each other and always display the same ranking and spacing. The integration of this two data sets represents a significative improvement in our capacity to correlate different sections at a very high resolution.
F. J. Davies, H. Renssen, M. Blaschek, and F. Muschitiello
Clim. Past, 11, 571–586,
B. S. Slotnick, V. Lauretano, J. Backman, G. R. Dickens, A. Sluijs, and L. Lourens
Clim. Past, 11, 473–493,
F. O. Nitsche, K. Gohl, R. D. Larter, C.-D. Hillenbrand, G. Kuhn, J. A. Smith, S. Jacobs, J. B. Anderson, and M. Jakobsson
The Cryosphere, 7, 249–262,
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Christiane Schmidt, Emmanuelle Geslin, Joan M. Bernhard, Charlotte LeKieffre, Mette Marianne Svenning, Helene Roberge, Magali Schweizer, and Giuliana Panieri
Biogeosciences, 19, 3897–3909,Short summary
This study is the first to show non-selective deposit feeding in the foraminifera Nonionella labradorica and the possible uptake of methanotrophic bacteria. We carried out a feeding experiment with a marine methanotroph to examine the ultrastructure of the cell and degradation vacuoles using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed three putative methanotrophs at the outside of the cell/test, which could be taken up via non-targeted grazing in seeps or our experiment.
James P. J. Ward, Katharine R. Hendry, Sandra Arndt, Johan C. Faust, Felipe S. Freitas, Sian F. Henley, Jeffrey W. Krause, Christian März, Allyson C. Tessin, and Ruth L. Airs
Biogeosciences, 19, 3445–3467,Short summary
The seafloor plays an important role in the cycling of silicon (Si), a key nutrient that promotes marine primary productivity. In our model study, we disentangle major controls on the seafloor Si cycle to better anticipate the impacts of continued warming and sea ice melt in the Barents Sea. We uncover a coupling of the iron redox and Si cycles, dissolution of lithogenic silicates, and authigenic clay formation, comprising a Si sink that could have implications for the Arctic Ocean Si budget.
Hanni Vigderovich, Werner Eckert, Michal Elul, Maxim Rubin-Blum, Marcus Elvert, and Orit Sivan
Biogeosciences, 19, 2313–2331,Short summary
Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is one of the major processes limiting the release of the greenhouse gas methane from natural environments. Here we show that significant AOM exists in the methane zone of lake sediments in natural conditions and even after long-term (ca. 18 months) anaerobic slurry incubations with two stages. Methanogens were most likely responsible for oxidizing the methane, and humic substances and iron oxides are likely electron acceptors to support this oxidation.
Bjorn Sundby, Pierre Anschutz, Pascal Lecroart, and Alfonso Mucci
Biogeosciences, 19, 1421–1434,Short summary
A glacial–interglacial methane-fuelled redistribution of reactive phosphorus between the oceanic and sedimentary phosphorus reservoirs can occur in the ocean when falling sea level lowers the pressure on the seafloor, destabilizes methane hydrates, and triggers the dissolution of P-bearing iron oxides. The mass of phosphate potentially mobilizable from the sediment is similar to the size of the current oceanic reservoir. Hence, this process may play a major role in the marine phosphorus cycle.
Florian Lauryssen, Philippe Crombé, Tom Maris, Elliot Van Maldegem, Marijn Van de Broek, Stijn Temmerman, and Erik Smolders
Biogeosciences, 19, 763–776,Short summary
Surface waters in lowland regions have a poor surface water quality, mainly due to excess nutrients like phosphate. Therefore, we wanted to know the phosphate levels without humans, also called the pre-industrial background. Phosphate binds strongly to sediment particles, suspended in the river water. In this research we used sediments deposited by a river as an archive for surface water phosphate back to 1800 CE. Pre-industrial phosphate levels were estimated at one-third of the modern levels.
Gerard J. M. Versteegh, Andrea Koschinsky, Thomas Kuhn, Inken Preuss, and Sabine Kasten
Biogeosciences, 18, 4965–4984,Short summary
Oxygen penetrates sediments not only from the ocean bottom waters but also from the basement. The impact of the latter is poorly understood. We show that this basement oxygen has a clear impact on the nitrogen cycle, the redox state, and the distribution of manganese, nickel cobalt and organic matter in the sediments. This is important for (1) global biogeochemical cycles, (2) understanding sedimentary life and (3) the interpretation of the sediment record to reconstruct the past.
Annika Fiskal, Eva Anthamatten, Longhui Deng, Xingguo Han, Lorenzo Lagostina, Anja Michel, Rong Zhu, Nathalie Dubois, Carsten J. Schubert, Stefano M. Bernasconi, and Mark A. Lever
Biogeosciences, 18, 4369–4388,Short summary
Microbially produced methane can serve as a carbon source for freshwater macrofauna most likely through grazing on methane-oxidizing bacteria. This study investigates the contributions of different carbon sources to macrofaunal biomass. Our data suggest that the average contribution of methane-derived carbon is similar between different fauna but overall remains low. This is further supported by the low abundance of methane-cycling microorganisms.
Astrid Hylén, Sebastiaan J. van de Velde, Mikhail Kononets, Mingyue Luo, Elin Almroth-Rosell, and Per O. J. Hall
Biogeosciences, 18, 2981–3004,Short summary
Sediments in oxygen-depleted ocean areas release high amounts of phosphorus, feeding algae that consume oxygen upon degradation, leading to further phosphorus release. Oxygenation is thought to trap phosphorus in the sediment and break this feedback. We studied the sediment phosphorus cycle in a previously anoxic area after an inflow of oxic water. Surprisingly, the sediment phosphorus release increased, showing that feedbacks between phosphorus release and oxygen depletion can be hard to break.
Sebastiaan J. van de Velde, Rebecca K. James, Ine Callebaut, Silvia Hidalgo-Martinez, and Filip J. R. Meysman
Biogeosciences, 18, 1451–1461,Short summary
Some 540 Myr ago, animal life evolved in the ocean. Previous research suggested that when these early animals started inhabiting the seafloor, they retained phosphorus in the seafloor, thereby limiting photosynthesis in the ocean. We studied salt marsh sediments with and without animals and found that their impact on phosphorus retention is limited, which implies that their impact on the global environment might have been less drastic than previously assumed.
Martijn Hermans, Nils Risgaard-Petersen, Filip J. R. Meysman, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 17, 5919–5938,Short summary
This paper demonstrates that the recently discovered cable bacteria are capable of using a mineral, known as siderite, as a source for the formation of iron oxides. This work also demonstrates that the activity of cable bacteria can lead to a distinct subsurface layer in the sediment that can be used as a marker for their activity.
Torben Windirsch, Guido Grosse, Mathias Ulrich, Lutz Schirrmeister, Alexander N. Fedorov, Pavel Y. Konstantinov, Matthias Fuchs, Loeka L. Jongejans, Juliane Wolter, Thomas Opel, and Jens Strauss
Biogeosciences, 17, 3797–3814,Short summary
To extend the knowledge on circumpolar deep permafrost carbon storage, we examined two deep permafrost deposit types (Yedoma and alas) in central Yakutia. We found little but partially undecomposed organic carbon as a result of largely changing sedimentation processes. The carbon stock of the examined Yedoma deposits is about 50 % lower than the general Yedoma domain mean, implying a very hetererogeneous Yedoma composition, while the alas is approximately 80 % below the thermokarst deposit mean.
Anna Plass, Christian Schlosser, Stefan Sommer, Andrew W. Dale, Eric P. Achterberg, and Florian Scholz
Biogeosciences, 17, 3685–3704,Short summary
We compare the cycling of Fe and Cd in sulfidic sediments of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone. Due to the contrasting solubility of their sulfide minerals, the sedimentary Fe release and Cd burial fluxes covary with spatial and temporal distributions of H2S. Depending on the solubility of their sulfide minerals, sedimentary trace metal fluxes will respond differently to ocean deoxygenation/expansion of H2S concentrations, which may change trace metal stoichiometry of upwelling water masses.
Biqing Zhu, Manuel Kübler, Melanie Ridoli, Daniel Breitenstein, and Martin H. Schroth
Biogeosciences, 17, 3613–3630,Short summary
We provide evidence that the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is enclosed in calcareous glacier-forefield sediments across Switzerland. Geochemical analyses confirmed that this ancient CH4 has its origin in the calcareous parent bedrock. Our estimate of the total quantity of CH4 enclosed in sediments across Switzerland indicates a large CH4 mass (~105 t CH4). We produced evidence that CH4 is stable in its enclosed state, but additional experiments are needed to elucidate its long-term fate.
Matteo Puglini, Victor Brovkin, Pierre Regnier, and Sandra Arndt
Biogeosciences, 17, 3247–3275,Short summary
A reaction-transport model to assess the potential non-turbulent methane flux from the East Siberian Arctic sediments to water columns is applied here. We show that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an efficient filter except for high values of sedimentation rate and advective flow, which enable considerable non-turbulent steady-state methane fluxes. Significant transient methane fluxes can also occur during the building-up phase of the AOM-performing biomass microbial community.
Kyle Delwiche, Junyao Gu, Harold Hemond, and Sarah P. Preheim
Biogeosciences, 17, 3135–3147,Short summary
In this study, we investigate whether bubbles transport sediments containing arsenic and cyanobacteria from the bottom to the top of a polluted lake. We measured arsenic and cyanobacteria from bubble traps in the lake and from an experimental bubble column in the laboratory. We found that bubble transport was not an important source of arsenic in the surface waters but that bubbles could transport enough cyanobacteria to the surface to exacerbate harmful algal blooms.
Nathaniel Kemnitz, William M. Berelson, Douglas E. Hammond, Laura Morine, Maria Figueroa, Timothy W. Lyons, Simon Scharf, Nick Rollins, Elizabeth Petsios, Sydnie Lemieux, and Tina Treude
Biogeosciences, 17, 2381–2396,Short summary
Our paper shows how sedimentation in a very low oxygen setting provides a unique record of environmental change. We look at the past 250 years through the filter of sediment accumulation via radioisotope dating and other physical and chemical analyses of these sediments. We conclude, remarkably, that there has been very little change in net sediment mass accumulation through the past 100–150 years, yet just prior to 1900 CE, sediments were accumulating at 50 %–70 % of today's rate.
Dario Fussmann, Avril Jean Elisabeth von Hoyningen-Huene, Andreas Reimer, Dominik Schneider, Hana Babková, Robert Peticzka, Andreas Maier, Gernot Arp, Rolf Daniel, and Patrick Meister
Biogeosciences, 17, 2085–2106,Short summary
Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) is supersaturated in many aquatic settings (e.g., seawater) on modern Earth but does not precipitate directly from the fluid, a fact known as the dolomite problem. The widely acknowledged concept of dolomite precipitation involves microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and anoxic conditions as important drivers. In contrast, results from Lake Neusiedl support an alternative concept of Ca–Mg carbonate precipitation under aerobic and alkaline conditions.
Aurèle Vuillemin, André Friese, Richard Wirth, Jan A. Schuessler, Anja M. Schleicher, Helga Kemnitz, Andreas Lücke, Kohen W. Bauer, Sulung Nomosatryo, Friedhelm von Blanckenburg, Rachel Simister, Luis G. Ordoñez, Daniel Ariztegui, Cynthia Henny, James M. Russell, Satria Bijaksana, Hendrik Vogel, Sean A. Crowe, Jens Kallmeyer, and the Towuti Drilling Project Science team
Biogeosciences, 17, 1955–1973,Short summary
Ferruginous lakes experience restricted primary production due to phosphorus trapping by ferric iron oxides under oxic conditions. We report the presence of large crystals of vivianite, a ferrous iron phosphate, in sediments from Lake Towuti, Indonesia. We address processes of P retention linked to diagenesis of iron phases. Vivianite crystals had light Fe2+ isotope signatures and contained mineral inclusions consistent with antecedent processes of microbial sulfate and iron reduction.
Sonja Geilert, Patricia Grasse, Kristin Doering, Klaus Wallmann, Claudia Ehlert, Florian Scholz, Martin Frank, Mark Schmidt, and Christian Hensen
Biogeosciences, 17, 1745–1763,Short summary
Marine silicate weathering is a key process of the marine silica cycle; however, its controlling processes are not well understood. In the Guaymas Basin, silicate weathering has been studied under markedly differing ambient conditions. Environmental settings like redox conditions or terrigenous input of reactive silicates appear to be major factors controlling marine silicate weathering. These factors need to be taken into account in future oceanic mass balances of Si and in modeling studies.
Jessica B. Volz, Laura Haffert, Matthias Haeckel, Andrea Koschinsky, and Sabine Kasten
Biogeosciences, 17, 1113–1131,Short summary
Potential future deep-sea mining of polymetallic nodules at the seafloor is expected to severely harm the marine environment. However, the consequences on deep-sea ecosystems are still poorly understood. This study on surface sediments from man-made disturbance tracks in the Pacific Ocean shows that due to the removal of the uppermost sediment layer and thereby the loss of organic matter, the geochemical system in the sediments is disturbed for millennia before reaching a new equilibrium.
Ralf Conrad, Melanie Klose, and Alex Enrich-Prast
Biogeosciences, 17, 1063–1069,Short summary
Lake sediments release the greenhouse gas CH4. Acetate is an important precursor. Although Amazonian lake sediments all contained acetate-consuming methanogens, measurement of the turnover of labeled acetate showed that some sediments converted acetate not to CH4 plus CO2, as expected, but only to CO2. Our results indicate the operation of acetate-oxidizing microorganisms couples the oxidation process to syntrophic methanogenic partners and/or to the reduction of organic compounds.
Jens Rassmann, Eryn M. Eitel, Bruno Lansard, Cécile Cathalot, Christophe Brandily, Martial Taillefert, and Christophe Rabouille
Biogeosciences, 17, 13–33,Short summary
In this paper, we use a large set of measurements made using in situ and lab techniques to elucidate the cause of dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes in sediments from the Rhône delta and its companion compound alkalinity, which carries the absorption capacity of coastal waters with respect to atmospheric CO2. We show that sediment processes (sulfate reduction, FeS precipitation and accumulation) are crucial in generating the alkalinity fluxes observed in this study by in situ incubation chambers.
Sophie A. L. Paul, Matthias Haeckel, Michael Bau, Rajina Bajracharya, and Andrea Koschinsky
Biogeosciences, 16, 4829–4849,Short summary
We studied the upper 10 m of deep-sea sediments, including pore water, in the Peru Basin to understand small-scale variability of trace metals. Our results show high spatial variability related to topographical variations, which in turn impact organic matter contents, degradation processes, and trace metal cycling. Another interesting finding was the influence of dissolving buried nodules on the surrounding sediment and trace metal cycling.
Sarah Paradis, Antonio Pusceddu, Pere Masqué, Pere Puig, Davide Moccia, Tommaso Russo, and Claudio Lo Iacono
Biogeosciences, 16, 4307–4320,Short summary
Chronic deep bottom trawling in the Gulf of Castellammare (SW Mediterranean) erodes large volumes of sediment, exposing over-century-old sediment depleted in organic matter. Nevertheless, the arrival of fresh and nutritious sediment recovers superficial organic matter in trawling grounds and leads to high turnover rates, partially and temporarily mitigating the impacts of bottom trawling. However, this deposition is ephemeral and it will be swiftly eroded by the passage of the next trawler.
Zhichao Zhou, Bo Liang, Li-Ying Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Bo-Zhong Mu, Hojae Shim, and Ji-Dong Gu
Biogeosciences, 16, 4229–4241,Short summary
This study shows a core bacterial microbiome with a small proportion of shared operational taxonomic units of common sequences among all oil reservoirs. Dominant methanogenesis shifts from the hydrogenotrophic pathway in water phase to the acetoclastic pathway in the oil phase at high temperatures, but the opposite is true at low temperatures. There are also major functional metabolism differences between the two phases for amino acids, hydrocarbons, and carbohydrates.
Annika Fiskal, Longhui Deng, Anja Michel, Philip Eickenbusch, Xingguo Han, Lorenzo Lagostina, Rong Zhu, Michael Sander, Martin H. Schroth, Stefano M. Bernasconi, Nathalie Dubois, and Mark A. Lever
Biogeosciences, 16, 3725–3746,
Hanni Vigderovich, Lewen Liang, Barak Herut, Fengping Wang, Eyal Wurgaft, Maxim Rubin-Blum, and Orit Sivan
Biogeosciences, 16, 3165–3181,Short summary
Microbial iron reduction participates in important biogeochemical cycles. In the last decade iron reduction has been observed in many aquatic sediments below its classical zone, in the methane production zone, suggesting a link between the two cycles. Here we present evidence for microbial iron reduction in the methanogenic depth of the oligotrophic SE Mediterranean continental shelf using mainly geochemical and microbial sedimentary profiles and suggest possible mechanisms for this process.
Haoyi Yao, Wei-Li Hong, Giuliana Panieri, Simone Sauer, Marta E. Torres, Moritz F. Lehmann, Friederike Gründger, and Helge Niemann
Biogeosciences, 16, 2221–2232,Short summary
How methane is transported in the sediment is important for the microbial community living on methane. Here we report an observation of a mini-fracture that facilitates the advective gas transport of methane in the sediment, compared to the diffusive fluid transport without a fracture. We found contrasting bio-geochemical signals in these different transport modes. This finding can help to fill the gap in the fracture network system in modulating methane dynamics in surface sediments.
Laura A. Casella, Sixin He, Erika Griesshaber, Lourdes Fernández-Díaz, Martina Greiner, Elizabeth M. Harper, Daniel J. Jackson, Andreas Ziegler, Vasileios Mavromatis, Martin Dietzel, Anton Eisenhauer, Sabino Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Uwe Brand, and Wolfgang W. Schmahl
Biogeosciences, 15, 7451–7484,Short summary
Biogenic carbonates record past environmental conditions. Fossil shell chemistry and microstructure change as metastable biogenic carbonates are replaced by inorganic calcite. Simulated diagenetic alteration at 175 °C of different shell microstructures showed that (nacreous) shell aragonite and calcite were partially replaced by coarse inorganic calcite crystals due to dissolution–reprecipitation reactions. EBSD maps allowed for qualitative assessment of the degree of diagenetic overprint.
Wytze K. Lenstra, Matthias Egger, Niels A. G. M. van Helmond, Emma Kritzberg, Daniel J. Conley, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 15, 6979–6996,Short summary
We show that burial rates of phosphorus (P) in an estuary in the northern Baltic Sea are very high. We demonstrate that at high sedimentation rates, P retention in the sediment is related to the formation of vivianite. With a reactive transport model, we assess the sensitivity of sedimentary vivianite formation. We suggest that enrichments of iron and P in the sediment are linked to periods of enhanced riverine input of Fe, which subsequently strongly enhances P burial in coastal sediments.
Jiarui Liu, Gareth Izon, Jiasheng Wang, Gilad Antler, Zhou Wang, Jie Zhao, and Matthias Egger
Biogeosciences, 15, 6329–6348,Short summary
Our work provides new insights into the biogeochemical cycling of iron, methane and phosphorus. We found that vivianite, an iron-phosphate mineral, is pervasive in methane-rich sediments, suggesting that iron reduction at depth is coupled to phosphorus and methane cycling on a much greater spatial scale than previously assumed. Acting as an important burial mechanism for iron and phosphorus, vivianite authigenesis may be an under-considered process in both modern and ancient settings alike.
Marc A. Besseling, Ellen C. Hopmans, R. Christine Boschman, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Laura Villanueva
Biogeosciences, 15, 4047–4064,Short summary
Benthic archaea comprise a significant part of the total prokaryotic biomass in marine sediments. Here, we compared the archaeal diversity and intact polar lipid (IPL) composition in both surface and subsurface sediments with different oxygen regimes in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone. The oxygenated sediments were dominated by Thaumarchaeota and IPL-GDGT-0. The anoxic sediment contained highly diverse archaeal communities and high relative abundances of IPL-GDGT-1 to -4.
Georgina Robinson, Thomas MacTavish, Candida Savage, Gary S. Caldwell, Clifford L. W. Jones, Trevor Probyn, Bradley D. Eyre, and Selina M. Stead
Biogeosciences, 15, 1863–1878,Short summary
This study examined the effect of adding carbon to a sediment-based effluent treatment system to treat nitrogen-rich aquaculture waste. The research was conducted in incubation chambers to measure the exchange of gases and nutrients across the sediment–water interface and examine changes in the sediment microbial community. Adding carbon increased the amount of nitrogen retained in the treatment system, thereby reducing the levels of nitrogen needing to be discharged to the environment.
Daniele Brigolin, Christophe Rabouille, Bruno Bombled, Silvia Colla, Salvatrice Vizzini, Roberto Pastres, and Fabio Pranovi
Biogeosciences, 15, 1347–1366,Short summary
We present the result of a study carried out in the north-western Adriatic Sea by combining two different types of models with field sampling. A mussel farm was taken as a local source of perturbation to the natural flux of particulate organic carbon to the sediment. Differences in fluxes were primarily associated with mussel physiological conditions. Although restricted, these changes in particulate organic carbon fluxes induced visible effects on sediment biogeochemistry.
Volker Brüchert, Lisa Bröder, Joanna E. Sawicka, Tommaso Tesi, Samantha P. Joye, Xiaole Sun, Igor P. Semiletov, and Vladimir A. Samarkin
Biogeosciences, 15, 471–490,Short summary
We determined the aerobic and anaerobic degradation rates of land- and marine-derived organic material in East Siberian shelf sediment. Marine plankton-derived organic carbon was the main source for the oxic dissolved carbon dioxide production, whereas terrestrial organic material significantly contributed to the production of carbon dioxide under anoxic conditions. Our direct degradation rate measurements provide new constraints for the present-day Arctic marine carbon budget.
Jack J. Middelburg
Biogeosciences, 15, 413–427,Short summary
Organic carbon processing at the seafloor is studied by geologists to better understand the sedimentary record, by biogeochemists to quantify burial and respiration, by organic geochemists to elucidate compositional changes, and by ecologists to follow carbon transfers within food webs. These disciplinary approaches have their strengths and weaknesses. This award talk provides a synthesis, highlights the role of animals in sediment carbon processing and presents some new concepts.
Craig Smeaton, William E. N. Austin, Althea L. Davies, Agnes Baltzer, John A. Howe, and John M. Baxter
Biogeosciences, 14, 5663–5674,Short summary
Fjord sediments are recognised as hotspots for the burial and long-term storage of carbon. In this study, we use the Scottish fjords as a natural laboratory. Using geophysical and geochemical analysis in combination with upscaling techniques, we have generated the first full national sedimentary C inventory for a fjordic system. The results indicate that the Scottish fjords on a like-for-like basis are more effective as C stores than their terrestrial counterparts, including Scottish peatlands.
Perran Louis Miall Cook, Adam John Kessler, and Bradley David Eyre
Biogeosciences, 14, 4061–4069,Short summary
Nitrogen is the key nutrient that typically limits productivity in coastal waters. One of the key controls on the amount of bioavailable nitrogen is the process of denitrification, which converts nitrate (bioavailable) into nitrogen gas. Previous studies suggest high rates of denitrification may take place within carbonate sediments, and one explanation for this is that this process may take place within the sand grains. Here we show evidence to support this hypothesis.
Chris T. Parsons, Fereidoun Rezanezhad, David W. O'Connell, and Philippe Van Cappellen
Biogeosciences, 14, 3585–3602,Short summary
Phosphorus (P) has accumulated in sediments due to past human activities. The re-release of this P to water contributes to the growth of harmful algal blooms. Our research improves our mechanistic understanding of how P is partitioned between different chemical forms and between sediment and water under dynamic conditions. We demonstrate that P trapped within iron minerals may be less mobile during anoxic conditions than previously thought due to reversible changes to P forms within sediment.
Laura A. Casella, Erika Griesshaber, Xiaofei Yin, Andreas Ziegler, Vasileios Mavromatis, Dirk Müller, Ann-Christine Ritter, Dorothee Hippler, Elizabeth M. Harper, Martin Dietzel, Adrian Immenhauser, Bernd R. Schöne, Lucia Angiolini, and Wolfgang W. Schmahl
Biogeosciences, 14, 1461–1492,Short summary
Mollusc shells record past environments. Fossil shell chemistry and microstructure change as metastable biogenic aragonite transforms to stable geogenic calcite. We simulated this alteration of Arctica islandica shells by hydrothermal treatments. Below 175 °C the shell aragonite survived for weeks. At 175 °C the replacement of the original material starts after 4 days and yields submillimetre-sized calcites preserving the macroscopic morphology as well as the original internal micromorphology.
Jung-Ho Hyun, Sung-Han Kim, Jin-Sook Mok, Hyeyoun Cho, Tongsup Lee, Verona Vandieken, and Bo Thamdrup
Biogeosciences, 14, 941–958,Short summary
The surface sediments of the Ulleung Basin (UB) in the East Sea are characterized by high organic carbon contents (> 2.5 %, dry wt.) and very high concentrations of Mn oxides (> 200 μmol cm−3) and Fe oxides (up to 100 μmol cm−3). For the first time in deep offshore sediments on the Asian margin with water depth over 2000 m, we report that Mn reduction and Fe reduction were the dominant organic carbon (Corg) oxidation pathways, comprising 45 % and 20 % of total Corg oxidation, respectively.
Jens Rassmann, Bruno Lansard, Lara Pozzato, and Christophe Rabouille
Biogeosciences, 13, 5379–5394,Short summary
In situ O2 and pH measurements as well as determination of porewater concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, sulfate and calcium have been measured in the sediments of the Rhône prodelta. Biogeochemical activity decreased with distance from the river mouth. Oxic processes decreased the carbonate saturation state (Ω) by lowering pH, whereas anaerobic organic matter degradation, dominated by sulfate reduction, was accompanied by increasing Ω and carbonate precipitation.
Matthias Egger, Peter Kraal, Tom Jilbert, Fatimah Sulu-Gambari, Célia J. Sapart, Thomas Röckmann, and Caroline P. Slomp
Biogeosciences, 13, 5333–5355,Short summary
By combining detailed geochemical analyses with diagenetic modeling, we provide new insights into how methane dynamics may strongly overprint burial records of iron, sulfur and phosphorus in marine systems subject to changes in organic matter loading or water column salinity. A better understanding of these processes will improve our ability to read ancient sediment records and thus to predict the potential consequences of global warming and human-enhanced inputs of nutrients to the ocean.
Jianlin Zhao, Kristof Van Oost, Longqian Chen, and Gerard Govers
Biogeosciences, 13, 4735–4750,Short summary
We used a novel approach to reassess erosion rates on the CLP. We found that both current average topsoil erosion rates and the maximum magnitude of the erosion-induced carbon sink are overestimated on the CLP. Although average topsoil losses on the CLP are still high, a major increase in agricultural productivity occurred since 1980. Hence, erosion is currently not a direct threat to agricultural productivity on the CLP but the long-term effects of erosion on soil quality remain important.
Heiko Sahling, Christian Borowski, Elva Escobar-Briones, Adriana Gaytán-Caballero, Chieh-Wei Hsu, Markus Loher, Ian MacDonald, Yann Marcon, Thomas Pape, Miriam Römer, Maxim Rubin-Blum, Florence Schubotz, Daniel Smrzka, Gunter Wegener, and Gerhard Bohrmann
Biogeosciences, 13, 4491–4512,Short summary
We were excited about nature’s diversity when we discovered spectacular flows of heavy oil at the seafloor with the remotely operated vehicle QUEST 4000 m in Campeche Bay, southern Gulf of Mexico. Vigorous methane gas bubble emissions lead to massive gas hydrate deposits at water depth as deep as 3420 m. The hydrates formed metre-sized mounds at the seafloor that were densely overgrown by vestimentiferan tubeworms and other seep-typical organisms.
Clare Woulds, Steven Bouillon, Gregory L. Cowie, Emily Drake, Jack J. Middelburg, and Ursula Witte
Biogeosciences, 13, 4343–4357,Short summary
Estuarine sediments are important locations for carbon cycling and burial. We used tracer experiments to investigate how site conditions affect the way in which seafloor biological communities cycle carbon. We showed that while total respiration rates are primarily determined by temperature, total carbon processing by the biological community is strongly related to its biomass. Further, we saw a distinct pattern of carbon cycling in sandy sediment, in which uptake by bacteria dominates.
Christine Alewell, Axel Birkholz, Katrin Meusburger, Yael Schindler Wildhaber, and Lionel Mabit
Biogeosciences, 13, 1587–1596,Short summary
Origin of suspended sediments in rivers is of crucial importance for optimization of catchment management. Sediment source attribution to a lowland river in central Switzerland with compound specific stable isotopes analysis (CSIA) indicated that 65 % of the suspended sediments originated from agricultural land during base flow, while forest was the dominant source during high flow. We achieved significant differences in CSIA signature from land uses dominated by C3 plant cultivation.
Ulrike Lomnitz, Stefan Sommer, Andrew W. Dale, Carolin R. Löscher, Anna Noffke, Klaus Wallmann, and Christian Hensen
Biogeosciences, 13, 1367–1386,Short summary
The study presents a P budget including the P input from the water column, the P burial in the sediments, as well as the P release from the sediments. We found that the P input could not maintain the P release rates. Consideration of other P sources, e.g., terrigenous P and P released from the dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, showed that none of these can account for the missing P. Thus, it is likely that abundant sulfide-oxidizing bacteria release the missing P during our measurement period.
J. Maltby, S. Sommer, A. W. Dale, and T. Treude
Biogeosciences, 13, 283–299,Short summary
The concurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction was investigated in surface sediments (0–25cm b.s.f.) traversing the Peruvian margin. Surface methanogenesis was mainly based on non-competitive substrates to avoid competition with sulfate reducers. Accordingly, surface methanogenesis was mainly controlled by the availability of labile organic matter. The high relevance of surface methanogenesis especially on the shelf indicates its underestimated role within benthic methane budgeting.
S. D. Wankel, C. Buchwald, W. Ziebis, C. B. Wenk, and M. F. Lehmann
Biogeosciences, 12, 7483–7502,Short summary
In the sediments underlying the global oligotrophic ocean, low levels of microbial activity persist, despite low input of organic matter from surface ocean productivity. Using measured nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of porewater nitrate we estimate the magnitude and extent of microbial nitrogen cycling. We find evidence for the overlap of both denitrification as well as autotrophic pathways such as nitrification and nitrogen fixation, pointing to a relatively large role for subsurface autotrophy.
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Continental slopes north of the East Siberian Sea are assumed to hold large amounts of methane. We present pore water chemistry from the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. These are among the first results generated from this vast climatically sensitive region, and they imply that abundant methane, including gas hydrates, do not characterize the East Siberian Sea slope or rise. This contradicts previous modeling and discussions, which due to the lack of data are almost entirely based assumption.
Continental slopes north of the East Siberian Sea are assumed to hold large amounts of methane....