Articles | Volume 12, issue 2
Biogeosciences, 12, 607–621, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: KEOPS2: Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau Study 2
30 Jan 2015
Research article | 30 Jan 2015
Origin and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a naturally iron-fertilized region of the Southern Ocean
L. Tremblay et al.
No articles found.
Julie Dinasquet, Estelle Bigeard, Frédéric Gazeau, Farooq Azam, Cécile Guieu, Emilio Marañón, Céline Ridame, France Van Wambeke, Ingrid Obernosterer, and Anne-Claire Baudoux
Biogeosciences, 19, 1303–1319,Short summary
Saharan dust deposition of nutrients and trace metals is crucial to microbes in the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we tested the response of microbial and viral communities to simulated dust deposition under present and future conditions of temperature and pH. Overall, the effect of the deposition was dependent on the initial microbial assemblage, and future conditions will intensify microbial responses. We observed effects on trophic interactions, cascading all the way down to viral processes.
Flavienne Bruyant, Rémi Amiraux, Marie-Pier Amyot, Philippe Archambault, Lise Artigue, Lucas Bardedo de Freitas, Guislain Bécu, Simon Bélanger, Pascaline Bourgain, Annick Bricaud, Etienne Brouard, Camille Brunet, Tonya Burgers, Danielle Caleb, Katrine Chalut, Hervé Clautre, Véronique Cornet-Barthaux, Pierre Coupel, Marine Cusa, Fanny Cusset, Laeticia Dadaglio, Marty Davelaar, Gabriele Deslongchamps, Céline Dimier, Julie Dinasquet, Dany Dumont, Brent Else, Igor Eulaers, Joannie Ferland, Gabrielle Filteau, Marie-Hélène Forget, Jérome Fort, Louis Fortier, Martí Galí-Tapías, Morgane Gallinari, Svend-Erik Garbus, Nicole Garcia, Catherine Gérikas Ribeiro, Colline Gombault, Priscilla Gourvil, Clémence Goyens, Cindy Grant, Pierre-Luc Grondin, Pascal Guillot, Sandrine Hillion, Rachel Hussher, Fabien Joux, Hannah Joy-Warren, Gabriel Joyal, David Kieber, Augustin Lafond, José Lagunas, Patrick Lajeunesse, Catherine Lalande, Jade Larivière, Florence Le Gall, Karine Leblanc, Mathieu Leblanc, Justine Legras, Keith Levesque, Kate-Marie Lewis, Edouard Leymarie, Aude Leynaert, Thomas Linkowski, Martine Lizotte, Adriana Lopes dos Santos, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Guillaume Massé, Philippe Massicotte, Atsushi Matsuoka, Lisa Miller, Sharif Mirshak, Nathalie Morata, Brivaela Moriceau, Philippe-Israël Morin, Simon Morisset, Anders Mosbech, Alfonso Mucci, Gabrielle Nadaï, Christian Nozais, Ingrid Obernosterer, Timothe Paire, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Marie Parenteau, Noémie Pelletier, Marc Picheral, Bernard Quéguiner, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Eric Rehm, Llúcia Ribot Lacosta, Jean-François Rontani, Blanche Saint-Béat, Julie Sansoulet, Noé Sardet, Catherine Schmechtig, Antoine Sciandra, Richard Sempéré, Caroline Sévigny, Jordan Toullec, Margot Tragin, Jean-Eric Tremblay, Annie-Pier Trottier, Daniel Vaulot, Anda Vladoiu, Lei Xue, Gustavo Yunda-Guarin, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
This paper presents a data set acquired during a research cruise held in Baffin Bay during Spring 2016. We observed that the disappearance of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean increases both the length and spatial extent of the phytoplankton growth season. In the future, this will impact the food webs on which the local populations depend for their food supply and fisheries. This data set will provide insight to quantify these impacts and help the decision-making process for policymakers.
Frédéric Gazeau, Céline Ridame, France Van Wambeke, Samir Alliouane, Christian Stolpe, Jean-Olivier Irisson, Sophie Marro, Jean-Michel Grisoni, Guillaume De Liège, Sandra Nunige, Kahina Djaoudi, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, Philippe Catala, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5011–5034,Short summary
This paper shows that the impacts of Saharan dust deposition in different Mediterranean basins are as strong as those observed in coastal waters but differed substantially between the three tested stations, differences attributed to variable initial metabolic states. A stronger impact of warming and acidification on mineralization suggests a decreased capacity of Mediterranean surface communities to sequester CO2 following the deposition of atmospheric particles in the coming decades.
Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Alessia Nicosia, Leah R. Williams, Matteo Rinaldi, Jonathan T. Trueblood, André S. H. Prévôt, Melilotus Thyssen, Gérald Grégori, Nils Haëntjens, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, France Van Wambeke, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Karine Desboeufs, Eija Asmi, Hilkka Timonen, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10625–10641,Short summary
In this work, we present observations of the organic aerosol content in primary sea spray aerosols (SSAs) continuously generated along a 5-week cruise in the Mediterranean. This information is combined with seawater biogeochemical properties also measured continuously along the ship track to develop a number of parametrizations that can be used in models to determine SSA organic content in oligotrophic waters that represent 60 % of the oceans from commonly measured seawater variables.
Jonathan V. Trueblood, Alessia Nicosia, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Matteo Rinaldi, Evelyn Freney, Melilotus Thyssen, Ingrid Obernosterer, Julie Dinasquet, Franco Belosi, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodriguez-Romero, Gianni Santachiara, Cécile Guieu, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4659–4676,Short summary
Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) can be an important source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that impact cloud properties over the oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, we found that the INPs in the seawater surface microlayer increased by an order of magnitude after a rain dust event that impacted iron and bacterial abundances. The INP properties of SSA (INPSSA) increased after a 3 d delay. Outside this event, INPSSA could be parameterized as a function of the seawater biogeochemistry.
Philippe Massicotte, Rémi Amiraux, Marie-Pier Amyot, Philippe Archambault, Mathieu Ardyna, Laurent Arnaud, Lise Artigue, Cyril Aubry, Pierre Ayotte, Guislain Bécu, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Henry C. Bittig, Annick Bricaud, Éric Brossier, Flavienne Bruyant, Laurent Chauvaud, Debra Christiansen-Stowe, Hervé Claustre, Véronique Cornet-Barthaux, Pierre Coupel, Christine Cox, Aurelie Delaforge, Thibaud Dezutter, Céline Dimier, Florent Domine, Francis Dufour, Christiane Dufresne, Dany Dumont, Jens Ehn, Brent Else, Joannie Ferland, Marie-Hélène Forget, Louis Fortier, Martí Galí, Virginie Galindo, Morgane Gallinari, Nicole Garcia, Catherine Gérikas Ribeiro, Margaux Gourdal, Priscilla Gourvil, Clemence Goyens, Pierre-Luc Grondin, Pascal Guillot, Caroline Guilmette, Marie-Noëlle Houssais, Fabien Joux, Léo Lacour, Thomas Lacour, Augustin Lafond, José Lagunas, Catherine Lalande, Julien Laliberté, Simon Lambert-Girard, Jade Larivière, Johann Lavaud, Anita LeBaron, Karine Leblanc, Florence Le Gall, Justine Legras, Mélanie Lemire, Maurice Levasseur, Edouard Leymarie, Aude Leynaert, Adriana Lopes dos Santos, Antonio Lourenço, David Mah, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Nicolas Martin, Constance Marty, Sabine Marty, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Lisa Matthes, Brivaela Moriceau, Pierre-Emmanuel Muller, Christopher-John Mundy, Griet Neukermans, Laurent Oziel, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Jean-Jacques Pangrazi, Ghislain Picard, Marc Picheral, France Pinczon du Sel, Nicole Pogorzelec, Ian Probert, Bernard Quéguiner, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Eric Rehm, Erin Reimer, Jean-François Rontani, Søren Rysgaard, Blanche Saint-Béat, Makoto Sampei, Julie Sansoulet, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Caroline Sévigny, Yuan Shen, Margot Tragin, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Daniel Vaulot, Gauthier Verin, Frédéric Vivier, Anda Vladoiu, Jeremy Whitehead, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 151–176,Short summary
The Green Edge initiative was developed to understand the processes controlling the primary productivity and the fate of organic matter produced during the Arctic spring bloom (PSB). In this article, we present an overview of an extensive and comprehensive dataset acquired during two expeditions conducted in 2015 and 2016 on landfast ice southeast of Qikiqtarjuaq Island in Baffin Bay.
Karine Leblanc, Véronique Cornet, Peggy Rimmelin-Maury, Olivier Grosso, Sandra Hélias-Nunige, Camille Brunet, Hervé Claustre, Joséphine Ras, Nathalie Leblond, and Bernard Quéguiner
Biogeosciences, 15, 5595–5620,Short summary
The Si biogeochemical cycle was studied during two oceanographic cruises in the tropical South Pacific in 2005 and 2015, between New Caledonia and the Chilean upwelling (8–34° S). Some of the lowest levels of biogenic silica stocks were found in the southern Pacific gyre, where Chlorophyll a concentrations are most depleted worldwide. Size-fractionated biogenic silica concentrations as well as Si kinetic uptake experiments revealed biological Si uptake by the picoplanktonic size fraction.
Karine Leblanc, Véronique Cornet, Mathieu Caffin, Martine Rodier, Anne Desnues, Hugo Berthelot, Kendra Turk-Kubo, and Jules Heliou
Biogeosciences, 13, 5205–5219,
A. J. Cavagna, F. Fripiat, M. Elskens, P. Mangion, L. Chirurgien, I. Closset, M. Lasbleiz, L. Florez-Leiva, D. Cardinal, K. Leblanc, C. Fernandez, D. Lefèvre, L. Oriol, S. Blain, B. Quéguiner, and F. Dehairs
Biogeosciences, 12, 6515–6528,Short summary
Primary production, NO3- and NH4+ uptake, and nitrification rates were measured during the KEOPS 2 cruise (austral spring 2011) in the Kerguelen Plateau area. Natural iron fertilization stimulated primary production which is much higher in the fertilized areas compared to the HNLC site. We report high rates of nitrification in the mixed layer below the euphotic zone. We conclude that high productivity in deep mixing system stimulates the N cycle by increasing both assimilation and regeneration.
A. R. Bowie, P. van der Merwe, F. Quéroué, T. Trull, M. Fourquez, F. Planchon, G. Sarthou, F. Chever, A. T. Townsend, I. Obernosterer, J.-B. Sallée, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 4421–4445,Short summary
Iron biogeochemical budgets during the natural ocean fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2 showed that complex circulation and transport pathways were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic and lithogenic pools was highly dynamic, resulting in a decoupling of iron supply and carbon export and controlling the efficiency of fertilization.
I. Obernosterer, M. Fourquez, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1983–1992,
M. Fourquez, I. Obernosterer, D. M. Davies, T. W. Trull, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1893–1906,Short summary
In this manuscript, we present the results of iron uptake measured in the naturally iron-fertilized area during the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study 2 cruise (KEOPS2). Iron uptake by bulk community and several size fractions (microplankton, pico-nanoplankton and bacteria) are presented, compared and discussed in the present paper. This work also presents first investigations on the potential competition between bacteria and phytoplankton for access to iron.
T. W. Trull, D. M. Davies, F. Dehairs, A.-J. Cavagna, M. Lasbleiz, E. C. Laurenceau-Cornec, F. d'Ovidio, F. Planchon, K. Leblanc, B. Quéguiner, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1029–1056,Short summary
The KEOPS2 oceanographic study surveyed more than 30 sites downstream from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean to examine the degree of variation in phytoplankton community responses to natural iron inputs. Our observations of community structure based on the chemical compositions of six microbial size fractions suggest that early spring trophodynamic and export responses differed between regions with persistently low levels versus punctually high levels of iron fertilisation.
S. Blain, J. Capparos, A. Guéneuguès, I. Obernosterer, and L. Oriol
Biogeosciences, 12, 623–635,
A. Malits, U. Christaki, I. Obernosterer, and M. G. Weinbauer
Biogeosciences, 11, 6841–6853,
U. Christaki, D. Lefèvre, C. Georges, J. Colombet, P. Catala, C. Courties, T. Sime-Ngando, S. Blain, and I. Obernosterer
Biogeosciences, 11, 6739–6753,Short summary
The concurrent investigation of several parameters has provided insight into two key roles of heterotrophic bacteria, and the microbial food web functioning, at the onset and late phase of the spring phytoplankton bloom induced by natural iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean.
M. Lasbleiz, K. Leblanc, S. Blain, J. Ras, V. Cornet-Barthaux, S. Hélias Nunige, and B. Quéguiner
Biogeosciences, 11, 5931–5955,
I. Closset, M. Lasbleiz, K. Leblanc, B. Quéguiner, A.-J. Cavagna, M. Elskens, J. Navez, and D. Cardinal
Biogeosciences, 11, 5827–5846,
E. Pulido-Villena, A.-C. Baudoux, I. Obernosterer, M. Landa, J. Caparros, P. Catala, C. Georges, J. Harmand, and C. Guieu
Biogeosciences, 11, 5607–5619,
V. Giovagnetti, C. Brunet, F. Conversano, F. Tramontano, I. Obernosterer, C. Ridame, and C. Guieu
Biogeosciences, 10, 2973–2991,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Organic BiogeochemistryCompositions of dissolved organic matter in the ice-covered waters above the Aurora hydrothermal vent system, Gakkel Ridge, Arctic OceanOrganic matter characteristics of a rapidly eroding permafrost cliff in NE Siberia (Lena Delta, Laptev Sea region)Microbial labilization and diversification of pyrogenic dissolved organic matterBacterial and eukaryotic intact polar lipids point to in situ production as a key source of labile organic matter in hadal surface sediment of the Atacama TrenchWhat can we learn from amino acids about oceanic organic matter cycling and degradation?Bacteriohopanetetrol-x: constraining its application as a lipid biomarker for marine anammox using the water column oxygen gradient of the Benguela upwelling systemActive and passive fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the northern South China SeaCyanobacteria net community production in the Baltic Sea as inferred from profiling pCO2 measurementsReviews and syntheses: Heterotrophic fixation of inorganic carbon – significant but invisible flux in environmental carbon cyclingRevised fractional abundances and warm-season temperatures substantially improve brGDGT calibrations in lake sedimentsArchaeal intact polar lipids in polar waters: a comparison between the Amundsen and Scotia seasReproducible determination of dissolved organic matter photosensitivityTechnical note: Uncovering the influence of methodological variations on the extractability of iron-bound organic carbonAnthropocene climate warming enhances autochthonous carbon cycling in an upland Arctic lake, Disko Island, West GreenlandNovel hydrocarbon-utilizing soil mycobacteria synthesize unique mycocerosic acids at a Sicilian everlasting fireAlkenone isotopes show evidence of active carbon concentrating mechanisms in coccolithophores as aqueous carbon dioxide concentrations fall below 7 µmol L−1Seasonal variability and sources of in situ brGDGT production in a permanently stratified African crater lakeSediment release of dissolved organic matter to the oxygen minimum zone off PeruBetter molecular preservation of organic matter in an oxic than in a sulfidic depositional environment: evidence from Thalassiphora pelagica (Dinoflagellata, Eocene) cystsAssessing branched tetraether lipids as tracers of soil organic carbon transport through the Carminowe Creek catchment (southwest England)The nonconservative distribution pattern of organic matter in the Rajang, a tropical river with peatland in its estuaryPredominance of hexamethylated 6-methyl branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in the Mariana Trench: source and environmental implicationHigh-pH and anoxic conditions during soil organic matter extraction increases its electron-exchange capacity and ability to stimulate microbial Fe(III) reduction by electron shuttlingSterol preservation in hypersaline microbial matsStructural elucidation and environmental distributions of butanetriol and pentanetriol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (BDGTs and PDGTs)Distribution and degradation of terrestrial organic matter in the sediments of peat-draining rivers, Sarawak, Malaysian BorneoValidation of carbon isotope fractionation in algal lipids as a pCO2 proxy using a natural CO2 seep (Shikine Island, Japan)Composition and cycling of dissolved organic matter from tropical peatlands of coastal Sarawak, Borneo, revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysisLatitudinal variations in δ30Si and δ15N signatures along the Peruvian shelf: quantifying the effects of nutrient utilization versus denitrification over the past 600 yearsDiapycnal dissolved organic matter supply into the upper Peruvian oxyclineComposition and vertical flux of particulate organic matter to the oxygen minimum zone of the central Baltic Sea: impact of a sporadic North Sea inflowMain drivers of transparent exopolymer particle distribution across the surface Atlantic OceanBiochemical and structural controls on the decomposition dynamics of boreal upland forest moss tissuesSpatiotemporal transformation of dissolved organic matter along an alpine stream flow path on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: importance of source and permafrost degradationA quest for the biological sources of long chain alkyl diols in the western tropical North Atlantic OceanLong-chain diols in rivers: distribution and potential biological sourcesLeaf wax n-alkanes in modern plants and topsoils from eastern Georgia (Caucasus) – implications for reconstructing regional paleovegetationThe role of diatom resting spores in pelagic–benthic coupling in the Southern OceanCalcium content and high calcium adaptation of plants in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, ChinaSubstrate potential of last interglacial to Holocene permafrost organic matter for future microbial greenhouse gas productionVariation pattern of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in oceans and inland watersC5 glycolipids of heterocystous cyanobacteria track symbiont abundance in the diatom Hemiaulus hauckii across the tropical North AtlanticMolecular fingerprinting of particulate organic matter as a new tool for its source apportionment: changes along a headwater drainage in coarse, medium and fine particles as a function of rainfallsVariations and determinants of carbon content in plants: a global synthesisThe Holocene sedimentary record of cyanobacterial glycolipids in the Baltic Sea: an evaluation of their application as tracers of past nitrogen fixationTechnical note: An inverse method to relate organic carbon reactivity to isotope composition from serial oxidationA mechanistic model of an upper bound on oceanic carbon export as a function of mixed layer depth and temperatureNew molecular evidence for surface and sub-surface soil erosion controls on the composition of stream DOM during storm eventsSource, composition, and environmental implication of neutral carbohydrates in sediment cores of subtropical reservoirs, South ChinaIsoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce
Muhammed Fatih Sert, Helge Niemann, Eoghan P. Reeves, Mats A. Granskog, Kevin P. Hand, Timo Kekäläinen, Janne Jänis, Pamela E. Rossel, Bénédicte Ferré, Anna Silyakova, and Friederike Gründger
Biogeosciences, 19, 2101–2120,Short summary
We investigate organic matter composition in the Arctic Ocean water column. We collected seawater samples from sea ice to deep waters at six vertical profiles near an active hydrothermal vent and its plume. In comparison to seawater, we found that the organic matter in waters directly affected by the hydrothermal plume had different chemical composition. We suggest that hydrothermal processes may influence the organic matter distribution in the deep ocean.
Charlotte Haugk, Loeka L. Jongejans, Kai Mangelsdorf, Matthias Fuchs, Olga Ogneva, Juri Palmtag, Gesine Mollenhauer, Paul J. Mann, P. Paul Overduin, Guido Grosse, Tina Sanders, Robyn E. Tuerena, Lutz Schirrmeister, Sebastian Wetterich, Alexander Kizyakov, Cornelia Karger, and Jens Strauss
Biogeosciences, 19, 2079–2094,Short summary
Buried animal and plant remains (carbon) from the last ice age were freeze-locked in permafrost. At an extremely fast eroding permafrost cliff in the Lena Delta (Siberia), we found this formerly frozen carbon well preserved. Our results show that ongoing degradation releases substantial amounts of this carbon, making it available for future carbon emissions. This mobilisation at the studied cliff and also similarly eroding sites bear the potential to affect rivers and oceans negatively.
Aleksandar I. Goranov, Andrew S. Wozniak, Kyle W. Bostick, Andrew R. Zimmerman, Siddhartha Mitra, and Patrick G. Hatcher
Biogeosciences, 19, 1491–1514,Short summary
Wildfire-derived molecules are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, but their biological fate remains understudied. We have evaluated the compositional changes that occur to wildfire-derived molecules after incubation with soil microbes. We observe a significant degradation but also a production of numerous new labile molecules. Our results indicate that wildfire-derived molecules can be broken down and the carbon and nitrogen therein can be incorporated into microbial food webs.
Edgart Flores, Sebastian I. Cantarero, Paula Ruiz-Fernández, Nadia Dildar, Matthias Zabel, Osvaldo Ulloa, and Julio Sepúlveda
Biogeosciences, 19, 1395–1420,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the chemical diversity and abundance of microbial lipids as markers of organic matter sources in the deepest points of the Atacama Trench sediments and compare them to similar lipid stocks in shallower surface sediments and in the overlying water column. We evaluate possible organic matter provenance and some potential chemical adaptations of the in situ microbial community to the extreme conditions of high hydrostatic pressure in hadal realm.
Birgit Gaye, Niko Lahajnar, Natalie Harms, Sophie Anna Luise Paul, Tim Rixen, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 19, 807–830,Short summary
Amino acids were analyzed in a large number of samples of particulate and dissolved organic matter from coastal regions and the open ocean. A statistical analysis produced two new biogeochemical indicators. An indicator of sinking particle and sediment degradation (SDI) traces the degradation of organic matter from the surface waters into the sediments. A second indicator shows the residence time of suspended matter in the ocean (RTI).
Zoë R. van Kemenade, Laura Villanueva, Ellen C. Hopmans, Peter Kraal, Harry J. Witte, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Darci Rush
Biogeosciences, 19, 201–221,Short summary
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important nitrogen-removal process in the ocean. We assess the distribution of bacteriohopanetetrol-x (BHT-x), used to trace past anammox, along a redox gradient in the water column of the Benguela upwelling system. BHT-x / BHT ratios of >0.18 correspond to the presence of living anammox bacteria and oxygen levels <50 μmol L−1. This allows for a more robust application of BHT-x to trace past marine anammox and deoxygenation in dynamic marine systems.
Jia-Jang Hung, Ching-Han Tung, Zong-Ying Lin, Yuh-ling Lee Chen, Shao-Hung Peng, Yen-Huei Lin, and Li-Shan Tsai
Biogeosciences, 18, 5141–5162,Short summary
We report measured active and passive fluxes and their controlling mechanisms in the northern South China Sea (NSCS). The total fluxes were higher than most reports in open oceans, indicating the significance of NSCS in atmospheric CO2 uptake and in storing that CO2 in the ocean’s interior. Winter cooling and extreme events enhanced nutrient availability and elevated fluxes. Global warming may have profound impacts on reducing ocean’s uptake and storage of CO2 in subtropical–tropical oceans.
Jens Daniel Müller, Bernd Schneider, Ulf Gräwe, Peer Fietzek, Marcus Bo Wallin, Anna Rutgersson, Norbert Wasmund, Siegfried Krüger, and Gregor Rehder
Biogeosciences, 18, 4889–4917,Short summary
Based on profiling pCO2 measurements from a field campaign, we quantify the biomass production of a cyanobacteria bloom in the Baltic Sea, the export of which would foster deep water deoxygenation. We further demonstrate how this biomass production can be accurately reconstructed from long-term surface measurements made on cargo vessels in combination with modelled temperature profiles. This approach enables a better understanding of a severe concern for the Baltic’s good environmental status.
Alexander Braun, Marina Spona-Friedl, Maria Avramov, Martin Elsner, Federico Baltar, Thomas Reinthaler, Gerhard J. Herndl, and Christian Griebler
Biogeosciences, 18, 3689–3700,Short summary
It is known that CO2 fixation by photoautotrophic organisms is the major sink from the atmosphere. While biologists are aware that CO2 fixation also occurs in heterotrophic organisms, this route of inorganic carbon, and its quantitative role, is hardly recognized in biogeochemistry. We demonstrate that a considerable amount of CO2 is fixed annually through anaplerotic reactions in heterotrophic organisms, and a significant quantity of inorganic carbon is temporally sequestered in biomass.
Jonathan H. Raberg, David J. Harning, Sarah E. Crump, Greg de Wet, Aria Blumm, Sebastian Kopf, Áslaug Geirsdóttir, Gifford H. Miller, and Julio Sepúlveda
Biogeosciences, 18, 3579–3603,Short summary
BrGDGT lipids are a proxy for temperature in lake sediments, but other parameters like pH can influence them, and seasonality can affect the temperatures they record. We find a warm-season bias at 43 new high-latitude sites. We also present a new method that deconvolves the effects of temperature, pH, and conductivity and generate global calibrations for these variables. Our study provides new paleoclimate tools, insight into brGDGTs at the biochemical level, and a new method for future study.
Charlotte L. Spencer-Jones, Erin L. McClymont, Nicole J. Bale, Ellen C. Hopmans, Stefan Schouten, Juliane Müller, E. Povl Abrahamsen, Claire Allen, Torsten Bickert, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Elaine Mawbey, Victoria Peck, Aleksandra Svalova, and James A. Smith
Biogeosciences, 18, 3485–3504,Short summary
Long-term ocean temperature records are needed to fully understand the impact of West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are powerful tools for reconstructing ocean temperature but can be difficult to apply to the Southern Ocean. Our results show active GDGT synthesis in relatively warm depths of the ocean. This research improves the application of GDGT palaeoceanographic proxies in the Southern Ocean.
Alec W. Armstrong, Leanne Powers, and Michael Gonsior
Biogeosciences, 18, 3367–3390,Short summary
Living things decay into organic matter, which can dissolve into water (like tea brewing). Tea receives its color by absorbing light. Similarly, this material absorbs light, which can then cause chemical reactions that change it. By measuring changes in these optical properties, we found that materials from some places are more sensitive to light than others. Comparing sensitivity to light helps us understand where these materials come from and what happens as they move through water.
Ben J. Fisher, Johan C. Faust, Oliver W. Moore, Caroline L. Peacock, and Christian März
Biogeosciences, 18, 3409–3419,Short summary
Organic carbon can be protected from microbial degradation in marine sediments through association with iron minerals on 1000-year timescales. Despite the importance of this carbon sink, our spatial and temporal understanding of iron-bound organic carbon interactions globally is poor. Here we show that caution must be applied when comparing quantification of iron-bound organic carbon extracted by different methods as the extraction strength and method specificity can be highly variable.
Mark A. Stevenson, Suzanne McGowan, Emma J. Pearson, George E. A. Swann, Melanie J. Leng, Vivienne J. Jones, Joseph J. Bailey, Xianyu Huang, and Erika Whiteford
Biogeosciences, 18, 2465–2485,Short summary
We link detailed stable isotope and biomarker analyses from the catchments of three Arctic upland lakes on Disko Island (West Greenland) to a recent dated sediment core to understand how carbon cycling has changed over the past ~500 years. We find that the carbon deposited in sediments in these upland lakes is predominately sourced from in-lake production due to the catchment's limited terrestrial vegetation and elevation and that recent increases in algal production link with climate change.
Nadine T. Smit, Laura Villanueva, Darci Rush, Fausto Grassa, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Mira Holzheimer, Adriaan J. Minnaard, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 18, 1463–1479,Short summary
Soils from an everlasting fire (gas seep) in Sicily, Italy, reveal high relative abundances of novel uncultivated mycobacteria and unique 13C-depleted mycocerosic acids (multi-methyl branched fatty acids) close to the main gas seep. Our results imply that mycocerosic acids in combination with their depleted δ13C values offer a new biomarker tool to study the role of soil mycobacteria as hydrocarbon consumers in the modern and past global carbon cycle.
Marcus P. S. Badger
Biogeosciences, 18, 1149–1160,Short summary
Reconstructing ancient atmospheric CO2 is an important aim of palaeoclimate science in order to understand the Earth's climate system. One method, the alkenone proxy based on molecular fossils of coccolithophores, has been recently shown to be ineffective at low-to-moderate CO2 levels. In this paper I show that this is likely due to changes in the biogeochemistry of the coccolithophores when there is low carbon availability, but for much of the Cenozoic the alkenone proxy should have utility.
Loes G. J. van Bree, Francien Peterse, Allix J. Baxter, Wannes De Crop, Sigrid van Grinsven, Laura Villanueva, Dirk Verschuren, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 17, 5443–5463,Short summary
Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are used as a paleothermometer based on their temperature dependence in global soils, but aquatic production complicates their use in lakes. BrGDGTs in the water column of Lake Chala, East Africa, respond to oxygen conditions and mixing. Changes in their signal can be linked to bacterial community composition rather than membrane adaptation to changing conditions. Their integrated signal in the sediment reflects mean air temperature.
Alexandra N. Loginova, Andrew W. Dale, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Sören Thomsen, Stefan Sommer, David Clemens, Klaus Wallmann, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 17, 4663–4679,Short summary
We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON) and matter (DOM) optical properties in pore waters and near-bottom waters of the eastern tropical South Pacific off Peru. The difference between diffusion-driven and net fluxes of DOC and DON and qualitative changes in DOM optical properties suggested active microbial utilisation of the released DOM at the sediment–water interface. Our results suggest that the sediment release of DOM contributes to microbial processes in the area.
Gerard J. M. Versteegh, Alexander J. P. Houben, and Karin A. F. Zonneveld
Biogeosciences, 17, 3545–3561,Short summary
Anoxic sediments mostly contain much more organic matter than oxic ones, and therefore organic matter in anoxic settings is often considered to be preserved better than in oxic settings. However, through the analysis of the same fossil dinoflagellate cyst species from both oxic and anoxic settings, we show that at a molecular level the preservation in the oxic sediments may be better since in the anoxic setting the cyst macromolecule has been altered by postdepositional modification.
Jingjing Guo, Miriam Glendell, Jeroen Meersmans, Frédérique Kirkels, Jack J. Middelburg, and Francien Peterse
Biogeosciences, 17, 3183–3201,Short summary
The fluxes of soil organic carbon (OC) transport from land to sea are poorly constrained, mostly due to the lack of a specific tracer for soil OC. Here we evaluate the use of specific molecules derived from soil bacteria as a tracer for soil OC in a small river catchment. We find that the initial soil signal is lost upon entering the aquatic environment. However, the local environmental history of the catchment is reflected by these molecules in the lake sediments that act as their sink.
Zhuo-Yi Zhu, Joanne Oakes, Bradley Eyre, Youyou Hao, Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Shan Jiang, Moritz Müller, and Jing Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 2473–2485,Short summary
Samples were collected in August 2016 in the Rajang River and its estuary, with tropical forest in the river basin and peatland in the estuary. Organic matter composition was influenced by transportation in the river basin, whereas peatland added clear biodegraded parts to the fluvial organic matter, which implies modification of the initial lability and/or starting points in the subsequent degradation and alternation processes after the organic matter enters the sea.
Wenjie Xiao, Yasong Wang, Yongsheng Liu, Xi Zhang, Linlin Shi, and Yunping Xu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2135–2148,Short summary
The hadal zone (6–11 km depth) is the least explored habitat on Earth. We studied microbial branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench. One unique feature is the strong predominance of 6-methyl brGDGT, which likely reflects an adaption of brGDGT-producing bacteria to alkaline seawater and low temperature. BrGDGTs, with elemental and isotopic data, suggest an autochthonous product for brGDGT. A new approach is proposed for brGDGT sourcing.
Yuge Bai, Edisson Subdiaga, Stefan B. Haderlein, Heike Knicker, and Andreas Kappler
Biogeosciences, 17, 683–698,Short summary
Biogeochemical processes of SOM are key for greenhouse gas emission and water quality. We extracted SOM by water or by NaOH–HCl under oxic–anoxic conditions. Chemical and anoxic extractions lead to higher SOM electron exchange capacities, resulting in stimulation of microbial Fe(III) reduction. Therefore, aqueous pH-neutral SOM extracts should be used to reflect environmental SOM redox processes, and artifacts of chemical extractions need to be considered when evaluating SOM redox processes.
Yan Shen, Volker Thiel, Pablo Suarez-Gonzalez, Sebastiaan W. Rampen, and Joachim Reitner
Biogeosciences, 17, 649–666,Short summary
Today, sterols are widespread in plants, animals, and fungi but are almost absent in the oldest rocks. Microbial mats, representing the earliest complex ecosystems on Earth, were omnipresent in Precambrian marine environments and may have degraded the sterols at that time. Here we analyze the distribution of sterols through a microbial mat. This provides insight into how variations in biological and nonbiological factors affect the preservation of sterols in modern and ancient microbial mats.
Sarah Coffinet, Travis B. Meador, Lukas Mühlena, Kevin W. Becker, Jan Schröder, Qing-Zeng Zhu, Julius S. Lipp, Verena B. Heuer, Matthew P. Crump, and Kai-Uwe Hinrichs
Biogeosciences, 17, 317–330,Short summary
This study deals with two membrane lipids called BDGTs and PDGTs. Membrane lipids are molecules forming the cell envelope of all organisms. Different organisms produce different lipids thus they can be used to detect the presence of specific organisms in the environment. We analyzed the structure of these new lipids and looked for potential producers. We found that they are likely made by microbes emitting methane below the sediment surface and could be used to track these specific microbes.
Ying Wu, Kun Zhu, Jing Zhang, Moritz Müller, Shan Jiang, Aazani Mujahid, Mohd Fakharuddin Muhamad, and Edwin Sien Aun Sia
Biogeosciences, 16, 4517–4533,Short summary
Our understanding of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) in tropical peat-draining rivers remains limited, especially in Southeast Asia. We explored the characteristics of TOM via bulk parameters and lignin phenols of sediment in Malaysia. This showed that the most important plant source of the organic matter in these rivers is woody angiosperm C3 plants with limited diagenetic alteration. This slower degradation of TOM may be a link to higher total nitrogen content, especially for the small river.
Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Sylvain Agostini, Ben P. Harvey, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 16, 4451–4461,Short summary
Carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2) in the atmosphere play an integral role in Earth system dynamics, especially climate. Past climates help us understand future ones, but reconstructing pCO2 over the geologic record remains a challenge. This research demonstrates new approaches for exploring past pCO2 via the carbon isotope fractionation in general algal lipids, which we test over a high CO2 gradient from a naturally occurring CO2 seep.
Yongli Zhou, Patrick Martin, and Moritz Müller
Biogeosciences, 16, 2733–2749,Short summary
We found that peatlands in coastal Sarawak, Borneo, export extremely humified organic matter, which dominates the riverine organic matter pool and conservatively mixes with seawater, while the freshly produced fraction is low and stable in concentration at all salinities. We estimated that terrigenous fractions, which showed high photolability, still account for 20 % of the coastal dissolved organic carbon pool, implying the importance of peat-derived organic matter in the coastal carbon cycle.
Kristin Doering, Claudia Ehlert, Philippe Martinez, Martin Frank, and Ralph Schneider
Biogeosciences, 16, 2163–2180,
Alexandra N. Loginova, Sören Thomsen, Marcus Dengler, Jan Lüdke, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 16, 2033–2047,Short summary
High primary production in the Peruvian upwelling system is followed by rapid heterotrophic utilization of organic matter and supports the formation of one of the most intense oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world. Here, we estimated vertical fluxes of oxygen and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the surface to the OMZ. Our results suggest that DOM remineralization substantially reduces oxygen concentration in the upper water column and controls the shape of the upper oxycline.
Carolina Cisternas-Novoa, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 16, 927–947,Short summary
We investigate the composition and vertical fluxes of POM in two deep basins of the Baltic Sea (GB: Gotland Basin and LD: Landsort Deep). The two basins showed different O2 regimes resulting from the intrusion of oxygen-rich water from the North Sea that ventilated the deep waters in GB, but not in LD. In GB, O2 intrusions lead to a high abundance of manganese oxides that aggregate with POM, altering its composition and vertical flux and contributing to a higher POC transfer efficiency in GB.
Marina Zamanillo, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Sdena Nunes, Pablo Rodríguez-Ros, Manuel Dall'Osto, Marta Estrada, Maria Montserrat Sala, and Rafel Simó
Biogeosciences, 16, 733–749,Short summary
Many marine microorganisms produce polysaccharide-rich transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs) for rather unknown reasons but with important consequences for the ocean carbon cycle, sea–air gas exchange and formation of organic aerosols. Here we compare surface–ocean distributions of TEPs and physical, chemical and biological variables along a N–S transect in the Atlantic Ocean. Our data suggest that phytoplankton and not bacteria are the main TEP producers, and solar radiation acts as a sink.
Michael Philben, Sara Butler, Sharon A. Billings, Ronald Benner, Kate A. Edwards, and Susan E. Ziegler
Biogeosciences, 15, 6731–6746,Short summary
We explored the relationship between chemical composition and the temperature sensitivity of moss decomposition using 959-day lab incubations. Mass loss was low despite the predominance of carbohydrates, indicating the persistence of labile C. Scanning electron microscopy revealed little change in the moss cell-wall structure. These results suggest that the moss cell-wall matrix protects labile C from decomposition, contributing to the globally important stocks of moss-derived C.
Yinghui Wang, Robert G. M. Spencer, David C. Podgorski, Anne M. Kellerman, Harunur Rashid, Phoebe Zito, Wenjie Xiao, Dandan Wei, Yuanhe Yang, and Yunping Xu
Biogeosciences, 15, 6637–6648,Short summary
With global warming, thawing of permafrost releases dissolved organic matter (DOM) into streams. By analyzing DOM along an alpine stream on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, we found DOM was mainly from the active layer, but with deepening of the active layer, the contribution of the deep permafrost layer increased, causing a change in the chemical composition of DOM. From the head- to downstream, DOM is undergoing rapid degradation, but some components are persistent and can be transported downstream.
Sergio Balzano, Julie Lattaud, Laura Villanueva, Sebastiaan W. Rampen, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Judith van Bleijswijk, Nicole Bale, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 5951–5968,Short summary
We tried to identify the microbes which biosynthesize a class of lipids widespread in seawater, the long chain alkyl diols (LCDs). We could not find any microorganism likely involved in the production of LCDs. The amounts of LCDs found are too high to be produced by living organisms and are likely to be part of the refractory organic matter persisting for long periods in the water column.
Julie Lattaud, Frédérique Kirkels, Francien Peterse, Chantal V. Freymond, Timothy I. Eglinton, Jens Hefter, Gesine Mollenhauer, Sergio Balzano, Laura Villanueva, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Ellen C. Hopmans, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 4147–4161,Short summary
Long-chain diols (LCDs) are biomarkers that occur widespread in marine environments and also in lakes and rivers. In this study, we looked at the distribution of LCDs in three river systems (Godavari, Danube, and Rhine) in relation to season, precipitation, and temperature. We found out that the LCDs are likely being produced in calm areas of the river systems and that marine LCDs have a different distribution than riverine LCDs.
Marcel Bliedtner, Imke K. Schäfer, Roland Zech, and Hans von Suchodoletz
Biogeosciences, 15, 3927–3936,Short summary
In this study, we systematically analyze leaf wax derived n-alkane patterns in eastern Georgia to test their potential for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the semi-humid to semi-arid central southern Caucasus region. We investigated the influence of vegetation types on the leaf wax signal in modern plants and topsoil material. Our results show distinct and systematic differences in the n-alkane patterns between vegetation types and prove their potential for vegetation reconstructions.
Mathieu Rembauville, Stéphane Blain, Clara Manno, Geraint Tarling, Anu Thompson, George Wolff, and Ian Salter
Biogeosciences, 15, 3071–3084,Short summary
Sinking phytoplankton from the surface ocean provide the principal energy source to deep-ocean ecosystems. Our aim was to understand how different phytoplankton communities impact the chemical nature of this sinking material. We show certain types of phytoplankton can preferentially export energy-rich storage compounds to the seafloor. Any climate-driven effects on phytoplankton community structure could thus impact remote deep-ocean ecosystems thousands of kilometres beneath the surface.
Xiaocong Wei, Xiangwen Deng, Wenhua Xiang, Pifeng Lei, Shuai Ouyang, Hongfang Wen, and Liang Chen
Biogeosciences, 15, 2991–3002,Short summary
Karst is a kind of typical calcium-rich environment, which is widely distributed. We measured the Ca2+ content of 41 plant species, as well as soil total Ca2+ and exchange Ca2+. We found out that different plants have different ways to high Ca2+ adaptation. According to the different high Ca2+ adaptation of the 17 dominant species, we divided them into 3 categories: Ca-indifferent plants, high-Ca plants and low-Ca plants. Our results can provide a theoretical basis for vegetation restoration.
Janina G. Stapel, Georg Schwamborn, Lutz Schirrmeister, Brian Horsfield, and Kai Mangelsdorf
Biogeosciences, 15, 1969–1985,Short summary
Climate warming in the Arctic results in thawing of permafrost deposits. This promotes the accessibility of freeze-locked old organic matter (OM) accumulated during the past. Characterizing OM of different depositional ages, we were able to show that OM from last glacial Yedoma deposits possess the highest potential to provide organic substrates such as acetate for microbial greenhouse gas production and therefore to accelerate the carbon–climate feedback cycle during ongoing global warming.
Changchun Huang, Quanliang Jiang, Ling Yao, Hao Yang, Chen Lin, Tao Huang, A-Xing Zhu, and Yimin Zhang
Biogeosciences, 15, 1827–1841,Short summary
The latitudinal dependency of POC / PON in ocean and inland water is significant, regulated by trophic state and climate, etc. factors. POC / PON significantly increased from coastal water (6.89 ± 2.38) to open ocean (7.59 ± 4.22) with the increasing rate of 0.0024 / km. The re-examination of the global relationship between, and variations in, POC and PON could be important for the global and regional coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ocean and freshwater.
Nicole J. Bale, Tracy A. Villareal, Ellen C. Hopmans, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Marc Besseling, Denise Dorhout, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 1229–1241,Short summary
Associations between diatoms and N-fixing cyanobacteria (diatom–diazotroph associations, DDAs) play an important role in the N cycle of the tropical North Atlantic. Heterocysts are the site of N fixation and contain unique glycolipids. We measured these glycolipids in the water column and surface sediment from the tropical North Atlantic. We found a significant correlation between the concentration of glycolipid and of DDAs, strengthening their application as biomarkers.
Laurent Jeanneau, Richard Rowland, and Shreeram Inamdar
Biogeosciences, 15, 973–985,Short summary
The source of particulate organic matter in headwaters during storm events remains an open question. We use the molecular composition of organic matter sampled during four spring–summer storms and compare it to potential sources. We identify litter, streambed and vicinal soils as the main sources of particulate organic matter. Their proportions depend on (i) the size of the catchment and (ii) the rain event.
Suhui Ma, Feng He, Di Tian, Dongting Zou, Zhengbing Yan, Yulong Yang, Tiancheng Zhou, Kaiyue Huang, Haihua Shen, and Jingyun Fang
Biogeosciences, 15, 693–702,Short summary
Plant carbon (C) content is critical to the assessment of the global C cycle. Our results showed that the global average C contents in organs were significantly lower than a canonical value of 50 %. Plant C content tended to decrease with increasing latitude, and life form explained more variation than climate. Our findings suggest that specific C content values of different organs and life forms should be incorporated into the estimations of regional and global vegetation biomass C stocks.
Martina Sollai, Ellen C. Hopmans, Nicole J. Bale, Anchelique Mets, Lisa Warden, Matthias Moros, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 14, 5789–5804,Short summary
The Baltic Sea is characterized by recurring summer phytoplankton blooms, dominated by a few cyanobacterial species. These bacteria are able to use dinitrogen gas as the source for nitrogen and produce very specific lipids. We analyzed these lipids in a sediment core to study their presence over the past 7000 years. This reveals that cyanobacterial blooms have not only occurred in the last decades but were common at times when the Baltic was connected to the North Sea.
Jordon D. Hemingway, Daniel H. Rothman, Sarah Z. Rosengard, and Valier V. Galy
Biogeosciences, 14, 5099–5114,Short summary
The balance between organic matter (OM) fixation and decay is a major control on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Understanding the environmental, chemical, and physical mechanisms that control the distribution of OM decay rates is therefore critical for constraining the global carbon cycle. In this manuscript, we derive a method to relate OM reactivity to its isotope composition using a kinetic model and provide a novel framework to discern the controls on OM decay rates.
Zuchuan Li and Nicolas Cassar
Biogeosciences, 14, 5015–5027,
Marie Denis, Laurent Jeanneau, Patrice Petitjean, Anaëlle Murzeau, Marine Liotaud, Louison Yonnet, and Gérard Gruau
Biogeosciences, 14, 5039–5051,Short summary
The results of this study highlight the changes of DOM composition in soil solutions and surface runoff, probably controlled by water-table dynamics and pre-event hydrological conditions. These changes should be taken into account for a better understanding of micropollutant mobility. Moreover, this work has implications for modeling DOM export in headwater catchments, as many studies assume that DOM transfer during storm events consists of the flushing of pre-existing soil solution DOM.
Dandan Duan, Dainan Zhang, Yu Yang, Jingfu Wang, Jing'an Chen, and Yong Ran
Biogeosciences, 14, 4009–4022,Short summary
Neutral carbohydrates, carbon isotopic composition, and algal productivity proxies in three reservoir sediment cores, South China, were investigated. Monosaccharide compositions and diagnostic parameters indicate a predominant contribution of phytoplankton in the sediment cores. Algal monosaccharide content is highly related to the algal productivity and increasing mean air temperature, but not to nutrient input, demonstrating the effect of climate warming in low-latitude regions.
Ylva van Meeningen, Guy Schurgers, Riikka Rinnan, and Thomas Holst
Biogeosciences, 14, 4045–4060,Short summary
Leaf scale measurements have been performed on English oak, European beech and Norway spruce at a field site in Denmark to study the release of volatile compounds in response to a change in light. Whilst some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, increased with increasing light, other compounds, like camphene, showed no light response for most of the trees. This can help to increase our knowledge of how species and compounds respond to light and to possibly improve how they can be modeled.
Aminot, A. and Kérouel, R.: Dosage Automatique des Nutriments dans les Eaux Marines: Meìthodes en Flux Continu, Ifremer, France, 188 pp., 2007.
Asano, Y. and Lübbehüsen, T. L.: Enzymes acting on peptides containing d-amino acid, J. Biosci. Bioeng., 89, 295–306, 2000.
Benner, R.: Chemical Composition and Reactivity, in: Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, edited by: Hansell, D. and Carlson, C., Academic Press, San Diego, 59–90, 2002.
Benner, R. and Strom, M.: A critical-evaluation of the analytical blank associated with DOC measurements by high-temperature catalytic-oxidation, Mar. Chem., 41, 153–160, 1993.
Bianchi, T. S.: The role of terrestrially derived organic carbon in the coastal ocean: a changing paradigm and the priming effect, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108, 19473–19481, 2011.
Blain, S., Carlotti, F., Christaki, U., Corbière, A., Durand, I., Ebersbach, F., Fuda, J., Garcia, N., Gerringa, L., Griffiths, B., Guigue, C., Quéguiner, B., Guillerm, C., Jacquet, S., Jeandel, C., Laan, P., Lefèvre, D., Lo Monaco, C., Malits, A., Mosseri, J., Obernosterer, I., Park, Y., Armand, L., Picheral, M., Pondaven, P., Remenyi, T., Sandroni, V., Sarthou, G., Savoye, N., Scouarnec, L., Souhaut, M., Thuiller, D., Timmermans, K., Belviso, S., Trull, T., Uitz, J., van Beek, P., Veldhuis, M., Vincent, D., Viollier, E., Vong, L., Wagener, T., Bombled, B., Bopp, L., Bowie, A., Brunet, C., and Brussaard, C.: Effect of natural iron fertilization on carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean, Nature, 446, 1070–1074, 2007.
Blain, S., Capparos, J., Guéneuguès, A., Obernosterer, I., and Oriol, L.: Distributions and stoichiometry of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the iron fertilized region near Kerguelen (Southern Ocean), Biogeosciences Discuss., 11, 9949–9977, https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-11-9949-2014, 2014.
Bourgoin, L. and Tremblay, L.: Bacterial reworking of terrigenous and marine organic matter in estuarine water columns and sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 74, 5593–5609, 2010.
Bowie, A. R., van der Merwe, P., Quéroué, F., Trull, T., Fourquez, M., Planchon, F., Sarthou, G., Chever, F., Townsend, A. T., Obernosterer, I., Sallée, J.-B., and Blain, S.: Iron budgets for three distinct biogeochemical sites around the Kerguelen archipelago (Southern Ocean) during the natural fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2, Biogeosciences Discuss., 11, 17861–17923, https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-11-17861-2014, 2014.
Boyd, P. W., Jickells, T., Law, C. S., Blain, S., Boyle, E. A., Buesseler, K. O., Coale, K. H., Cullen, J. J., de Baar, H. J. W., Follows, M., Harvey, M., Lancelot, C., Levasseur, M., Owens, N. P. J., Pollard, R., Rivkin, R. B., Sarmiento, J., Schoemann, V., Smetacek, V., Takeda, S., Tsuda, A., Turner, S., and Watson, A. J.: Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993–2005: synthesis and future directions, Science, 315, 612–617, 2007.
Brückner, H., Haasmann, S., Langer, M., Westhauser, T., Wittner, R., and Godel, H.: Liquid chromatographic determination of d- and l-amino acids by derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde and chiral thiols, J. Chromatogr. A, 666, 259–273, 1994.
Campbell, L., Nolla, H. A., and Vaulot, D.: The importance of Prochlorococcus to community structure in the central North Pacific Ocean, Limnol. Oceanogr., 39, 954–961, 1994.
Christaki, U., Obernosterer, I., Van Wambeke, F., Veldhuis, M., Garcia, N., and Catala, P.: Microbial food web structure in a naturally iron-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean (Kerguelen Plateau), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 706–719, 2008.
Christaki, U., Lefèvre, D., Georges, C., Colombet, J., Catala, P., Courties, C., Sime-Ngando, T., Blain, S., and Obernosterer, I.: Microbial food web dynamics during spring phytoplankton blooms in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean), Biogeosciences, 11, 6739–6753, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-6739-2014, 2014.
Church, M. J., Hutchins, D. A., and Ducklow, H. W.: Limitation of bacterial growth by dissolved organic matter and iron in the Southern ocean, Appl. Environ. Microb., 66, 455–466, 2000.
Consensus Reference Materials Project: http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/ biogeochem/CRM.html, last access: 16 January 2015.
Cowie, G. and Hedges, J.: Sources and reactivities of amino-acids in a coastal marine environment, Limnol. Oceanogr., 37, 703–724, 1992.
Cowie, G. and Hedges, J.: Biochemical indicators of diagenetic alteration in natural organic matter mixtures, Nature, 369, 304–307, 1994.
Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J. J., Herman, P. M. J., and Heip, C. H. R.: Linking diagenetic alteration of amino acids and bulk organic matter reactivity, Limnol. Oceanogr., 44, 1809–1814, 1999.
Davis, J., Kaiser, K., and Benner, R.: Amino acid and amino sugar yields and compositions as indicators of dissolved organic matter diagenesis, Org. Geochem., 40, 343–352, 2009.
Dittmar, T., Fitznar, H. P., and Kattner, G.: Origin and biogeochemical cycling of organic nitrogen in the eastern Arctic Ocean as evident from D- and L-amino acids, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 65, 4103–4114, 2001.
Dittmar, T., Cherrier, J., and Ludwichowski, K.: The analysis of amino acids in seawater, in: Practical guidelines for the analysis of seawater, edited by: Wurl, O., CRC Press, 67–77, 2009.
Ebersbach, F. and Trull, T.: Sinking particle properties from polyacrylamide gels during the KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study (KEOPS): Zooplankton control of carbon export in an area of persistent natural iron inputs in the Southern Ocean, Limnol. Oceanogr., 53, 212–224, 2008.
Escoubeyrou, K. and Tremblay, L.: Quantification of free, dissolved combined, particulate, and total amino acid enantiomers using simple sample preparation and more robust chromatographic procedures, Limnol. Oceanogr.-Meth., 12, 421–431, 2014.
Fuhrman, J.: Close coupling between release and uptake of dissolved free amino acids in seawater studied by an isotope dilution approach, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 37, 45–52, 1987.
Fukuda, R., Ogawa, H., Nagata, T., and Koike, I.: Direct Determination of Carbon and Nitrogen Contents of Natural Bacterial Assemblages in Marine Environments, Appl. Environ. Microb., 64, 3352–3358, 1998.
Gupta, L. and Kawahata, H.: Amino acid and hexosamine composition and flux of sinking particulate matter in the equatorial Pacific at 175 degrees E longitude, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 47, 1937–1960, 2000.
Hansell, D.: Recalcitrant Dissolved Organic Carbon Fractions, Annual Review of Marine Science, 5, 421–445, 2013.
Ingalls, A. E., Lee, C., Wakeham, S. G., and Hedges, J. I.: The role of biominerals in the sinking flux and preservation of amino acids in the Southern Ocean along 170° W, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 50, 713–738, 2003.
Ittekkot, V., Deuser, W., and Degens, E.: Seasonality in the fluxes of sugars, amino acids, and amino sugars to the deep ocean: Sargasso Sea, Deep-Sea Res., 31, 1057–1069, 1984.
Jiao, N., Azam, F., and Sanders, S.: Microbial carbon pump in the ocean. Washington, DC, Sciences/AAAS, Washington, DC, 2011.
Kaiser, K. and Benner, R.: Hydrolysis-induced racemization of amino acids, Limnol. Oceanogr.-Meth., 3, 318–325, 2005.
Kaiser, K. and Benner, R.: Major bacterial contribution to the ocean reservoir of detrital organic carbon and nitrogen, Limnol. Oceanogr., 53, 99–112, 2008.
Kawasaki, N., Sohrin, R., Ogawa, H., Nagata, T., and Benner, R.: Bacterial carbon content and the living and detrital bacterial contributions to suspended particulate organic carbon in the North Pacific Ocean, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 62, 165–176, 2011.
Keil, R. G. and Kirchman, D. L.: Abiotic transformation of labile protein to refractory protein in sea water, Mar. Chem., 45, 187–196, 1994.
Lasbleiz, M.: Dynamique nutritionnelle du phytoplancton, cycles biogéochimiques du carbone et des éléments biogènes associées (N,P,Si) et disponibilité du fer dans l'Océan Austral – programme KEOPS 2, PhD thesis, Aix Marseille Université, France, 2014 (in French).
Lasbleiz, M., Leblanc, K., Blain, S., Ras, J., Cornet-Barthaux, V., Hélias Nunige, S., and Quéguiner, B.: Pigments, elemental composition (C, N, P, and Si), and stoichiometry of particulate matter in the naturally iron fertilized region of Kerguelen in the Southern Ocean, Biogeosciences, 11, 5931–5955, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-5931-2014, 2014.
Laurenceau, E. C., Trull, T. W., Davies, D. M., Bray, S. G., Doran, J., Planchon, F., Carlotti, F., Jouandet, M.-P., Cavagna, A.-J., Waite, A. M., and Blain, S.: The relative importance of phytoplankton aggregates and zooplankton fecal pellets to carbon export: insights from free-drifting sediment trap deployments in naturally iron-fertilised waters near the Kerguelen plateau, Biogeosciences Discuss., 11, 13623–13673, https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-11-13623-2014, 2014.
Lee, C., Wakeham, S. G., and Hedges, J. I.: Composition and flux of particulate amino acids and chloropigments in equatorial Pacific seawater and sediments, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 47, 1535–1568, 2000.
Le Quéré, C., Rodenbeck, C., Buitenhuis, E. T., Conway, T. J., Langenfelds, R., Gomez, A., Labuschagne, C., Ramonet, M., Nakazawa, T., Metzl, N., Gillett, N., and Heimann, M.: Saturation of the southern ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change, Science, 316, 1735–1738, 2007.
Muller, P. J., Suess, E., and Ungerer, C. A.: Amino-acids and amino-sugars of surface particulate and sediment trap material from waters of the Scotia Sea, Deep-Sea Res., 33, 819–838, 1986.
Nagata, T., Meon, B., and Kirchman, D.: Microbial degradation of peptidoglycan in seawater, Limnol. Oceanogr., 48, 745–754, 2003.
Obernosterer, I., Christaki, U., Lefèvre, D., Catala, P., Van Wambeke, F., and Lebaron, P.: Rapid bacterial mineralization of organic carbon produced during a phytoplankton bloom induced by natural iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 777–789, 2008.
Obernosterer, I., Fourquez, M., and Blain, S.: Fe and C co-limitation of heterotrophic bacteria in the naturally fertilized region off Kerguelen Islands, Biogeosciences Discuss., 11, 15733–15752, https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-11-15733-2014, 2014.
Osterholz, H., Dittmar, T., and Niggemann, J.: Molecular evidence for rapid dissolved organic matter turnover in Arctic fjords, Mar. Chem., 160, 1–10, 2014.
Panagiotopoulos, C., Sempéré, R., Obernosterer, I., Striby, L., Goutx, M., Van Wambeke, F., Gautier, S., and Lafont, R.: Bacterial degradation of large particles in the southern Indian Ocean using in vitro incubation experiments, Org. Geochem., 33, 985–1000, 2002.
Peter, S., Shen, Y., Kaiser, K., Benner, R., and Durisch-Kaiser, E.: Bioavailability and diagenetic state of dissolved organic matter in riparian groundwater, J. Geophys. Res., 117, G04006, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JG002072, 2012.
Planchon, F., Ballas, D., Cavagna, A.-J., Bowie, A. R., Davies, D., Trull, T., Laurenceau, E., Van Der Merwe, P., and Dehairs, F.: Carbon export in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area of the Southern Ocean based on the 234Th approach, Biogeosciences Discuss., 11, 15991–16032, https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-11-15991-2014, 2014.
Pomeroy, L., Williams, P., Azam, F., and Hobbie, J.: The Microbial Loop, Oceanogr., 20, 28–33, 2007.
Ras, J., Claustre, H., and Uitz, J.: Spatial variability of phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Subtropical South Pacific Ocean: comparison between in situ and predicted data, Biogeosciences, 5, 353–369, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-5-353-2008, 2008.
Salter, I., Kemp, A., Lampitt, R., and Gledhill, M.: The association between biogenic and inorganic minerals and the amino acid composition of settling particles, Limnol. Oceanogr., 55, 2207–2218, 2010.
Sarmento, H., Romera-Castillo, C., Lindh, M., Pinhassi, J., Sala, M., Gasol, J., Marrase, C., and Taylor, G.: Phytoplankton species-specific release of dissolved free amino acids and their selective consumption by bacteria, Limnol. Oceanogr., 58, 1123–1135, 2013.
Sathyendranath, S., Stuart, V., Nair, A., Oka, K., Nakane, T., Bouman, H., Forget, M. H., Maass, H., and Platt, T.: Carbon-to-chlorophyll ratio and growth rate of phytoplankton in the sea, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 383, 73–84, 2009.
Savoye, N., Trull, T. W., Jacquet, S. H. M., Navez, J., and Dehairs, F.: 234Th-based export fluxes during a natural iron fertilization experiment in the Southern Ocean (KEOPS), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 841–855, 2008.
Shen, Y., Fichot, C. G., and Benner, R.: Dissolved organic matter composition and bioavailability reflect ecosystem productivity in the Western Arctic Ocean, Biogeosciences, 9, 4993–5005, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-4993-2012, 2012.
Silver, M. W. and Gowing, M. M.: The "Particle"" Flux: Origins and biological components, Progr. Oceanogr., 26, 75–113, 1991.
Tremblay, L. and Benner, R.: Microbial contributions to N-immobilization and organic matter preservation in decaying plant detritus, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 70, 133–146, 2006.
Tremblay, L. and Benner, R.: Organic matter diagenesis and bacterial contributions to detrital carbon and nitrogen in the Amazon River system, Limnol. Oceanogr., 54, 681–691, 2009.
Van Heukelem, L. and Thomas, C. S.: Computer-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography method development with applications to the isolation and analysis of phytoplankton pigments, J. Chromatogr. A, 910, 31–49, 2001.
White, D. S. and Howes, B. L.: Nitrogen incorporation into decomposing litter of Spartina alterniflora, Limnol. Oceanogr., 39, 133–140, 1994.
Zubkov, M. V., Holland, R. J., Burkill, P. H., Croudace, I. W., and Warwick, P. E.: Microbial abundance, activity and iron uptake in vicinity of the Crozet Isles in November 2004–January 2005, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 54, 2126–2137, 2007.