Articles | Volume 16, issue 3
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Main drivers of transparent exopolymer particle distribution across the surface Atlantic Ocean
Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d'Océanographie Microbienne, Banyuls-sur-Mer, France
Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Maria Montserrat Sala
Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
No articles found.
Zhibo Shao, Yangchun Xu, Hua Wang, Weicheng Luo, Lice Wang, Yuhong Huang, Nona Sheila R. Agawin, Ayaz Ahmed, Mar Benavides, Mikkel Bentzon-Tilia, Ilana Berman-Frank, Hugo Berthelot, Isabelle C. Biegala, Mariana B. Bif, Antonio Bode, Sophie Bonnet, Deborah A. Bronk, Mark V. Brown, Lisa Campbell, Douglas G. Capone, Edward J. Carpenter, Nicolas Cassar, Bonnie X. Chang, Dreux Chappell, Yuh-ling Lee Chen, Matthew J. Church, Francisco M. Cornejo-Castillo, Amália Maria Sacilotto Detoni, Scott C. Doney, Cecile Dupouy, Marta Estrada, Camila Fernandez, Bieito Fernández-Castro, Debany Fonseca-Batista, Rachel A. Foster, Ken Furuya, Nicole Garcia, Kanji Goto, Jesús Gago, Mary R. Gradoville, M. Robert Hamersley, Britt A. Henke, Cora Hörstmann, Amal Jayakumar, Zhibing Jiang, Shuh-Ji Kao, David M. Karl, Leila R. Kittu, Angela N. Knapp, Sanjeev Kumar, Julie LaRoche, Hongbin Liu, Jiaxing Liu, Caroline Lory, Carolin R. Löscher, Emilio Marañón, Lauren F. Messer, Matthew M. Mills, Wiebke Mohr, Pia H. Moisander, Claire Mahaffey, Robert Moore, Beatriz Mouriño-Carballido, Margaret R. Mulholland, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Joseph A. Needoba, Eric J. Raes, Eyal Rahav, Teodoro Ramírez-Cárdenas, Christian Furbo Reeder, Lasse Riemann, Virginie Riou, Julie C. Robidart, Vedula V. S. S. Sarma, Takuya Sato, Himanshu Saxena, Corday Selden, Justin R. Seymour, Dalin Shi, Takuhei Shiozaki, Arvind Singh, Rachel E. Sipler, Jun Sun, Koji Suzuki, Kazutaka Takahashi, Yehui Tan, Weiyi Tang, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Kendra Turk-Kubo, Zuozhu Wen, Angelicque E. White, Samuel T. Wilson, Takashi Yoshida, Jonathan P. Zehr, Run Zhang, Yao Zhang, and Ya-Wei Luo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 3673–3709,Short summary
N2 fixation by marine diazotrophs is an important bioavailable N source to the global ocean. This updated global oceanic diazotroph database increases the number of in situ measurements of N2 fixation rates, diazotrophic cell abundances, and nifH gene copy abundances by 184 %, 86 %, and 809 %, respectively. Using the updated database, the global marine N2 fixation rate is estimated at 223 ± 30 Tg N yr−1, which triplicates that using the original database.
George Manville, Thomas G. Bell, Jane P. Mulcahy, Rafel Simó, Martí Galí, Anoop S. Mahajan, Shrivardhan Hulswar, and Paul R. Halloran
Biogeosciences, 20, 1813–1828,Short summary
We present the first global investigation of controls on seawater dimethylsulfide (DMS) spatial variability over scales of up to 100 km. Sea surface height anomalies, density, and chlorophyll a help explain almost 80 % of DMS variability. The results suggest that physical and biogeochemical processes play an equally important role in controlling DMS variability. These data provide independent confirmation that existing parameterisations of seawater DMS concentration use appropriate variables.
James Brean, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Peter Tunved, Johan Ström, Radovan Krejci, Eyal Freud, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Eija Asmi, Angelo Lupi, and Manuel Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2183–2198,Short summary
Our results emphasize how understanding the geographical variation in surface types across the Arctic is key to understanding secondary aerosol sources. We provide a harmonised analysis of new particle formation across the Arctic.
Matthew Boyer, Diego Aliaga, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Hélène Angot, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Benjamin Heutte, Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Zoé Brasseur, Ivo Beck, Silvia Bucci, Marina Duetsch, Andreas Stohl, Tiia Laurila, Eija Asmi, Andreas Massling, Daniel Charles Thomas, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Tak Chan, Sangeeta Sharma, Peter Tunved, Radovan Krejci, Hans Christen Hansson, Federico Bianchi, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Julia Schmale, and Tuija Jokinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 389–415,Short summary
The Arctic is a unique environment that is warming faster than other locations on Earth. We evaluate measurements of aerosol particles, which can influence climate, over the central Arctic Ocean for a full year and compare the data to land-based measurement stations across the Arctic. Our measurements show that the central Arctic has similarities to but also distinct differences from the stations further south. We note that this may change as the Arctic warms and sea ice continues to decline.
Shrivardhan Hulswar, Rafel Simó, Martí Galí, Thomas G. Bell, Arancha Lana, Swaleha Inamdar, Paul R. Halloran, George Manville, and Anoop Sharad Mahajan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2963–2987,Short summary
The third climatological estimation of sea surface dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentrations based on in situ measurements was created (DMS-Rev3). The update includes a much larger input dataset and includes improvements in the data unification, filtering, and smoothing algorithm. The DMS-Rev3 climatology provides more realistic monthly estimates of DMS, and shows significant regional differences compared to past climatologies.
Sebastian Landwehr, Michele Volpi, F. Alexander Haumann, Charlotte M. Robinson, Iris Thurnherr, Valerio Ferracci, Andrea Baccarini, Jenny Thomas, Irina Gorodetskaya, Christian Tatzelt, Silvia Henning, Rob L. Modini, Heather J. Forrer, Yajuan Lin, Nicolas Cassar, Rafel Simó, Christel Hassler, Alireza Moallemi, Sarah E. Fawcett, Neil Harris, Ruth Airs, Marzieh H. Derkani, Alberto Alberello, Alessandro Toffoli, Gang Chen, Pablo Rodríguez-Ros, Marina Zamanillo, Pau Cortés-Greus, Lei Xue, Conor G. Bolas, Katherine C. Leonard, Fernando Perez-Cruz, David Walton, and Julia Schmale
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1295–1369,Short summary
The Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition surveyed a large number of variables describing the dynamic state of ocean and atmosphere, freshwater cycle, atmospheric chemistry, ocean biogeochemistry, and microbiology in the Southern Ocean. To reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, we apply a sparse principal component analysis and identify temporal patterns from diurnal to seasonal cycles, as well as geographical gradients and
hotspotsof interaction. Code and data are open access.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall'Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11317–11335,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two-thirds of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea-spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Henrik Skov, Jens Hjorth, Claus Nordstrøm, Bjarne Jensen, Christel Christoffersen, Maria Bech Poulsen, Jesper Baldtzer Liisberg, David Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, and Jesper Heile Christensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13253–13265,Short summary
Mercury is toxic in all its forms. It bioaccumulates in food webs, is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and atmospheric transport is an important source for this element in the Arctic. Measurements of gaseous elemental mercury have been carried out at the Villum Research Station at Station Nord in northern Greenland since 1999. The measurements are compared with model results from the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model. In this way, the dynamics of mercury are investigated.
Jiyeon Park, Manuel Dall'Osto, Kihong Park, Yeontae Gim, Hyo Jin Kang, Eunho Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Minsu Park, Seong Soo Yum, Jinyoung Jung, Bang Yong Lee, and Young Jun Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5573–5590,Short summary
The physical properties of aerosol particles throughout the Arctic Ocean and Pacific Ocean were measured aboard the Korean icebreaker R/V Araon during the summer of 2017. A number of new particle formation (NPF) events and growth were frequently observed in both Arctic terrestrial and Arctic marine air masses. This suggests that terrestrial ecosystems – including river outflows and tundra – strongly affect aerosol emissions in the Arctic coastal areas, affecting radiative forcing.
Thomas Lachlan-Cope, David C. S. Beddows, Neil Brough, Anna E. Jones, Roy M. Harrison, Angelo Lupi, Young Jun Yoon, Aki Virkkula, and Manuel Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4461–4476,Short summary
We present a statistical cluster analysis of the physical characteristics of particle size distributions collected at Halley (Antarctica) for the year 2015. Complex interactions between multiple ecosystems, coupled with different atmospheric circulation, result in very different aerosol size distributions populating the Southern Hemisphere.
Stefano Decesari, Marco Paglione, Matteo Rinaldi, Manuel Dall'Osto, Rafel Simó, Nicola Zanca, Francesca Volpi, Maria Cristina Facchini, Thorsten Hoffmann, Sven Götz, Christopher Johannes Kampf, Colin O'Dowd, Darius Ceburnis, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, and Emilio Tagliavini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4193–4207,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols in Antarctica contribute to regulate the delicate budget of cloud formation and precipitations. Besides the well-known biogenic production of sulfur-containing aerosol components such as methanesulfonate (MSA), the assessment of biological sources of organic particles in Antarctica remains an active area of research. Here we present the results of aerosol organic characterization during a research cruise performed in the Weddell Sea and in the Southern Ocean in Jan–Feb 2015.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Christa A. Marandino, Marc von Hobe, Meinrat O. Andreae, Kazushi Aranami, Elliot Atlas, Max Berkelhammer, Heinz Bingemer, Dennis Booge, Gregory Cutter, Pau Cortes, Stefanie Kremser, Cliff S. Law, Andrew Marriner, Rafel Simó, Birgit Quack, Günther Uher, Huixiang Xie, and Xiaobin Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 591–609,Short summary
Sulfur-containing trace gases in the atmosphere influence atmospheric chemistry and the energy budget of the Earth by forming aerosols. The ocean is an important source of the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and its most important precursor carbon disulfide (CS2). In order to assess global variability of the sea surface concentrations of both gases to calculate their oceanic emissions, we have compiled a database of existing shipborne measurements.
Hua Yu, Weijun Li, Yangmei Zhang, Peter Tunved, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Xiaoye Zhang, Jianchao Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10433–10446,Short summary
Interaction of anthropogenic particles with radiation and clouds plays an important role in Arctic climate change. The mixing state of different aerosols is a key parameter influencing such interactions. However, little is known of this parameter, preventing an accurate representation of this information in global models. Multi-microscopic techniques were used to find one general core–shell structure in which secondary sulfate particles were covered by organic coating in the Arctic atmosphere.
Ingeborg E. Nielsen, Henrik Skov, Andreas Massling, Axel C. Eriksson, Manuel Dall'Osto, Heikki Junninen, Nina Sarnela, Robert Lange, Sonya Collier, Qi Zhang, Christopher D. Cappa, and Jacob K. Nøjgaard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10239–10256,Short summary
Measurements of the chemical composition of sub-micrometer aerosols were carried out in northern Greenland during the Arctic haze (February–May) where concentrations are high due to favorable conditions for long-range transport. Sulfate was the dominant aerosol (66 %), followed by organic matter (24 %). The highest black carbon concentrations where observed in February. Source apportionment yielded three factors: a primary factor (12 %), an Arctic haze factor (64 %) and a marine factor (22 %).
Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Peter Tunved, Roy M. Harrison, Angelo Lupi, Vito Vitale, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Ki-Tae Park, Young Jun Yoon, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Robert Lange, Johan Strom, and Radovan Krejci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7377–7395,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of particle size distributions simultaneously collected from three European high Arctic sites centred in the Fram Strait during a 3-year period. Confined for longer time periods by consolidated pack sea ice regions, the Greenland site shows lower ultrafine-mode aerosol concentrations during summer relative to the Svalbard sites. Our study supports international environmental cooperation concerning the Arctic region.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Francis D. Pope, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5679–5694,Short summary
New particle formation events are identified at three sites in southern England, including a roadside and urban background site within London and a rural regional background site. The conditions favouring new particle formation events are identified and compared between the sites. Although a higher degree of pollution presents a greater condensation sink, it appears to be largely compensated for by faster particle growth rates.
Martí Galí, Maurice Levasseur, Emmanuel Devred, Rafel Simó, and Marcel Babin
Biogeosciences, 15, 3497–3519,Short summary
We developed a new algorithm to estimate the sea-surface concentration of dimethylsulfide (DMS) using satellite data. DMS is a gas produced by marine plankton that, once emitted to the atmosphere, plays a key climatic role by seeding cloud formation. We used the algorithm to produce global DMS maps and also regional DMS time series. The latter suggest that DMS can vary largely from one year to another, which should be taken into account in atmospheric studies.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Christa A. Marandino, Marc von Hobe, Pau Cortes, Birgit Quack, Rafel Simo, Dennis Booge, Andrea Pozzer, Tobias Steinhoff, Damian L. Arevalo-Martinez, Corinna Kloss, Astrid Bracher, Rüdiger Röttgers, Elliot Atlas, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 385–402,Short summary
We present new sea surface and marine boundary layer measurements of carbonyl sulfide, the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, and calculate an oceanic emission estimate. Our results imply that oceanic emissions are very unlikely to account for the missing source in the atmospheric budget that is currently discussed for OCS.
Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Eoin J. McGillicuddy, Johanna K. Esser-Gietl, Roy M. Harrison, and John C. Wenger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9693–9710,Short summary
The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) provides size resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), continuous measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations in the city of Barcelona (Spain). We find that organic nitrogen is a considerable fraction of the single particles detected, especially at the traffic-dominated site.
Mariola Brines, Manuel Dall'Osto, Fulvio Amato, María Cruz Minguillón, Angeliki Karanasiou, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6785–6804,
M. Brines, M. Dall'Osto, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, F. Gómez-Moreno, L. Núñez, B. Artíñano, F. Costabile, G. P. Gobbi, F. Salimi, L. Morawska, C. Sioutas, and X. Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5929–5945,
C. Prados-Roman, C. A. Cuevas, T. Hay, R. P. Fernandez, A. S. Mahajan, S.-J. Royer, M. Galí, R. Simó, J. Dachs, K. Großmann, D. E. Kinnison, J.-F. Lamarque, and A. Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 583–593,
S. Decesari, J. Allan, C. Plass-Duelmer, B. J. Williams, M. Paglione, M. C. Facchini, C. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, J. K. Gietl, H. Coe, L. Giulianelli, G. P. Gobbi, C. Lanconelli, C. Carbone, D. Worsnop, A. T. Lambe, A. T. Ahern, F. Moretti, E. Tagliavini, T. Elste, S. Gilge, Y. Zhang, and M. Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12109–12132,Short summary
We made use of multiple spectrometric techniques for characterizing the aerosol chemical composition and mixing in the Po Valley in the summer. The oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) concentrations were correlated with simple tracers for recirculated planetary boundary layer air. A full internal mixing between black carbon (BC) and the non-refractory aerosol components was never observed. Local sources in the Po Valley were responsible for the production of organic particles unmixed with BC.
M. Brines, M. Dall'Osto, D.C.S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, and X. Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2973–2986,
J. Bialek, M. Dall Osto, P. Vaattovaara, S. Decesari, J. Ovadnevaite, A. Laaksonen, and C. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1557–1570,
M. Galí, R. Simó, G. L. Pérez, C. Ruiz-González, H. Sarmento, S.-J. Royer, A. Fuentes-Lema, and J. M. Gasol
Biogeosciences, 10, 7983–7998,
M. Dall'Osto, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, M. C. Minguillon, M. Alier, F. Amato, M. Brines, M. Cusack, J. O. Grimalt, A. Karanasiou, T. Moreno, M. Pandolfi, J. Pey, C. Reche, A. Ripoll, R. Tauler, B. L. Van Drooge, M. Viana, R. M. Harrison, J. Gietl, D. Beddows, W. Bloss, C. O'Dowd, D. Ceburnis, G. Martucci, N. L. Ng, D. Worsnop, J. Wenger, E. Mc Gillicuddy, J. Sodeau, R. Healy, F. Lucarelli, S. Nava, J. L. Jimenez, F. Gomez Moreno, B. Artinano, A. S. H. Prévôt, L. Pfaffenberger, S. Frey, F. Wilsenack, D. Casabona, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, D. Gross, and N. Cots
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8991–9019,
C. J. O'Brien, J. A. Peloquin, M. Vogt, M. Heinle, N. Gruber, P. Ajani, H. Andruleit, J. Arístegui, L. Beaufort, M. Estrada, D. Karentz, E. Kopczyńska, R. Lee, A. J. Poulton, T. Pritchard, and C. Widdicombe
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 259–276,
M. Dall'Osto, J. Ovadnevaite, D. Ceburnis, D. Martin, R. M. Healy, I. P. O'Connor, I. Kourtchev, J. R. Sodeau, J. C. Wenger, and C. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4997–5015,
M. Dall'Osto, X. Querol, F. Amato, A. Karanasiou, F. Lucarelli, S. Nava, G. Calzolai, and M. Chiari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4375–4392,
M. Dall'Osto, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, C. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, J. Wenger, and F. J. Gómez-Moreno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 741–759,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Organic BiogeochemistryPotential bioavailability of representative pyrogenic organic matter compounds in comparison to natural dissolved organic matter poolsDistributions of bacteriohopanepolyols in lakes and coastal lagoons of the Azores ArchipelagoLow Cobalt Inventories in the Amundsen and Ross Seas Driven by High Demand for Labile Cobalt Uptake Among Native Phytoplankton CommunitiesRecently fixed carbon fuels microbial activity several meters below the soil surfaceEnvironmental and hydrologic controls on sediment and organic carbon export from a subalpine catchment: insights from a time seriesClimate and geology overwrite land use effects on soil organic nitrogen cycling on a continental scaleCompositions of dissolved organic matter in the ice-covered waters above the Aurora hydrothermal vent system, Gakkel Ridge, Arctic OceanOrganic matter characteristics of a rapidly eroding permafrost cliff in NE Siberia (Lena Delta, Laptev Sea region)Microbial labilization and diversification of pyrogenic dissolved organic matterBacterial and eukaryotic intact polar lipids point to in situ production as a key source of labile organic matter in hadal surface sediment of the Atacama TrenchWhat can we learn from amino acids about oceanic organic matter cycling and degradation?Bacteriohopanetetrol-x: constraining its application as a lipid biomarker for marine anammox using the water column oxygen gradient of the Benguela upwelling systemActive and passive fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the northern South China SeaCyanobacteria net community production in the Baltic Sea as inferred from profiling pCO2 measurementsReviews and syntheses: Heterotrophic fixation of inorganic carbon – significant but invisible flux in environmental carbon cyclingRevised fractional abundances and warm-season temperatures substantially improve brGDGT calibrations in lake sedimentsArchaeal intact polar lipids in polar waters: a comparison between the Amundsen and Scotia seasReproducible determination of dissolved organic matter photosensitivityTechnical note: Uncovering the influence of methodological variations on the extractability of iron-bound organic carbonAnthropocene climate warming enhances autochthonous carbon cycling in an upland Arctic lake, Disko Island, West GreenlandNovel hydrocarbon-utilizing soil mycobacteria synthesize unique mycocerosic acids at a Sicilian everlasting fireAlkenone isotopes show evidence of active carbon concentrating mechanisms in coccolithophores as aqueous carbon dioxide concentrations fall below 7 µmol L−1Seasonal variability and sources of in situ brGDGT production in a permanently stratified African crater lakeSediment release of dissolved organic matter to the oxygen minimum zone off PeruBetter molecular preservation of organic matter in an oxic than in a sulfidic depositional environment: evidence from Thalassiphora pelagica (Dinoflagellata, Eocene) cystsAssessing branched tetraether lipids as tracers of soil organic carbon transport through the Carminowe Creek catchment (southwest England)The nonconservative distribution pattern of organic matter in the Rajang, a tropical river with peatland in its estuaryPredominance of hexamethylated 6-methyl branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in the Mariana Trench: source and environmental implicationHigh-pH and anoxic conditions during soil organic matter extraction increases its electron-exchange capacity and ability to stimulate microbial Fe(III) reduction by electron shuttlingSterol preservation in hypersaline microbial matsStructural elucidation and environmental distributions of butanetriol and pentanetriol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (BDGTs and PDGTs)Distribution and degradation of terrestrial organic matter in the sediments of peat-draining rivers, Sarawak, Malaysian BorneoValidation of carbon isotope fractionation in algal lipids as a pCO2 proxy using a natural CO2 seep (Shikine Island, Japan)Composition and cycling of dissolved organic matter from tropical peatlands of coastal Sarawak, Borneo, revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysisLatitudinal variations in δ30Si and δ15N signatures along the Peruvian shelf: quantifying the effects of nutrient utilization versus denitrification over the past 600 yearsDiapycnal dissolved organic matter supply into the upper Peruvian oxyclineComposition and vertical flux of particulate organic matter to the oxygen minimum zone of the central Baltic Sea: impact of a sporadic North Sea inflowBiochemical and structural controls on the decomposition dynamics of boreal upland forest moss tissuesSpatiotemporal transformation of dissolved organic matter along an alpine stream flow path on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: importance of source and permafrost degradationA quest for the biological sources of long chain alkyl diols in the western tropical North Atlantic OceanLong-chain diols in rivers: distribution and potential biological sourcesLeaf wax n-alkanes in modern plants and topsoils from eastern Georgia (Caucasus) – implications for reconstructing regional paleovegetationThe role of diatom resting spores in pelagic–benthic coupling in the Southern OceanCalcium content and high calcium adaptation of plants in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, ChinaSubstrate potential of last interglacial to Holocene permafrost organic matter for future microbial greenhouse gas productionVariation pattern of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in oceans and inland watersC5 glycolipids of heterocystous cyanobacteria track symbiont abundance in the diatom Hemiaulus hauckii across the tropical North AtlanticMolecular fingerprinting of particulate organic matter as a new tool for its source apportionment: changes along a headwater drainage in coarse, medium and fine particles as a function of rainfallsVariations and determinants of carbon content in plants: a global synthesisThe Holocene sedimentary record of cyanobacterial glycolipids in the Baltic Sea: an evaluation of their application as tracers of past nitrogen fixation
Emily B. Graham, Hyun-Seob Song, Samantha Grieger, Vanessa A. Garayburu-Caruso, James C. Stegen, Kevin D. Bladon, and Allison N. Myers-Pigg
Biogeosciences, 20, 3449–3457,Short summary
Intensifying wildfires are increasing pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) production and its impact on water quality. Recent work indicates that PyOM may have a greater impact on aquatic biogeochemistry than previously assumed, driven by higher bioavailability. We provide a full assessment of the potential bioavailability of PyOM across its chemical spectrum. We indicate that PyOM can be actively transformed within the river corridor and, therefore, may be a growing source of riverine C emissions.
Nora Richter, Ellen C. Hopmans, Danica Mitrović, Pedro M. Raposeiro, Vítor Gonçalves, Ana C. Costa, Linda A. Amaral-Zettler, Laura Villanueva, and Darci Rush
Biogeosciences, 20, 2065–2098,Short summary
Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are a diverse class of lipids produced by bacteria across a wide range of environments. This study characterizes the diversity of BHPs in lakes and coastal lagoons in the Azores Archipelago, as well as a co-culture enriched for methanotrophs. We highlight the potential of BHPs as taxonomic markers for bacteria associated with certain ecological niches, which can be preserved in sedimentary records.
Rebecca J. Chmiel, Riss M. Kellogg, Deepa Rao, Dawn M. Moran, Giacomo R. DiTullio, and Mak A. Saito
Cobalt is an important micronutrient for plankton yet is often scarce throughout the oceans. A 2017/2018 expedition to coastal Antarctica, including regions of the Amundsen Sea and the Ross Sea, discovered lower concentrations of cobalt compared to two past expeditions in 2005 and 2006, particularly for the type of cobalt preferred as a nutrient by phytoplankton. This loss may be due to changing inputs of other nutrients, causing higher uptake of cobalt by plankton over the last decade.
Andrea Scheibe, Carlos A. Sierra, and Marie Spohn
Biogeosciences, 20, 827–838,Short summary
We explored carbon cycling in soils in three climate zones in Chile down to a depth of 6 m, using carbon isotopes. Our results show that microbial activity several meters below the soil surface is mostly fueled by recently fixed carbon and that strong decomposition of soil organic matter only occurs in the upper decimeters of the soils. The study shows that different layers of the critical zone are tightly connected and that processes in the deep soil depend on recently fixed carbon.
Melissa Sophia Schwab, Hannah Gies, Chantal Valérie Freymond, Maarten Lupker, Negar Haghipour, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 19, 5591–5616,Short summary
The majority of river studies focus on headwater or floodplain systems, while often neglecting intermediate river segments. Our study on the subalpine Sihl River bridges the gap between streams and lowlands and demonstrates that moderately steep river segments are areas of significant instream alterations, modulating the export of organic carbon over short distances.
Lisa Noll, Shasha Zhang, Qing Zheng, Yuntao Hu, Florian Hofhansl, and Wolfgang Wanek
Biogeosciences, 19, 5419–5433,Short summary
Cleavage of proteins to smaller nitrogen compounds allows microorganisms and plants to exploit the largest nitrogen reservoir in soils and is considered the bottleneck in soil organic nitrogen cycling. Results from soils covering a European transect show that protein turnover is constrained by soil geochemistry, shifts in climate and associated alterations in soil weathering and should be considered as a driver of soil nitrogen availability with repercussions on carbon cycle processes.
Muhammed Fatih Sert, Helge Niemann, Eoghan P. Reeves, Mats A. Granskog, Kevin P. Hand, Timo Kekäläinen, Janne Jänis, Pamela E. Rossel, Bénédicte Ferré, Anna Silyakova, and Friederike Gründger
Biogeosciences, 19, 2101–2120,Short summary
We investigate organic matter composition in the Arctic Ocean water column. We collected seawater samples from sea ice to deep waters at six vertical profiles near an active hydrothermal vent and its plume. In comparison to seawater, we found that the organic matter in waters directly affected by the hydrothermal plume had different chemical composition. We suggest that hydrothermal processes may influence the organic matter distribution in the deep ocean.
Charlotte Haugk, Loeka L. Jongejans, Kai Mangelsdorf, Matthias Fuchs, Olga Ogneva, Juri Palmtag, Gesine Mollenhauer, Paul J. Mann, P. Paul Overduin, Guido Grosse, Tina Sanders, Robyn E. Tuerena, Lutz Schirrmeister, Sebastian Wetterich, Alexander Kizyakov, Cornelia Karger, and Jens Strauss
Biogeosciences, 19, 2079–2094,Short summary
Buried animal and plant remains (carbon) from the last ice age were freeze-locked in permafrost. At an extremely fast eroding permafrost cliff in the Lena Delta (Siberia), we found this formerly frozen carbon well preserved. Our results show that ongoing degradation releases substantial amounts of this carbon, making it available for future carbon emissions. This mobilisation at the studied cliff and also similarly eroding sites bear the potential to affect rivers and oceans negatively.
Aleksandar I. Goranov, Andrew S. Wozniak, Kyle W. Bostick, Andrew R. Zimmerman, Siddhartha Mitra, and Patrick G. Hatcher
Biogeosciences, 19, 1491–1514,Short summary
Wildfire-derived molecules are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, but their biological fate remains understudied. We have evaluated the compositional changes that occur to wildfire-derived molecules after incubation with soil microbes. We observe a significant degradation but also a production of numerous new labile molecules. Our results indicate that wildfire-derived molecules can be broken down and the carbon and nitrogen therein can be incorporated into microbial food webs.
Edgart Flores, Sebastian I. Cantarero, Paula Ruiz-Fernández, Nadia Dildar, Matthias Zabel, Osvaldo Ulloa, and Julio Sepúlveda
Biogeosciences, 19, 1395–1420,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the chemical diversity and abundance of microbial lipids as markers of organic matter sources in the deepest points of the Atacama Trench sediments and compare them to similar lipid stocks in shallower surface sediments and in the overlying water column. We evaluate possible organic matter provenance and some potential chemical adaptations of the in situ microbial community to the extreme conditions of high hydrostatic pressure in hadal realm.
Birgit Gaye, Niko Lahajnar, Natalie Harms, Sophie Anna Luise Paul, Tim Rixen, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 19, 807–830,Short summary
Amino acids were analyzed in a large number of samples of particulate and dissolved organic matter from coastal regions and the open ocean. A statistical analysis produced two new biogeochemical indicators. An indicator of sinking particle and sediment degradation (SDI) traces the degradation of organic matter from the surface waters into the sediments. A second indicator shows the residence time of suspended matter in the ocean (RTI).
Zoë R. van Kemenade, Laura Villanueva, Ellen C. Hopmans, Peter Kraal, Harry J. Witte, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Darci Rush
Biogeosciences, 19, 201–221,Short summary
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important nitrogen-removal process in the ocean. We assess the distribution of bacteriohopanetetrol-x (BHT-x), used to trace past anammox, along a redox gradient in the water column of the Benguela upwelling system. BHT-x / BHT ratios of >0.18 correspond to the presence of living anammox bacteria and oxygen levels <50 μmol L−1. This allows for a more robust application of BHT-x to trace past marine anammox and deoxygenation in dynamic marine systems.
Jia-Jang Hung, Ching-Han Tung, Zong-Ying Lin, Yuh-ling Lee Chen, Shao-Hung Peng, Yen-Huei Lin, and Li-Shan Tsai
Biogeosciences, 18, 5141–5162,Short summary
We report measured active and passive fluxes and their controlling mechanisms in the northern South China Sea (NSCS). The total fluxes were higher than most reports in open oceans, indicating the significance of NSCS in atmospheric CO2 uptake and in storing that CO2 in the ocean’s interior. Winter cooling and extreme events enhanced nutrient availability and elevated fluxes. Global warming may have profound impacts on reducing ocean’s uptake and storage of CO2 in subtropical–tropical oceans.
Jens Daniel Müller, Bernd Schneider, Ulf Gräwe, Peer Fietzek, Marcus Bo Wallin, Anna Rutgersson, Norbert Wasmund, Siegfried Krüger, and Gregor Rehder
Biogeosciences, 18, 4889–4917,Short summary
Based on profiling pCO2 measurements from a field campaign, we quantify the biomass production of a cyanobacteria bloom in the Baltic Sea, the export of which would foster deep water deoxygenation. We further demonstrate how this biomass production can be accurately reconstructed from long-term surface measurements made on cargo vessels in combination with modelled temperature profiles. This approach enables a better understanding of a severe concern for the Baltic’s good environmental status.
Alexander Braun, Marina Spona-Friedl, Maria Avramov, Martin Elsner, Federico Baltar, Thomas Reinthaler, Gerhard J. Herndl, and Christian Griebler
Biogeosciences, 18, 3689–3700,Short summary
It is known that CO2 fixation by photoautotrophic organisms is the major sink from the atmosphere. While biologists are aware that CO2 fixation also occurs in heterotrophic organisms, this route of inorganic carbon, and its quantitative role, is hardly recognized in biogeochemistry. We demonstrate that a considerable amount of CO2 is fixed annually through anaplerotic reactions in heterotrophic organisms, and a significant quantity of inorganic carbon is temporally sequestered in biomass.
Jonathan H. Raberg, David J. Harning, Sarah E. Crump, Greg de Wet, Aria Blumm, Sebastian Kopf, Áslaug Geirsdóttir, Gifford H. Miller, and Julio Sepúlveda
Biogeosciences, 18, 3579–3603,Short summary
BrGDGT lipids are a proxy for temperature in lake sediments, but other parameters like pH can influence them, and seasonality can affect the temperatures they record. We find a warm-season bias at 43 new high-latitude sites. We also present a new method that deconvolves the effects of temperature, pH, and conductivity and generate global calibrations for these variables. Our study provides new paleoclimate tools, insight into brGDGTs at the biochemical level, and a new method for future study.
Charlotte L. Spencer-Jones, Erin L. McClymont, Nicole J. Bale, Ellen C. Hopmans, Stefan Schouten, Juliane Müller, E. Povl Abrahamsen, Claire Allen, Torsten Bickert, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Elaine Mawbey, Victoria Peck, Aleksandra Svalova, and James A. Smith
Biogeosciences, 18, 3485–3504,Short summary
Long-term ocean temperature records are needed to fully understand the impact of West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are powerful tools for reconstructing ocean temperature but can be difficult to apply to the Southern Ocean. Our results show active GDGT synthesis in relatively warm depths of the ocean. This research improves the application of GDGT palaeoceanographic proxies in the Southern Ocean.
Alec W. Armstrong, Leanne Powers, and Michael Gonsior
Biogeosciences, 18, 3367–3390,Short summary
Living things decay into organic matter, which can dissolve into water (like tea brewing). Tea receives its color by absorbing light. Similarly, this material absorbs light, which can then cause chemical reactions that change it. By measuring changes in these optical properties, we found that materials from some places are more sensitive to light than others. Comparing sensitivity to light helps us understand where these materials come from and what happens as they move through water.
Ben J. Fisher, Johan C. Faust, Oliver W. Moore, Caroline L. Peacock, and Christian März
Biogeosciences, 18, 3409–3419,Short summary
Organic carbon can be protected from microbial degradation in marine sediments through association with iron minerals on 1000-year timescales. Despite the importance of this carbon sink, our spatial and temporal understanding of iron-bound organic carbon interactions globally is poor. Here we show that caution must be applied when comparing quantification of iron-bound organic carbon extracted by different methods as the extraction strength and method specificity can be highly variable.
Mark A. Stevenson, Suzanne McGowan, Emma J. Pearson, George E. A. Swann, Melanie J. Leng, Vivienne J. Jones, Joseph J. Bailey, Xianyu Huang, and Erika Whiteford
Biogeosciences, 18, 2465–2485,Short summary
We link detailed stable isotope and biomarker analyses from the catchments of three Arctic upland lakes on Disko Island (West Greenland) to a recent dated sediment core to understand how carbon cycling has changed over the past ~500 years. We find that the carbon deposited in sediments in these upland lakes is predominately sourced from in-lake production due to the catchment's limited terrestrial vegetation and elevation and that recent increases in algal production link with climate change.
Nadine T. Smit, Laura Villanueva, Darci Rush, Fausto Grassa, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Mira Holzheimer, Adriaan J. Minnaard, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 18, 1463–1479,Short summary
Soils from an everlasting fire (gas seep) in Sicily, Italy, reveal high relative abundances of novel uncultivated mycobacteria and unique 13C-depleted mycocerosic acids (multi-methyl branched fatty acids) close to the main gas seep. Our results imply that mycocerosic acids in combination with their depleted δ13C values offer a new biomarker tool to study the role of soil mycobacteria as hydrocarbon consumers in the modern and past global carbon cycle.
Marcus P. S. Badger
Biogeosciences, 18, 1149–1160,Short summary
Reconstructing ancient atmospheric CO2 is an important aim of palaeoclimate science in order to understand the Earth's climate system. One method, the alkenone proxy based on molecular fossils of coccolithophores, has been recently shown to be ineffective at low-to-moderate CO2 levels. In this paper I show that this is likely due to changes in the biogeochemistry of the coccolithophores when there is low carbon availability, but for much of the Cenozoic the alkenone proxy should have utility.
Loes G. J. van Bree, Francien Peterse, Allix J. Baxter, Wannes De Crop, Sigrid van Grinsven, Laura Villanueva, Dirk Verschuren, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 17, 5443–5463,Short summary
Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are used as a paleothermometer based on their temperature dependence in global soils, but aquatic production complicates their use in lakes. BrGDGTs in the water column of Lake Chala, East Africa, respond to oxygen conditions and mixing. Changes in their signal can be linked to bacterial community composition rather than membrane adaptation to changing conditions. Their integrated signal in the sediment reflects mean air temperature.
Alexandra N. Loginova, Andrew W. Dale, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Sören Thomsen, Stefan Sommer, David Clemens, Klaus Wallmann, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 17, 4663–4679,Short summary
We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON) and matter (DOM) optical properties in pore waters and near-bottom waters of the eastern tropical South Pacific off Peru. The difference between diffusion-driven and net fluxes of DOC and DON and qualitative changes in DOM optical properties suggested active microbial utilisation of the released DOM at the sediment–water interface. Our results suggest that the sediment release of DOM contributes to microbial processes in the area.
Gerard J. M. Versteegh, Alexander J. P. Houben, and Karin A. F. Zonneveld
Biogeosciences, 17, 3545–3561,Short summary
Anoxic sediments mostly contain much more organic matter than oxic ones, and therefore organic matter in anoxic settings is often considered to be preserved better than in oxic settings. However, through the analysis of the same fossil dinoflagellate cyst species from both oxic and anoxic settings, we show that at a molecular level the preservation in the oxic sediments may be better since in the anoxic setting the cyst macromolecule has been altered by postdepositional modification.
Jingjing Guo, Miriam Glendell, Jeroen Meersmans, Frédérique Kirkels, Jack J. Middelburg, and Francien Peterse
Biogeosciences, 17, 3183–3201,Short summary
The fluxes of soil organic carbon (OC) transport from land to sea are poorly constrained, mostly due to the lack of a specific tracer for soil OC. Here we evaluate the use of specific molecules derived from soil bacteria as a tracer for soil OC in a small river catchment. We find that the initial soil signal is lost upon entering the aquatic environment. However, the local environmental history of the catchment is reflected by these molecules in the lake sediments that act as their sink.
Zhuo-Yi Zhu, Joanne Oakes, Bradley Eyre, Youyou Hao, Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Shan Jiang, Moritz Müller, and Jing Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 2473–2485,Short summary
Samples were collected in August 2016 in the Rajang River and its estuary, with tropical forest in the river basin and peatland in the estuary. Organic matter composition was influenced by transportation in the river basin, whereas peatland added clear biodegraded parts to the fluvial organic matter, which implies modification of the initial lability and/or starting points in the subsequent degradation and alternation processes after the organic matter enters the sea.
Wenjie Xiao, Yasong Wang, Yongsheng Liu, Xi Zhang, Linlin Shi, and Yunping Xu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2135–2148,Short summary
The hadal zone (6–11 km depth) is the least explored habitat on Earth. We studied microbial branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench. One unique feature is the strong predominance of 6-methyl brGDGT, which likely reflects an adaption of brGDGT-producing bacteria to alkaline seawater and low temperature. BrGDGTs, with elemental and isotopic data, suggest an autochthonous product for brGDGT. A new approach is proposed for brGDGT sourcing.
Yuge Bai, Edisson Subdiaga, Stefan B. Haderlein, Heike Knicker, and Andreas Kappler
Biogeosciences, 17, 683–698,Short summary
Biogeochemical processes of SOM are key for greenhouse gas emission and water quality. We extracted SOM by water or by NaOH–HCl under oxic–anoxic conditions. Chemical and anoxic extractions lead to higher SOM electron exchange capacities, resulting in stimulation of microbial Fe(III) reduction. Therefore, aqueous pH-neutral SOM extracts should be used to reflect environmental SOM redox processes, and artifacts of chemical extractions need to be considered when evaluating SOM redox processes.
Yan Shen, Volker Thiel, Pablo Suarez-Gonzalez, Sebastiaan W. Rampen, and Joachim Reitner
Biogeosciences, 17, 649–666,Short summary
Today, sterols are widespread in plants, animals, and fungi but are almost absent in the oldest rocks. Microbial mats, representing the earliest complex ecosystems on Earth, were omnipresent in Precambrian marine environments and may have degraded the sterols at that time. Here we analyze the distribution of sterols through a microbial mat. This provides insight into how variations in biological and nonbiological factors affect the preservation of sterols in modern and ancient microbial mats.
Sarah Coffinet, Travis B. Meador, Lukas Mühlena, Kevin W. Becker, Jan Schröder, Qing-Zeng Zhu, Julius S. Lipp, Verena B. Heuer, Matthew P. Crump, and Kai-Uwe Hinrichs
Biogeosciences, 17, 317–330,Short summary
This study deals with two membrane lipids called BDGTs and PDGTs. Membrane lipids are molecules forming the cell envelope of all organisms. Different organisms produce different lipids thus they can be used to detect the presence of specific organisms in the environment. We analyzed the structure of these new lipids and looked for potential producers. We found that they are likely made by microbes emitting methane below the sediment surface and could be used to track these specific microbes.
Ying Wu, Kun Zhu, Jing Zhang, Moritz Müller, Shan Jiang, Aazani Mujahid, Mohd Fakharuddin Muhamad, and Edwin Sien Aun Sia
Biogeosciences, 16, 4517–4533,Short summary
Our understanding of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) in tropical peat-draining rivers remains limited, especially in Southeast Asia. We explored the characteristics of TOM via bulk parameters and lignin phenols of sediment in Malaysia. This showed that the most important plant source of the organic matter in these rivers is woody angiosperm C3 plants with limited diagenetic alteration. This slower degradation of TOM may be a link to higher total nitrogen content, especially for the small river.
Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Sylvain Agostini, Ben P. Harvey, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 16, 4451–4461,Short summary
Carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2) in the atmosphere play an integral role in Earth system dynamics, especially climate. Past climates help us understand future ones, but reconstructing pCO2 over the geologic record remains a challenge. This research demonstrates new approaches for exploring past pCO2 via the carbon isotope fractionation in general algal lipids, which we test over a high CO2 gradient from a naturally occurring CO2 seep.
Yongli Zhou, Patrick Martin, and Moritz Müller
Biogeosciences, 16, 2733–2749,Short summary
We found that peatlands in coastal Sarawak, Borneo, export extremely humified organic matter, which dominates the riverine organic matter pool and conservatively mixes with seawater, while the freshly produced fraction is low and stable in concentration at all salinities. We estimated that terrigenous fractions, which showed high photolability, still account for 20 % of the coastal dissolved organic carbon pool, implying the importance of peat-derived organic matter in the coastal carbon cycle.
Kristin Doering, Claudia Ehlert, Philippe Martinez, Martin Frank, and Ralph Schneider
Biogeosciences, 16, 2163–2180,
Alexandra N. Loginova, Sören Thomsen, Marcus Dengler, Jan Lüdke, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 16, 2033–2047,Short summary
High primary production in the Peruvian upwelling system is followed by rapid heterotrophic utilization of organic matter and supports the formation of one of the most intense oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world. Here, we estimated vertical fluxes of oxygen and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the surface to the OMZ. Our results suggest that DOM remineralization substantially reduces oxygen concentration in the upper water column and controls the shape of the upper oxycline.
Carolina Cisternas-Novoa, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 16, 927–947,Short summary
We investigate the composition and vertical fluxes of POM in two deep basins of the Baltic Sea (GB: Gotland Basin and LD: Landsort Deep). The two basins showed different O2 regimes resulting from the intrusion of oxygen-rich water from the North Sea that ventilated the deep waters in GB, but not in LD. In GB, O2 intrusions lead to a high abundance of manganese oxides that aggregate with POM, altering its composition and vertical flux and contributing to a higher POC transfer efficiency in GB.
Michael Philben, Sara Butler, Sharon A. Billings, Ronald Benner, Kate A. Edwards, and Susan E. Ziegler
Biogeosciences, 15, 6731–6746,Short summary
We explored the relationship between chemical composition and the temperature sensitivity of moss decomposition using 959-day lab incubations. Mass loss was low despite the predominance of carbohydrates, indicating the persistence of labile C. Scanning electron microscopy revealed little change in the moss cell-wall structure. These results suggest that the moss cell-wall matrix protects labile C from decomposition, contributing to the globally important stocks of moss-derived C.
Yinghui Wang, Robert G. M. Spencer, David C. Podgorski, Anne M. Kellerman, Harunur Rashid, Phoebe Zito, Wenjie Xiao, Dandan Wei, Yuanhe Yang, and Yunping Xu
Biogeosciences, 15, 6637–6648,Short summary
With global warming, thawing of permafrost releases dissolved organic matter (DOM) into streams. By analyzing DOM along an alpine stream on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, we found DOM was mainly from the active layer, but with deepening of the active layer, the contribution of the deep permafrost layer increased, causing a change in the chemical composition of DOM. From the head- to downstream, DOM is undergoing rapid degradation, but some components are persistent and can be transported downstream.
Sergio Balzano, Julie Lattaud, Laura Villanueva, Sebastiaan W. Rampen, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Judith van Bleijswijk, Nicole Bale, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 5951–5968,Short summary
We tried to identify the microbes which biosynthesize a class of lipids widespread in seawater, the long chain alkyl diols (LCDs). We could not find any microorganism likely involved in the production of LCDs. The amounts of LCDs found are too high to be produced by living organisms and are likely to be part of the refractory organic matter persisting for long periods in the water column.
Julie Lattaud, Frédérique Kirkels, Francien Peterse, Chantal V. Freymond, Timothy I. Eglinton, Jens Hefter, Gesine Mollenhauer, Sergio Balzano, Laura Villanueva, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Ellen C. Hopmans, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 4147–4161,Short summary
Long-chain diols (LCDs) are biomarkers that occur widespread in marine environments and also in lakes and rivers. In this study, we looked at the distribution of LCDs in three river systems (Godavari, Danube, and Rhine) in relation to season, precipitation, and temperature. We found out that the LCDs are likely being produced in calm areas of the river systems and that marine LCDs have a different distribution than riverine LCDs.
Marcel Bliedtner, Imke K. Schäfer, Roland Zech, and Hans von Suchodoletz
Biogeosciences, 15, 3927–3936,Short summary
In this study, we systematically analyze leaf wax derived n-alkane patterns in eastern Georgia to test their potential for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the semi-humid to semi-arid central southern Caucasus region. We investigated the influence of vegetation types on the leaf wax signal in modern plants and topsoil material. Our results show distinct and systematic differences in the n-alkane patterns between vegetation types and prove their potential for vegetation reconstructions.
Mathieu Rembauville, Stéphane Blain, Clara Manno, Geraint Tarling, Anu Thompson, George Wolff, and Ian Salter
Biogeosciences, 15, 3071–3084,Short summary
Sinking phytoplankton from the surface ocean provide the principal energy source to deep-ocean ecosystems. Our aim was to understand how different phytoplankton communities impact the chemical nature of this sinking material. We show certain types of phytoplankton can preferentially export energy-rich storage compounds to the seafloor. Any climate-driven effects on phytoplankton community structure could thus impact remote deep-ocean ecosystems thousands of kilometres beneath the surface.
Xiaocong Wei, Xiangwen Deng, Wenhua Xiang, Pifeng Lei, Shuai Ouyang, Hongfang Wen, and Liang Chen
Biogeosciences, 15, 2991–3002,Short summary
Karst is a kind of typical calcium-rich environment, which is widely distributed. We measured the Ca2+ content of 41 plant species, as well as soil total Ca2+ and exchange Ca2+. We found out that different plants have different ways to high Ca2+ adaptation. According to the different high Ca2+ adaptation of the 17 dominant species, we divided them into 3 categories: Ca-indifferent plants, high-Ca plants and low-Ca plants. Our results can provide a theoretical basis for vegetation restoration.
Janina G. Stapel, Georg Schwamborn, Lutz Schirrmeister, Brian Horsfield, and Kai Mangelsdorf
Biogeosciences, 15, 1969–1985,Short summary
Climate warming in the Arctic results in thawing of permafrost deposits. This promotes the accessibility of freeze-locked old organic matter (OM) accumulated during the past. Characterizing OM of different depositional ages, we were able to show that OM from last glacial Yedoma deposits possess the highest potential to provide organic substrates such as acetate for microbial greenhouse gas production and therefore to accelerate the carbon–climate feedback cycle during ongoing global warming.
Changchun Huang, Quanliang Jiang, Ling Yao, Hao Yang, Chen Lin, Tao Huang, A-Xing Zhu, and Yimin Zhang
Biogeosciences, 15, 1827–1841,Short summary
The latitudinal dependency of POC / PON in ocean and inland water is significant, regulated by trophic state and climate, etc. factors. POC / PON significantly increased from coastal water (6.89 ± 2.38) to open ocean (7.59 ± 4.22) with the increasing rate of 0.0024 / km. The re-examination of the global relationship between, and variations in, POC and PON could be important for the global and regional coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ocean and freshwater.
Nicole J. Bale, Tracy A. Villareal, Ellen C. Hopmans, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Marc Besseling, Denise Dorhout, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 1229–1241,Short summary
Associations between diatoms and N-fixing cyanobacteria (diatom–diazotroph associations, DDAs) play an important role in the N cycle of the tropical North Atlantic. Heterocysts are the site of N fixation and contain unique glycolipids. We measured these glycolipids in the water column and surface sediment from the tropical North Atlantic. We found a significant correlation between the concentration of glycolipid and of DDAs, strengthening their application as biomarkers.
Laurent Jeanneau, Richard Rowland, and Shreeram Inamdar
Biogeosciences, 15, 973–985,Short summary
The source of particulate organic matter in headwaters during storm events remains an open question. We use the molecular composition of organic matter sampled during four spring–summer storms and compare it to potential sources. We identify litter, streambed and vicinal soils as the main sources of particulate organic matter. Their proportions depend on (i) the size of the catchment and (ii) the rain event.
Suhui Ma, Feng He, Di Tian, Dongting Zou, Zhengbing Yan, Yulong Yang, Tiancheng Zhou, Kaiyue Huang, Haihua Shen, and Jingyun Fang
Biogeosciences, 15, 693–702,Short summary
Plant carbon (C) content is critical to the assessment of the global C cycle. Our results showed that the global average C contents in organs were significantly lower than a canonical value of 50 %. Plant C content tended to decrease with increasing latitude, and life form explained more variation than climate. Our findings suggest that specific C content values of different organs and life forms should be incorporated into the estimations of regional and global vegetation biomass C stocks.
Martina Sollai, Ellen C. Hopmans, Nicole J. Bale, Anchelique Mets, Lisa Warden, Matthias Moros, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 14, 5789–5804,Short summary
The Baltic Sea is characterized by recurring summer phytoplankton blooms, dominated by a few cyanobacterial species. These bacteria are able to use dinitrogen gas as the source for nitrogen and produce very specific lipids. We analyzed these lipids in a sediment core to study their presence over the past 7000 years. This reveals that cyanobacterial blooms have not only occurred in the last decades but were common at times when the Baltic was connected to the North Sea.
Agawin, N. S. R., Duarte, C. M., and Agustí, S.: Nutrient and temperature control of the contribution of picoplankton to phytoplankton biomass and production, Limnol. Oceanogr., 45, 591–600, 2000.
Agustí, S. and Llabrés, M.: Solar Radiation-induced Mortality of Marine Pico-phytoplankton in the Oligotrophic Ocean, Photochem. Photobiol., 83, 793–801, 2007.
Alldredge, A. L., Cole, J. J., and Caron, D. A.: Production of heterotrophic Inc. bacteria inhabiting macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow) from surface waters, Limnol. Oceanogr., 31 68–78, 1986.
Alldredge, A. L., Passow, U., and Logan, B. E.: The abundance and significance of a class of large, transparent organic particles in the ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 40, 1131–1140, 1993.
Alldredge, A. L., Passow, U., and Haddock, S. H. D.: The characteristics and transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) content of marine snow formed from thecate dinoflagellates, J. Plankton Res., 20, 393–406, 1998.
Aller, J. Y., Kuznetsova, M. R., Jahns, C. J., and Kemp, P. F.: The sea surface microlayer as a source of viral and bacterial enrichment in marine aerosols, J. Aerosol Sci., 36, 801–812, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.10.012, 2005.
Aller, J. Y., Radway, J. C., Kilthau, W. P., Bothe, D. W., Wilson, T. W., Vaillancourt, R. D., Quinn, P. K., Coffman, D. J., Murray, B. J., and Knopf, D. A.: Size-resolved characterization of the polysaccharidic and proteinaceous components of sea spray aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 154, 331–347, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.01.053, 2017.
Azam, F. and Malfatti, F.: Microbial structuring of marine ecosystems, Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 5, 782–791, https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1747, 2007.
Azetsu-Scott, K. and Passow, U.: Ascending marine particles: Significance of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the upper ocean, Limnol. Oceanogr., 49, 741–748, 2004.
Bar-Zeev, E. and Rahav, E.: Microbial metabolism of transparent exopolymer particles during the summer months along a eutrophic estuary system, Front. Microbiol., 6, 403, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00403, 2015.
Bar-Zeev, E., Berman-Frank, I., Stambler, N., Vázquez Domínguez, E., Zohary, T., Capuzzo, E., Meeder, E., Suggett, D. J., Iluz, D., Dishon, G., and Berman, T.: Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) link phytoplankton and bacterial production in the Gulf of Aqaba, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 56, 217–225, https://doi.org/10.3354/ame01322, 2009.
Bar-Zeev, E., Berman, T., Rahav, E., Dishon, G., Herut, B., and Berman-Frank, I.: Transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 431, 107–118, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09110, 2011.
Beauvais, C., Pedrotti, M. L., Egge, J., Iversen, K., and Marrasé, C.: Effects of turbulence on TEP dynamics under contrasting nutrient conditions: implications for aggregation and sedimentation processes, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 323, 47–57, 2006.
Berman-Frank, I., Rosenberg, G., Levitan, O., Haramaty, L., and Mari, X.: Coupling between autocatalytic cell death and transparent exopolymeric particle production in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium, Environ. Microbiol., 9, 1415–1422, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01257.x, 2007.
Bhaskar, P. V. and Bhosle, N. B.: Dynamics of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and particle-associated carbohydrates in the Dona Paula bay, west coast of India, J. Earth Syst. Sci., 115, 403–413, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02702869, 2006.
Biddanda, B. and Benner, R.: Carbon, nitrogen, and carbohydrate fluxes during the production of particulate and dissolved organic matter by marine phytoplankton, Limnol. Oceanogr., 42, 506–518, 1997.
Biddanda, B. A.: Structure and function of marine microbial aggregates, Oceanol. Acta, 9, 209–211, 1986.
Borchard, C. and Engel, A.: Size-fractionated dissolved primary production and carbohydrate composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, Biogeosciences, 12, 1271–1284, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-1271-2015, 2015.
Burd, A. B. and Jackson, G. A.: Particle aggregation, Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 1, 65–90, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163904, 2009.
Calleja, M. Ll., Duarte, C. M., Prairie, Y. T., Agustí, S., and Herndl, G. J.: Evidence for surface organic matter modulation of air-sea CO2 gas exchange, Biogeosciences, 6, 1105–1114, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-1105-2009, 2009.
Cassar, N., Wright, S. W., Thomson, P. G., Trull, T. W., Westwood, K. J., de Salas, M., Davidson, A., Pearce, I., Davies, D. M., and Matear, R. J.: The relation of mixed-layer net community production to phytoplankton community composition in the Southern Ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 29, 446–462, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gb004936, 2015.
Chin, W.-C., Orellana, M. V., and Verdugo, P.: Spontaneous assembly of marine dissolved organic matter into polymer gels, Nature, 391, 568–572, 1998.
Cisternas-Novoa, C., Lee, C., and Engel, A.: Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and Coomassie stainable particles (CSP): Differences between their origin and vertical distributions in the ocean, Mar. Chem., 175, 56–71, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2015.03.009, 2015.
Claquin, P., Probert, I., Lefebvre, S., and Veron, B.: Effects of temperature on photosynthetic parameters and TEP production in eight species of marine microalgae, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 51, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.3354/ame01187, 2008.
Corzo, A., Morillo, J. A., and Rodríguez, S.: Production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in cultures of Chaetoceros calcitrans under nitrogen limitation, Aquatic Microb. Ecol., 23, 63–72, https://doi.org/10.3354/ame023063, 2000.
Corzo, A., Rodríguez-Gálvez, S., Lubian, L., Sangrá, P., Martínez, A., and Morillo, J. A.: Spatial distribution of transparent exopolymer particles in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, J. Plankton Res., 27, 635–646, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbi038, 2005.
Cunliffe, M., Engel, A., Frka, S., Gašparović, B., Guitart, C., Murrell, J. C., Salter, M., Stolle, C., Upstill-Goddard, R., and Wurl, O.: Sea surface microlayers: A unified physicochemical and biological perspective of the air–ocean interface, Prog. Oceanogr., 109, 104–116, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2012.08.004, 2013.
Decho, A. W. and Moriarty, D. J. W.: Bacterial exopolymer utilization by a harpacticoid copepod: A methodology and results, Limnol. Oceanogr., 35, 1039–1049, 1990.
Deng, W., Cruz, B. N., and Neuer, S.: Effects of nutrient limitation on cell growth, TEP production and aggregate formation of marine Synechococcus, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 78, 39–49, https://doi.org/10.3354/ame01803, 2016.
de Vicente, I., Ortega-Retuerta, E., Mazuecos, I. P., Pace, M. L., Cole, J. J., and Reche, I.: Variation in transparent exopolymer particles in relation to biological and chemical factors in two contrasting lake districts, Aquat. Sci., 72, 443–453, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00027-010-0147-6, 2010.
Dilling, L., Wilson, J., Steinberg, D., and Alldredge, A. L.: Feeding by the euphasiid Euphasia pacifica and the copepod Calanus pacificus on marine snow, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 170, 189–201, 1998.
Ding, Y.-X., Chin, W.-C., Rodriguez, A., Hung, C.-C., Santschi, P. H., and Verdugo, P.: Amphiphilic exopolymers from Sagittula stellata induce DOM self-assembly and formation of marine microgels, Mar. Chem., 112, 11–19, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2008.05.003, 2008.
Dreshchinskii, A. and Engel, A.: Seasonal variations of the sea surface microlayer at the Boknis Eck Times Series Station (Baltic Sea), J. Plankton Res., 39, 943–961, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbx055, 2017.
Ducklow, H.: Bacterial production and biomass in the oceans, in: Microbial Ecology of the Oceans, edited by: Kirchman, D. L., Wiley, New York, 2000.
Engel, A.: The role of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the increase in apparent particle stickiness (α) during the decline of a diatom bloom, J. Plankton Res., 22, 485–497, 2000.
Engel, A.: Direct relationship between CO2 uptake and transparent exopolymer particles production in natural phytoplankton, J. Plankton Res., 24, 49–53, 2002.
Engel, A.: Distribution of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and their potential significance for aggregation processes, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 51, 83–92, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2003.09.001, 2004.
Engel, A. and Galgani, L.: The organic sea-surface microlayer in the upwelling region off the coast of Peru and potential implications for air–sea exchange processes, Biogeosciences, 13, 989–1007, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-989-2016, 2016.
Engel, A. and Passow, U.: Carbon and nitrogen content of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in relation to their Alcian Blue adsorption, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 219, 1–10, 2001.
Engel, A., Goldthwait, S., Passow, U., and Alldredge, A. L.: Temporal decoupling of carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a mesocosm diatom bloom, Limnol. Oceanogr., 47, 753–761, 2002a.
Engel, A., Meyerhöfer, M., and von Bröckel, K.: Chemical and Biological Composition of Suspended Particles and Aggregates in the Baltic Sea in Summer (1999), Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 55, 729–741, https://doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2001.0927, 2002b.
Engel, A., Piontek, J., Metfies, K., Endres, S., Sprong, P., Peeken, I., Gabler-Schwarz, S., and Nothig, E. M.: Inter-annual variability of transparent exopolymer particles in the Arctic Ocean reveals high sensitivity to ecosystem changes, Sci. Rep., 7, 4129, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04106-9, 2017.
Fukao, T., Kitahara, S., Karino, N., Yamatogi, T., Kimoto, K., and Kotani, Y.: Dynamics of transparent exopolymer particles in spring and autumn in Isahaya Bay, Japan, Nippon Suisan Gakk., 77, 1027–1033, 2011.
García, C. M., Prieto, L., Vargas, M., Echevarría, F., García-Lafuente, J., Ruiz, J., and Rubín, J. P.: Hydrodynamics and the spatial distribution of plankton and TEP in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula), J. Plankton Res., 24, 817–833, 2002.
Gärdes, A., Iversen, M. H., Grossart, H. P., Passow, U., and Ullrich, M. S.: Diatom-associated bacteria are required for aggregation of Thalassiosira weissflogii, ISME J., 5, 436–445, https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.145, 2011.
Gasol, J. M. and Morán, X. A. G.: Effects of filtration on bacterial activity and picoplankton community structure as assessed by flow cytometry, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 16, 251–264, 1999.
Gordon, A.: Brazil–Malvinas Conlluence – 1984, Deep-Sea Res., 36, 359–384, 1989.
Grossart, H. P., Berman, T., Simon, M., and Pohlmann, K.: Occurrence and microbial dynamics of macroscopic organic aggregates (lake snow) in Lake Kinneret, Israel, in fall, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 14, 59–67, https://doi.org/10.3354/ame014059, 1998.
Grossart, H. P., Czub, G., and Simon, M.: Algae-bacteria interactions and their effects on aggregation and organic matter flux in the sea, Environ. Microbiol., 8, 1074–1084, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2006.00999.x, 2006.
Guerrini, F., Mazzotti, A., Boni, L., and Pistocchi, R.: Bacterial–algal interactions in polysaccharide production, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 15, 247-253, 1998.
Hansen, H. P. and Grasshoff, K.: Procedures for the automated determination of seawater constituents, in: Methods of seawater analysis, 2nd Edn., Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, 362–379, 1983.
Harlay, J., De Bodt, C., Engel, A., Jansen, S., d'Hoop, Q., Piontek, J., Van Oostende, N., Groom, S., Sabbe, K., and Chou, L.: Abundance and size distribution of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in a coccolithophorid bloom in the northern Bay of Biscay, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 56, 1251–1265, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2009.01.014, 2009.
Harlay, J., Borges, A. V., Van Der Zee, C., Delille, B., Godoi, R. H. M., Schiettecatte, L. S., Roevros, N., Aerts, K., Lapernat, P. E., Rebreanu, L., Groom, S., Daro, M. H., Van Grieken, R., and Chou, L.: Biogeochemical study of a coccolithophore bloom in the northern Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic Ocean) in June 2004, Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 317–336, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2010.04.029, 2010.
Heinonen, K. B., Ward, J. E., and Holohan, B. A.: Production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) by benthic suspension feeders in coastal systems, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 341, 184–195, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.09.019, 2007.
Hong, Y., Smith, W. O., and White, A.-M.: Studies of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) produced in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) and by Phaeocytis antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae), J. Phycol., 33, 368–376, 1997.
Iuculano, F., Duarte, C. M., Marbà, N., and Agustí, S.: Seagrass as major source of transparent exopolymer particles in the oligotrophic Mediterranean coast, Biogeosciences, 14, 5069–5075, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-5069-2017, 2017a.
Iuculano, F., Mazuecos, I. P., Reche, I., and Agusti, S.: Prochlorococcus as a Possible Source for Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP), Front Microbiol., 8, 709, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00709, 2017b.
Jähmlich, S., Thomsen, L., and Graf, G.: Factors controlling aggregate formation in the benthic boundary layer of the Mecklenburg Bight (western Baltic Sea), J. Sea Res., 41, 245–254, 1998.
Jennings, M. K., Passow, U., Wozniak, A. S., and Hansell, D. A.: Distribution of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) across an organic carbon gradient in the western North Atlantic Ocean, Mar. Chem., 190, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2017.01.002, 2017.
Kiorboe, T., Hansen, J. L. S., Alldredge, A. L., Jackson, G. A., Passow, U., Dam, H. G., Drapeau, D. T., Waite, A., and Garcia, C. M.: Sedimentation of phytoplankton during a diatom bloom: Rates and mechanisms, Journal of Marine Science, 54, 1123–1148, 1996.
Klein, C., Claquin, P., Pannard, A., Napoléon, C., Le Roy, B., and Véron, B.: Dynamics of soluble extracellular polymeric-substances and transparent exopolymer particle pools in coastal ecosystems, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 427, 13–27, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09049, 2011.
Kodama, T., Kurogi, H., Okazaki, M., Jinbo, T., Chow, S., Tomoda, T., Ichikawa, T., and Watanabe, T.: Vertical distribution of transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) concentration in the oligotrophic western tropical North Pacific, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 513, 29–37, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10954, 2014.
Kozlowski, W. and Vernet, M.: Palmer LTER: Predominance of cryptomonads and diatoms in antarctic coastal waters, Antarct. J. US, 30, 267–268, 1995.
Kozlowski, W. A., Deutschman, D., Garibotti, I., Trees, C., and Vernet, M.: An evaluation of the application of CHEMTAX to Antarctic coastal pigment data, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 58, 350–364, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2011.01.008, 2011.
Kumar, M. D., Sarma, V. V. S. S., Ramaiah, N., Gauns, M., and de Sousa, S. N.: Biogeochemical significance of transport exopolymer particles in the Indian Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 81–84, https://doi.org/10.1029/97gl03481, 1998.
Kuznetsova, M., Lee, C., and Aller, J.: Characterization of the proteinaceous matter in marine aerosols, Mar. Chem., 96, 359–377, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2005.03.007, 2005.
Lebaron, P., Servais, P., Agogue, H., Courties, C., and Joux, F.: Does the high nucleic acid content of individual bacterial cells allow us to discriminate between active cells and inactive cells in aquatic systems?, Appl. Environ. Microb., 67, 1775–1782, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.4.1775-1782.2001, 2001.
Leblanc, K., Hare, C. E., Feng, Y., Berg, G. M., DiTullio, G. R., Neeley, A., Benner, I., Sprengel, C., Beck, A., Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A., Passow, U., Klinck, K., Rowe, J. M., Wilhelm, S. W., Brown, C. W., and Hutchins, D. A.: Distribution of calcifying and silicifying phytoplankton in relation to environmental and biogeochemical parameters during the late stages of the 2005 North East Atlantic Spring Bloom, Biogeosciences, 6, 2155–2179, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-2155-2009, 2009.
Leck, C., Gao, Q., Mashayekhy Rad, F., and Nilsson, U.: Size-resolved atmospheric particulate polysaccharides in the high summer Arctic, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12573–12588, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-12573-2013, 2013.
Ling, S. and Alldredge, A. L.: Does the marine copepod Calanus pacificus consume transparent exopolymer particles (TEP)?, J. Plankton Res., 25, 507–515, 2003.
Logan, B. E., Passow, U., Alldredge, A. L., Grossart, H. P., and Simon, M.: Rapid formation and sedimentation of large aggregates is predictable from coagulation rates (half-lives) of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 42, 203–214, 1995.
Long, R. A. and Azam, F.: Abundant protein-containing particles in the sea, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 10, 213–221, 1996.
Longhurst, A. R.: Ecological Geography of the Sea, 2nd Edn., Academic Press, San Diego, 402 pp., 1998.
López-Sandoval, D. C., Fernández, A., and Marañón, E.: Dissolved and particulate primary production along a longitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean Sea, Biogeosciences, 8, 815–825, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-815-2011, 2011.
Mari, X. and Kiorboe, T.: Abundance, size distribution and bacterial colonization of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) during spring in the Kattegat, J. Plankton Res., 18, 969–986, 1996.
Mari, X., Rassoulzadegan, F., Brussaard, C. P. D., and Wassmann, P.: Dynamics of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) production by Phaeocystis globosa under N- or P-limitation: a controlling factor of the retention/export balance, Harmful Algae, 4, 895–914, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2004.12.014, 2005.
Mari, X., Passow, U., Migon, C., Burd, A. B., and Legendre, L.: Transparent exopolymer particles: Effects on carbon cycling in the ocean, Prog. Oceanogr., 151, 13–37, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2016.11.002, 2017.
Mazuecos, I. P.: Exopolymer particles in the ocean: in the ocean: Production by microorganisms, carbon export and by microorganisms, carbon export and ation mesopelagic respiration, PhD thesis, University of Granada, Spain, 281 pp., 2015.
Menden-Deuer, S. and Lessard, E. J.: Carbon to volume relationships for dinoflagellates, diatoms, and other protist plankton, Limnol. Oceanogr., 45, 569–579, 2000.
Myklestad, S.: Production of carbohydrates by marine planktonic diatoms, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 29, 161–179, 1977.
Nagata, T.: Production mechanisms of dissolved organic matter, in: Microbial Ecology of the Oceans, edited by: Kirchman, D. L., Wiley-Liss Inc., New York, 121–152, 2000.
Nicolaus, B., Panico, A., Lama, L., Romano, I., Manca, M. C., De Giulio, A., and Gambacorta, A.: Chemical composition and production of exopolysaccharides from representative members of heterocystous and non-heterocystous cyanobacteria, Phytochemistry, 52, 639–647, 1999.
Norland, S.: The relationship between biomass and volume of bacteria, in: Handbook of methods in aquatic microbial ecology, edited by: Kemp, P. F., Sherr, B. F., Sherr, E. B., and Cole, J. J., Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 303–307, 1993.
Olson, R. J., Zettler, E. R., and DuRand, M. D.: Phytoplankton analysis using flow cytometry, in: Handbook of Methods in Aquatic Microbial Ecology, edited by: Kemp, P. F., Sherr, B. F., Sherr, E. B., and Cole, J. J., Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 1993.
Orellana, M. V. and Verdugo, P.: Ultraviolet radiation blocks the organic carbon exchange between the dissolved phase and the gel phase in the ocean, Limnol. Oceanogr., 48, 1618–1623, 2003.
Orellana, M. V., Matrai, P. A., Leck, C., Rauschenberg, C. D., Lee, A. M., and Coz, E.: Marine microgels as a source of cloud condensation nuclei in the high Arctic, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108, 13612–13617, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1102457108, 2011.
Ortega-Retuerta, E., Passow, U., Duarte, C. M., and Reche, I.: Effects of ultraviolet B radiation on (not so) transparent exopolymer particles, Biogeosciences, 6, 3071–3080, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-3071-2009, 2009a.
Ortega-Retuerta, E., Reche, I., Pulido-Villena, E., Agustí, S., and Duarte, C. M.: Uncoupled distributions of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and dissolved carbohydrates in the Southern Ocean, Mar. Chem., 115, 59–65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2009.06.004, 2009b.
Ortega-Retuerta, E., Duarte, C. M., and Reche, I.: Significance of bacterial activity for the distribution and dynamics of transparent exopolymer particles in the Mediterranean sea, Microb. Ecol., 59, 808–818, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-010-9640-7, 2010.
Ortega-Retuerta, E., Sala, M. M., Borrull, E., Mestre, M., Aparicio, F. L., Gallisai, R., Antequera, C., Marrase, C., Peters, F., Simo, R., and Gasol, J. M.: Horizontal and Vertical Distributions of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) in the NW Mediterranean Sea Are Linked to Chlorophyll a and O2 Variability, Front. Microbiol., 7, 2159, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.02159, 2017.
Ortega-Retuerta, E., Marrase, C., Munoz-Fernandez, A., Sala, M. M., Simo, R., and Gasol, J. M.: Seasonal dynamics of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their drivers in the coastal NW Mediterranean Sea, Sci. Total Environ., 631–632, 180–190, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.341, 2018.
Palma, E. D., Matano, R. P., and Piola, A. R.: A numerical study of the Southwestern Atlantic Shelf circulation: Stratified ocean response to local and offshore forcing, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C11010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jc004720, 2008.
Parinos, C., Gogou, A., Krasakopoulou, E., Lagaria, A., Giannakourou, A., Karageorgis, A. P., and Psarra, S.: Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) in the NE Aegean Sea frontal area: Seasonal dynamics under the influence of Black Sea water, Cont. Shelf Res., 149, 112–123, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.03.012, 2017.
Partensky, F., Hess, W. R., and Vaulot, D.: Prochlorococcus, a Marine Photosynthetic Prokaryote of Global Significance, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. R., 63, 106–137, 1999.
Passow, U.: Formation of transparent exopolymer particles, TEP, from dissolved precursor material, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 192, 1–11, 2000.
Passow, U.: Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in aquatic environments, Prog. Oceanogr., 55, 287–333, 2002a.
Passow, U.: Production of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) by phyto- and bacterioplankton, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 236, 1–12, 2002b.
Passow, U. and Alldredge, A. L.: Distribution,size and bacterial colonization of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in the ocean, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 113, 185–198, 1994.
Passow, U. and Alldredge, A. L.: A dye-binding assay for the spectrophotometric measurement of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), Limnol. Oceanogr., 40, 1326–1335, 1995.
Passow, U. and Alldredge, A. L.: Do transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) inhibit grazing by the euphausiid Euphausia pacifica?, J. Plankton Res., 21, 2203–2217, 1999.
Passow, U., Kozlowski, W., and Vernet, M.: Distribution of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) during summer at a permanent station in Antarctica, Antarct. J. US, 30, 265–266, 1995.
Passow, U., Shipe, R. F., Murray, A., Pak, D. K., Brzezinski, M. A., and Alldredge, A. L.: The origin of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and their role in the sedimentation of particulate matter, Cont. Shelf Res., 21, 327–346, 2001.
Pedrotti, M. L., Peters, F., Beauvais, S., Vidal, M., Egge, J., Jacobsen, A., and Marrasé, C.: Effects of nutrients and turbulence on the production of transparent exopolymer particles: a mesocosm study, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 419, 57–69, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08840, 2010.
Pernice, M. C., Forn, I., Gomes, A., Lara, E., Alonso-Saez, L., Arrieta, J. M., del Carmen Garcia, F., Hernando-Morales, V., MacKenzie, R., Mestre, M., Sintes, E., Teira, E., Valencia, J., Varela, M. M., Vaque, D., Duarte, C. M., Gasol, J. M., and Massana, R.: Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean, ISME J., 9, 782–792, https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2014.168, 2015.
Peterson, R. G. and Stramma, L.: Upper-level circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean, Prog. Oceanogr., 26, 1–73, 1991.
Piola, A. R.: The influence of the Plata River discharge on the western South Atlantic shelf, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004gl021638, 2005.
Piola, A. R. and Gordon, A. L.: Intermediate waters in the southwest South Atlantic, Deep-Sea Res., 36, 1–16, 1989.
Prieto, L., Sommer, F., Stibor, H., and Koeve, W.: Effects of planktonic copepods on transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) abundance and size spectra, J. Plankton Res., 5, 515–525, 2001.
Prieto, L., Navarro, G., Cózar, A., Echevarría, F., and García, C. M.: Distribution of TEP in the euphotic and upper mesopelagic zones of the southern Iberian coasts, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 53, 1314–1328, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.03.009, 2006.
Radic, T., Kraus, R., Fuks, D., Radic, J., and Pecar, O.: Transparent exopolymeric particles' distribution in the northern Adriatic and their relation to microphytoplankton biomass and composition, Sci. Total Environ., 353, 151–161, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.09.013, 2005.
Radic, T., Ivancic, I., Fuks, D., and Radic, J.: Marine bacterioplankton production of polysaccharidic and proteinaceous particles under different nutrient regimes, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 58, 333–342, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00176.x, 2006.
Ramaiah, N. and Furuya, K.: Seasonal variations in phytoplankton composition and transparent exopolymer particles in a eutrophicated coastal environment, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 30, 69–82, 2002.
Ramaiah, N., Sarma, V. V. S. S., Gauns, M., Kumar, M. D., and Madhupratap, M.: Abundance and relationship of bacteria with transparent exopolymer particles during the 1996 summer monsoon in the Arabian Sea, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.-Earth and Planetary Sciences, 109, 443–451, 2000.
Ramaiah, N., Yoshikawa, T., and Furuya, K.: Temporal variations in transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) associated with a diatom spring bloom in a subarctic ria in Japan, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 212, 79–88, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps212079, 2001.
Ramaiah, N., Takeda, S., Furuya, K., Yoshimura, T., Nishioka, J., Aono, T., Nojiri, Y., Imai, K., Kudo, I., Saito, H., and Tsuda, A.: Effect of iron enrichment on the dynamics of transparent exopolymer particles in the western subarctic Pacific, Prog. Oceanogr., 64, 253–261, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2005.02.012, 2005.
Riebesell, U., Reigstad, M., Wassmann, P., Noji, T., and Passow, U.: On the trophic fate of Phaeocystis pouchetii (Hariot): VI. Significance of Phaeocystis-derived mucus for vertical flux, J. Sea Res., 33, 193–203, 1995.
RStudio Team: RStudio: Integrated Development for R. RStudio, Inc., Boston, MA, available at: http://www.rstudio.com (last access: 28 January 2019), 2016.
Schartau, M., Engel, A., Schröter, J., Thoms, S., Völker, C., and Wolf-Gladrow, D.: Modelling carbon overconsumption and the formation of extracellular particulate organic carbon, Biogeosciences, 4, 433–454, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-4-433-2007, 2007.
Scoullos, M., Plavšić, M., Karavoltsos, S., and Sakellari, A.: Partitioning and distribution of dissolved copper, cadmium and organic matter in Mediterranean marine coastal areas: The case of a mucilage event, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 67, 484–490, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2005.12.007, 2006.
Servais, P., Courties, C., Lebaron, P., and Troussellier, M.: Coupling Bacterial Activity Measurements with Cell Sorting by Flow Cytometry, Microb. Ecol., 38, 180–189, https://doi.org/10.1007/s002489900160, 1999.
Shibata, A., Kogure, K., Koike, I., and Ohwada, K.: Formation of submicron colloidal particles from marine bacteria by viral infection, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 155, 303–307, 1997.
Simó, R., Vila-Costa, M., Alonso-Sáez, L., Cardelús, C., Guadayol, Ò., Vázquez-Domínguez, E., and Gasol, J. M.: Annual DMSP contribution to S and C fluxes through phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in a NW Mediterranean coastal site, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 57, 43–55, https://doi.org/10.3354/ame01325, 2009.
Stoderegger, K. and Herndl, G. J.: Production and release of bacterial capsular material and its subsequent utilization by marine bacterioplankton, Limnol. Oceanogr., 43, 877–884, 1998.
Sugimoto, K., Fukuda, H., Baki, M. A., and Koike, I.: Bacterial contributions to formation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and seasonal trends in coastal waters of Sagami Bay, Japan, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 46, 31–41, https://doi.org/10.3354/ame046031, 2007.
Sun, C.-C., Wang, Y.-S., Li, Q. P., Yue, W.-Z., Wang, Y.-T., Sun, F.-L., and Peng, Y.-L.: Distribution characteristics of transparent exopolymer particles in the Pearl River estuary, China, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 117, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jg001951, 2012.
Thuy, N. T., Lin, J. C., Juang, Y., and Huang, C.: Temporal variation and interaction of full size spectrum Alcian blue stainable materials and water quality parameters in a reservoir, Chemosphere, 131, 139–148, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.023, 2015.
Trabelsi, L., Ben Ouada, H., Bacha, H., and Ghoul, M.: Combined effect of temperature and light intensity on growth and extracellular polymeric substance production by the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, J. Appl. Phycol., 21, 405–412, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-008-9383-8, 2008.
Utermöhl, H.: Zur Vervollkommnung der quentitativen Phytoplankton-Methodik, Mitteilungen der International Vereinigung fur heorestische und Angewandte Limnologie, 9, 1–38, 1958.
Van Oostende, N., Harlay, J., Vanelslander, B., Chou, L., Vyverman, W., and Sabbe, K.: Phytoplankton community dynamics during late spring coccolithophore blooms at the continental margin of the Celtic Sea (North East Atlantic, 2006–2008), Prog. Oceanogr., 104, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2012.04.016, 2012.
Vardi, A., Haramaty, L., Van Mooy, B. A., Fredricks, H. F., Kimmance, S. A., Larsen, A., and Bidle, K. D.: Host-virus dynamics and subcellular controls of cell fate in a natural coccolithophore population, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 109, 19327–19332, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1208895109, 2012.
Wild, C.: Effekte von “marine snow” – Sedimentation auf Steinkorallen (Hexacorallia,Scleractinia) des Great Barrier Reef, Australien, Department of Biology and Chemistry, University of Bremen, 110 pp., 2000.
Wilson, T. W., Ladino, L. A., Alpert, P. A., Breckels, M. N., Brooks, I. M., Browse, J., Burrows, S. M., Carslaw, K. S., Huffman, J. A., Judd, C., Kilthau, W. P., Mason, R. H., McFiggans, G., Miller, L. A., Najera, J. J., Polishchuk, E., Rae, S., Schiller, C. L., Si, M., Temprado, J. V., Whale, T. F., Wong, J. P., Wurl, O., Yakobi-Hancock, J. D., Abbatt, J. P., Aller, J. Y., Bertram, A. K., Knopf, D. A., and Murray, B. J.: A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles, Nature, 525, 234–238, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14986, 2015.
Wurl, O., Miller, L., Röttgers, R., and Vagle, S.: The distribution and fate of surface-active substances in the sea-surface microlayer and water column, Mar. Chem., 115, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2009.04.007, 2009.
Wurl, O., Miller, L., and Vagle, S.: Production and fate of transparent exopolymer particles in the ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C00H13, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jc007342, 2011a.
Wurl, O., Wurl, E., Miller, L., Johnson, K., and Vagle, S.: Formation and global distribution of sea-surface microlayers, Biogeosciences, 8, 121–135, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-121-2011, 2011b.
Wurl, O., Stolle, C., Van Thuoc, C., The Thu, P., and Mari, X.: Biofilm-like properties of the sea surface and predicted effects on air–sea CO2 exchange, Prog. Oceanogr., 144, 15–24, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2016.03.002, 2016.
Yamada, Y., Fukuda, H., Uchimiya, M., Motegi, C., Nishino, S., Kikuchi, T., and Nagata, T.: Localized accumulation and a shelf-basin gradient of particles in the Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin, western Arctic, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 120, 4638–4653, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015jc010794, 2015.
Yentsch, C. S. and Menzel, D. W.: A method for the determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll and phaeophytin by fluorescence, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 10, 221–231, 1963.
Zhou, J., Mopper, K., and Passow, U.: The role of surface-active carbohydrates in the formation of transparent exopolymer particles by bubble adsorption of seawater, Limnol. Oceanogr., 43, 1860–1871, 1998.
Zubkov, M. V., Sleigh, M. A., Tarran, G. A., Burkill, P. H., Raymond, J. A., and Leakey, R. J. G.: Picoplanktonic community structure on an Atlantic transect from 50∘ N to 50∘ S, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 45, 1339–1355, 1998.
Many marine microorganisms produce polysaccharide-rich transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs) for rather unknown reasons but with important consequences for the ocean carbon cycle, sea–air gas exchange and formation of organic aerosols. Here we compare surface–ocean distributions of TEPs and physical, chemical and biological variables along a N–S transect in the Atlantic Ocean. Our data suggest that phytoplankton and not bacteria are the main TEP producers, and solar radiation acts as a sink.
Many marine microorganisms produce polysaccharide-rich transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs)...