Articles | Volume 17, issue 2
29 Jan 2020
Research article | 29 Jan 2020
Anomalies in the carbonate system of Red Sea coastal habitats
Kimberlee Baldry et al.
No articles found.
Nadia Burgoa, Francisco Machín, Ángeles Marrero-Díaz, Ángel Rodríguez-Santana, Antonio Martínez-Marrero, Javier Arístegui, and Carlos Manuel Duarte
Ocean Sci., 16, 483–511,Short summary
The main objective of the study is to analyze the export of carbon to the open ocean from the rich waters of the upwelling system of North Africa. South of the Canary Islands, permanent upwelling interacts with other physical processes impacting the main biogeochemical processes. Taking advantage of data from two cruises combined with the outputs of models, important conclusions from the differences observed between seasons are obtained, largely related to changes in the CVFZ in this area.
Celina Burkholz, Neus Garcias-Bonet, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 1717–1730,Short summary
Seagrass meadows store carbon in their biomass and sediments, but they have also been shown to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). We experimentally investigated the effect of warming and prolonged darkness on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in Red Sea seagrass (Halophila stipulacea) communities. Our results indicated that sublethal warming may lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases from seagrass meadows which may contribute to further enhance global warming.
Miguel Agulles, Gabriel Jordà, Burt Jones, Susana Agustí, and Carlos M. Duarte
Ocean Sci., 16, 149–166,Short summary
The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world, although fragile and vulnerable to ocean warming. To better understand the long-term variability and trends of temperature in the whole water column, we produce a 3-D gridded temperature product (TEMPERSEA) for the period 1958–2017, based on a large number of in situ observations, covering the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.
Susana Agustí, Jeffrey W. Krause, Israel A. Marquez, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 35–45,Short summary
We found that 24 % of the total diatoms community in the Arctic water column (450 m depth) was located below the photic layer. Healthy diatom communities in active spring–bloom stages remained in the photic layer. Dying diatom communities exported a large fraction of the biomass to the aphotic zone, fuelling carbon sequestration and benthic ecosystems in the Arctic. The results of the study conform to a conceptual model where diatoms grow during the bloom until silicic acid stocks are depleted.
Daffne C. López-Sandoval, Katherine Rowe, Paloma Carillo-de-Albonoz, Carlos M. Duarte, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 16, 2983–2995,Short summary
We addressed how the intertwined effect of temperature and nutrients modulates the metabolic response of planktonic communities in the Red Sea, one of the warmest seas on earth. Our study unveiled that photosynthesis increases at a faster pace than respiration rates for this group of organisms formed by microalgae, bacteria, and drifting animals. This anomaly is likely due to the nature of the basin where the warmest waters are frequently enriched with nutrients, which favours microalgae growth.
Susann Rossbach, Vincent Saderne, Andrea Anton, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 16, 2635–2650,Short summary
Giant clams including the species Tridacna maxima are unique among bivalves as they live in symbiosis with unicellular algae and generally function as net photoautotrophs. Light is therefore crucial for these species to thrive. We show that net calcification and photosynthetic rates of T. maxima are light dependent, with maximum rates at conditions comparable to 4 m water depth, reflected also in the depth-related distribution in the Red Sea with maximum abundances in shallow sunlit coral reefs.
Neus Garcias-Bonet, Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer, Carlos M. Duarte, and Núria Marbà
Biogeosciences, 16, 167–175,Short summary
We assess the impact of warming on nitrogen fixation in three key Mediterranean macrophytes by experimentally measuring sediment nitrogen fixation rates at current and projected seawater temperature by 2100 under a scenario of moderate greenhouse gas emissions. The temperature dependence of nitrogen fixation could potentially increase rates by 37 % by the end of the century, with important consequences for primary production in coastal ecosystems.
Neus Garcias-Bonet, Marco Fusi, Muhammad Ali, Dario R. Shaw, Pascal E. Saikaly, Daniele Daffonchio, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 7333–7346,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) loads are detrimental for coastal ecosystems. We measured the balance between N losses and gains in a Red Sea seagrass. The N loss was higher than N2 fixed, pointing out the importance of seagrasses in removing N from the system. N2 losses increased with temperature. Therefore, the forecasted warming could increase the N2 flux to the atmosphere, potentially impacting seagrass productivity and their capacity to mitigate climate change but also enhancing their potential N removal.
Ariane Arias-Ortiz, Pere Masqué, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Oscar Serrano, Inés Mazarrasa, Núria Marbà, Catherine E. Lovelock, Paul S. Lavery, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 6791–6818,Short summary
Efforts to include tidal marsh, mangrove and seagrass ecosystems in existing carbon mitigation strategies are limited by a lack of estimates of carbon accumulation rates (CARs). We discuss the use of 210Pb dating to determine CARs in these habitats, which are often composed of heterogeneous sediments and affected by sedimentary processes. Results show that obtaining reliable geochronologies in these systems is ambitious, but estimates of mean 100-year CARs are mostly secure within 20 % error.
Jeffrey W. Krause, Carlos M. Duarte, Israel A. Marquez, Philipp Assmy, Mar Fernández-Méndez, Ingrid Wiedmann, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 15, 6503–6517,Short summary
Diatoms can dominate the Arctic Ocean spring bloom, the key annual event for regional food webs. Diatom growth requires silicon and this nutrient has been declining in the European Arctic. This study communicates an unprecedented combination of silicon-cycling measurements around Svalbard during the spring and shows that dissolved silicon can limit diatom production. These results suggest an important coupling of silicon and carbon cycling during the spring bloom in the European Arctic.
Anna Roik, Till Röthig, Claudia Pogoreutz, Vincent Saderne, and Christian R. Voolstra
Biogeosciences, 15, 6277–6296,Short summary
In this study we collected in situ accretion/erosion rates and abiotic/biotic variables to estimate carbonate budgets and ecological drivers of coral reef growth in the central Red Sea. Our data suggest that reef growth is comparable to estimates of other regions, but the erosive forces in the Red Sea are not as pronounced. Comparison with recent data suggests that Red Sea reef growth might not have decreased over the past decades, despite warming, calling for more detailed investigations.
Mallory A. Sea, Neus Garcias-Bonet, Vincent Saderne, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 5365–5375,Short summary
Mangroves are capable of storing carbon in their roots, leaves, and in the sediment; however they can also emit carbon as greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere. In this study, we collected sediment cores and calculated GHG flux rates from mangrove forests along the Red Sea coastline. Using flux rates reported in this study, we determined that Red Sea mangroves are net carbon sinks, storing more carbon than they emit. This study provides rationale to conserve and expand Red Sea mangroves.
Aisling Fontanini, Alexandra Steckbauer, Sam Dupont, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 3717–3729,Short summary
Invertebrate species of the Gullmar Fjord (Sweden) were exposed to four different treatments (high/low oxygen and low/high CO2) and respiration measured. Respiration responses of species of contrasting habitats and life-history strategies to single and multiple stressors was evaluated. Results show that the responses of the respiration were highly species specific as we observed both synergetic as well as antagonistic responses, and neither phylum nor habitat explained trends in respiration.
Francesca Iuculano, Carlos Maria Duarte, Núria Marbà, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 14, 5069–5075,
Vincent Saderne, Peer Fietzek, Jens Daniel Müller, Arne Körtzinger, and Claas Hiebenthal
Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 14, 301–310,Short summary
Vegetated coastal habitats (mangroves, seagrass meadows, salt marshes and macroalgal beds) are key contributors to the marine carbon budget, but remain hidden in the representation of the coastal carbon budget. While they have been acknowledged to play an important role in carbon burial, this is small compared to the export flow, which may lead to carbon sequestration beyond these habitats. The carbon fluxes supported by vegetated coastal habitats are globally relevant.
Alexandra Coello-Camba and Susana Agustí
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We demonstrated that the effects of increased temperature and pCO2 on the silicification process in diatoms are interactive, showing a temperature dependent capacity of increased pCO2 to buffer the negative effects of warming. Therefore, as long as the increase in temperature does not surpass the buffering capacity of pCO2, the increase of this latter stressor will help diatoms to retain their sinking properties, preserving their role in the biogeochemical cycles of silica and carbon.
Oscar Serrano, Paul S. Lavery, Carlos M. Duarte, Gary A. Kendrick, Antoni Calafat, Paul H. York, Andy Steven, and Peter I. Macreadie
Biogeosciences, 13, 4915–4926,Short summary
We explored the relationship between organic carbon and mud (i.e. silt and clay) contents in seagrass ecosystems to address whether mud can be used to predict soil C content, thereby enabling robust scaling up exercises at a low cost as part of blue carbon stock assessments. We show that mud is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, but it can be used to estimate soil Corg content when low biomass seagrass species (i.e. Zostera, Halodule and Halophila) are present.
Oscar Serrano, Aurora M. Ricart, Paul S. Lavery, Miguel Angel Mateo, Ariane Arias-Ortiz, Pere Masque, Mohammad Rozaimi, Andy Steven, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 13, 4581–4594,Short summary
The recent focus on carbon (C) trading has intensified interest in "Blue Carbon" – C sequestered by coastal vegetation. However, the factors influencing C storage are poorly understood. The patterns found in this study support that C storage in Posidonia seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological, chemical and physical factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.
J. E. Rheuban, S. Williamson, J. E. Costa, D. M. Glover, R. W. Jakuba, D. C. McCorkle, C. Neill, T. Williams, and S. C. Doney
Biogeosciences, 13, 253–265,Short summary
We analysed 22 years of water quality data collected through a citizen science program focused on Buzzards Bay, MA. We found that summertime water temperatures warmed by nearly 2C and chlorophyll a nearly doubled across Buzzards Bay from 1992-2013. Although water quality worsened over time, nutrient concentrations remained largely the same in many places. Warming or altered rainfall patterns from a changing climate may partially offset benefits achieved by reducing nutrients.
D. Krause-Jensen, C. M. Duarte, I. E. Hendriks, L. Meire, M. E. Blicher, N. Marbà, and M. K. Sejr
Biogeosciences, 12, 4895–4911,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification (OA), but very little information is available on natural variability of pH in the Arctic coastal zone. We report pH variability at various scales in a Greenland fjord. Variability ranged up to 0.2-0.3 pH units horizontally and vertically in the fjord, between seasons and on diel basis in kelp forests and was extreme in tidal pools. Overall, primary producers played a fundamental role in producing mosaics of pH.
V. Saderne, P. Fietzek, S. Aßmann, A. Körtzinger, and C. Hiebenthal
Revised manuscript not accepted
A. N. Schwier, C. Rose, E. Asmi, A. M. Ebling, W. M. Landing, S. Marro, M.-L. Pedrotti, A. Sallon, F. Iuculano, S. Agusti, A. Tsiola, P. Pitta, J. Louis, C. Guieu, F. Gazeau, and K. Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7961–7976,Short summary
The effect of ocean acidification and changing water conditions on primary (and secondary) marine aerosol emissions is not well understood on a regional or a global scale. To investigate this effect, we deployed mesocosms in the Mediterranean Sea for several weeks during both winter pre-bloom and summer oligotrophic conditions and subjected them to various levels of CO2. We observed larger effects due to the differences between a pre-bloom and oligotrophic environment than due to CO2 levels.
S. Lasternas and S. Agustí
Biogeosciences, 11, 6377–6387,
L. S. García-Corral, E. Barber, A. Regaudie-de-Gioux, S. Sal, J. M. Holding, S. Agustí, N. Navarro, P. Serret, P. Mozetič, and C. M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 11, 4529–4540,
J.-P. Gattuso, W. Kirkwood, J. P. Barry, E. Cox, F. Gazeau, L. Hansson, I. Hendriks, D.I. Kline, P. Mahacek, S. Martin, P. McElhany, E. T. Peltzer, J. Reeve, D. Roberts, V. Saderne, K. Tait, S. Widdicombe, and P. G. Brewer
Biogeosciences, 11, 4057–4075,
S. Ruiz-Halpern, M. Ll. Calleja, J. Dachs, S. Del Vento, M. Pastor, M. Palmer, S. Agustí, and C. M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 11, 2755–2770,
I. E. Hendriks, Y. S. Olsen, L. Ramajo, L. Basso, A. Steckbauer, T. S. Moore, J. Howard, and C. M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 11, 333–346,
S. Lasternas, M. Piedeleu, P. Sangrà, C. M. Duarte, and S. Agustí
Biogeosciences, 10, 2129–2143,
R. Vaquer-Sunyer, C. M. Duarte, J. Holding, A. Regaudie-de-Gioux, L. S. García-Corral, M. Reigstad, and P. Wassmann
Biogeosciences, 10, 1451–1469,
M. Alcaraz, R. Almeda, E. Saiz, A. Calbet, C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, R. Santiago, and A. Alonso
Biogeosciences, 10, 689–697,
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Bryce Van Dam, Nele Lehmann, Mary A. Zeller, Andreas Neumann, Daniel Pröfrock, Marko Lipka, Helmuth Thomas, and Michael Ernst Böttcher
Biogeosciences, 19, 3775–3789,Short summary
We quantified sediment–water exchange at shallow sites in the North and Baltic seas. We found that porewater irrigation rates in the former were approximately twice as high as previously estimated, likely driven by relatively high bioirrigative activity. In contrast, we found small net fluxes of alkalinity, ranging from −35 µmol m−2 h−1 (uptake) to 53 µmol m−2 h−1 (release). We attribute this to low net denitrification, carbonate mineral (re-)precipitation, and sulfide (re-)oxidation.
Jiaying Abby Guo, Robert Strzepek, Anusuya Willis, Aaron Ferderer, and Lennart Thomas Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 3683–3697,Short summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement is a CO2 removal method with significant potential, but it can lead to a perturbation of the ocean with trace metals such as nickel. This study tested the effect of increasing nickel concentrations on phytoplankton growth and photosynthesis. We found that the response to nickel varied across the 11 phytoplankton species tested here, but the majority were rather insensitive. We note, however, that responses may be different under other experimental conditions.
Malcolm E. Scully, W. Rockwell Geyer, David Borkman, Tracy L. Pugh, Amy Costa, and Owen C. Nichols
Biogeosciences, 19, 3523–3536,Short summary
For two consecutive summers, the bottom waters in southern Cape Cod Bay became severely depleted of dissolved oxygen. Low oxygen levels in bottom waters have never been reported in this area before, and this unprecedented occurrence is likely the result of a new algae species that recently began blooming during the late-summer months. We present data suggesting that blooms of this new species are the result of regional climate change including warmer waters and changes in summer winds.
Zheng Chen, Bin Wang, Chuang Xu, Zhongren Zhang, Shiyu Li, and Jiatang Hu
Biogeosciences, 19, 3469–3490,Short summary
Deterioration of low-oxygen conditions in the coastal waters off Hong Kong was revealed by monitoring data over two decades. The declining wind forcing and the increasing nutrient input contributed significantly to the areal expansion and intense deterioration of low-oxygen conditions. Also, the exacerbated eutrophication drove a shift in the dominant source of organic matter from terrestrial inputs to in situ primary production, which has probably led to an earlier onset of hypoxia in summer.
Stella-Theresa Stoicescu, Jaan Laanemets, Taavi Liblik, Māris Skudra, Oliver Samlas, Inga Lips, and Urmas Lips
Biogeosciences, 19, 2903–2920,Short summary
Coastal basins with high input of nutrients often suffer from oxygen deficiency. In summer 2018, the extent of oxygen depletion was exceptional in the Gulf of Riga. We analyzed observational data and found that extensive oxygen deficiency appeared since the water layer close to the seabed, where oxygen is consumed, was separated from the surface layer. The problem worsens if similar conditions restricting vertical transport of oxygen occur more frequently in the future.
Justin C. Tiano, Jochen Depestele, Gert Van Hoey, João Fernandes, Pieter van Rijswijk, and Karline Soetaert
Biogeosciences, 19, 2583–2598,Short summary
This study gives an assessment of bottom trawling on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics in a location known for its strong currents and variable habitats. Although trawl gears only removed the top 1 cm of the seabed surface, impacts on reef-building tubeworms significantly decreased carbon and nutrient cycling. Lighter trawls slightly reduced the impact on fauna and nutrients. Tubeworms were strongly linked to biogeochemical and faunal aspects before but not after trawling.
Inda Brinkmann, Christine Barras, Tom Jilbert, Tomas Næraa, K. Mareike Paul, Magali Schweizer, and Helena L. Filipsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 2523–2535,Short summary
The concentration of the trace metal barium (Ba) in coastal seawater is a function of continental input, such as riverine discharge. Our geochemical records of the severely hot and dry year 2018, and following wet year 2019, reveal that prolonged drought imprints with exceptionally low Ba concentrations in benthic foraminiferal calcium carbonates of coastal sediments. This highlights the potential of benthic Ba / Ca to trace past climate extremes and variability in coastal marine records.
Shichao Tian, Birgit Gaye, Jianhui Tang, Yongming Luo, Wenguo Li, Niko Lahajnar, Kirstin Dähnke, Tina Sanders, Tianqi Xiong, Weidong Zhai, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 19, 2397–2415,Short summary
We constrain the nitrogen budget and in particular the internal sources and sinks of nitrate in the Bohai Sea by using a mass-based and dual stable isotope approach based on δ15N and δ18O of nitrate. Based on available mass fluxes and isotope data an updated nitrogen budget is proposed. Compared to previous estimates, it is more complete and includes the impact of the interior cycle (nitrification) on the nitrate pool. The main external nitrogen sources are rivers contributing 19.2 %–25.6 %.
Coline Poppeschi, Guillaume Charria, Anne Daniel, Romaric Verney, Peggy Rimmelin-Maury, Michaël Retho, Eric Goberville, Emilie Grossteffan, and Martin Plus
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
This manuscript aims to understand interannual changes in the Initiation of the Phytoplankton Growing Period (IPGP) in the current context of global climate changes over the last 20 years. An important variability in the timing of the IPGP is observed with a trend towards a later IPGP during this last decade. The role and the impact of extreme events (cold spells, floods, and wind burst) on IPGP is also detailed.
Gesa Schulz, Tina Sanders, Justus E. E. van Beusekom, Yoana G. Voynova, Andreas Schöl, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 19, 2007–2024,Short summary
Estuaries can significantly alter nutrient loads before reaching coastal waters. Our study of the heavily managed Ems estuary (Northern Germany) reveals three zones of nitrogen turnover along the estuary with water-column denitrification in the most upstream hyper-turbid part, nitrate production in the middle reaches and mixing/nitrate uptake in the North Sea. Suspended particulate matter was the overarching control on nitrogen cycling in the hyper-turbid estuary.
Wiley Evans, Geoffrey T. Lebon, Christen D. Harrington, Yuichiro Takeshita, and Allison Bidlack
Biogeosciences, 19, 1277–1301,Short summary
Information on the marine carbon dioxide system along the northeast Pacific Inside Passage has been limited. To address this gap, we instrumented an Alaskan ferry in order to characterize the marine carbon dioxide system in this region. Data over a 2-year period were used to assess drivers of the observed variability, identify the timing of severe conditions, and assess the extent of contemporary ocean acidification as well as future levels consistent with a 1.5 °C warmer climate.
Melissa Ward, Tye L. Kindinger, Heidi K. Hirsh, Tessa M. Hill, Brittany M. Jellison, Sarah Lummis, Emily B. Rivest, George G. Waldbusser, Brian Gaylord, and Kristy J. Kroeker
Biogeosciences, 19, 689–699,Short summary
Here, we synthesize the results from 62 studies reporting in situ rates of seagrass metabolism to highlight spatial and temporal variability in oxygen fluxes and inform efforts to use seagrass to mitigate ocean acidification. Our analyses suggest seagrass meadows are generally autotrophic and variable in space and time, and the effects on seawater oxygen are relatively small in magnitude.
Tianfei Xue, Ivy Frenger, A. E. Friederike Prowe, Yonss Saranga José, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 19, 455–475,Short summary
The Peruvian system supports 10 % of the world's fishing yield. In the Peruvian system, wind and earth’s rotation bring cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface and allow phytoplankton to grow. But observations show that it grows worse at high upwelling. Using a model, we find that high upwelling happens when air mixes the water the most. Then phytoplankton is diluted and grows slowly due to low light and cool upwelled water. This study helps to estimate how it might change in a warming climate.
Shao-Min Chen, Ulf Riebesell, Kai G. Schulz, Elisabeth von der Esch, Eric P. Achterberg, and Lennart T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 295–312,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones in the ocean are characterized by enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and are being further acidified by increasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2. Here we report CO2 system measurements in a mesocosm study offshore Peru during a rare coastal El Niño event to investigate how CO2 dynamics may respond to ongoing ocean deoxygenation. Our observations show that nitrogen limitation, productivity, and plankton community shift play an important role in driving the CO2 dynamics.
Paula Maria Salgado-Hernanz, Aurore Regaudie-de-Gioux, David Antoine, and Gotzon Basterretxea
Biogeosciences, 19, 47–69,Short summary
For the first time, this study presents the characteristics of primary production in coastal regions of the Mediterranean Sea based on satellite-borne observations for the period 2002–2016. The study concludes that there are significant spatial and temporal variations among different regions. Quantifying primary production is of special importance in the marine food web and in the sequestration of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the deep waters.
Samu Elovaara, Eeva Eronen-Rasimus, Eero Asmala, Tobias Tamelander, and Hermanni Kaartokallio
Biogeosciences, 18, 6589–6616,Short summary
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a significant carbon pool in the marine environment. The composition of the DOM pool, as well as its interaction with microbes, is complex, yet understanding it is important for understanding global carbon cycling. This study shows that two phytoplankton species have different effects on the composition of the DOM pool and, through the DOM they produce, on the ensuing microbial community. These communities in turn have different effects on DOM composition.
Le Zhang and Z. George Xue
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We adapt a high-resolution regional carbon model to the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). We calculated the decadal trends of important carbon system variables in the GoM. The GoM surface CO2 values experience a steady increase from 2001 to 2019. Correspondingly, the ocean surface pH is declining. The surface carbonate saturation rates in the GoM remain supersaturated with aragonite during the time span of the model but with a slightly decreasing trend.
Yuan Dong, Qian P. Li, Zhengchao Wu, Yiping Shuai, Zijia Liu, Zaiming Ge, Weiwen Zhou, and Yinchao Chen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6423–6434,Short summary
Temporal change of plankton growth and grazing are less known in the coastal ocean, not to mention the relevant controlling mechanisms. Here, we performed monthly size-specific dilution experiments outside a eutrophic estuary over a 1-year cycle. Phytoplankton growth was correlated to nutrients and grazing mortality to total chlorophyll a. A selective grazing on small cells may be important for maintaining high abundance of large-chain-forming diatoms in this eutrophic system.
Kiefer O. Forsch, Lisa Hahn-Woernle, Robert M. Sherrell, Vincent J. Roccanova, Kaixuan Bu, David Burdige, Maria Vernet, and Katherine A. Barbeau
Biogeosciences, 18, 6349–6375,Short summary
We show that for an unperturbed cold western Antarctic Peninsula fjord, the seasonality of iron and manganese is linked to the dispersal of metal-rich meltwater sources. Geochemical measurements of trace metals in meltwaters, porewaters, and seawater, collected during two expeditions, showed a seasonal cycle of distinct sources. Finally, model results revealed that the dispersal of surface meltwater and meltwater plumes originating from under the glacier is sensitive to katabatic wind events.
Jenny Hieronymus, Kari Eilola, Malin Olofsson, Inga Hense, H. E. Markus Meier, and Elin Almroth-Rosell
Biogeosciences, 18, 6213–6227,Short summary
Dense blooms of cyanobacteria occur every summer in the Baltic Proper and can add to eutrophication by their ability to turn nitrogen gas into dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Being able to correctly estimate the size of this nitrogen fixation is important for management purposes. In this work, we find that the life cycle of cyanobacteria plays an important role in capturing the seasonality of the blooms as well as the size of nitrogen fixation in our ocean model.
Tom Hull, Naomi Greenwood, Antony Birchill, Alexander Beaton, Matthew Palmer, and Jan Kaiser
Biogeosciences, 18, 6167–6180,Short summary
The shallow shelf seas play a large role in the global cycling of CO2 and also support large fisheries. We use an autonomous underwater vehicle in the central North Sea to measure the rates of change in oxygen and nutrients. Using these data we determine the amount of carbon dioxide taken out of the atmosphere by the sea and measure how productive the region is. These observations will be useful for improving our predictive models and help us predict and adapt to a changing ocean.
Puthenveettil Narayana Menon Vinayachandran, Yukio Masumoto, Michael J. Roberts, Jenny A. Huggett, Issufo Halo, Abhisek Chatterjee, Prakash Amol, Garuda V. M. Gupta, Arvind Singh, Arnab Mukherjee, Satya Prakash, Lynnath E. Beckley, Eric Jorden Raes, and Raleigh Hood
Biogeosciences, 18, 5967–6029,Short summary
Upwelling in the coastal ocean triggers biological productivity and thus enhances fisheries. Therefore, understanding the phenomenon of upwelling and the underlying mechanisms is important. In this paper, the present understanding of the upwelling along the coastline of the Indian Ocean from the coast of Africa all the way up to the coast of Australia is reviewed. The review provides a synthesis of the physical processes associated with upwelling and its impact on the marine ecosystem.
Michael M. Whitney
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Coastal hypoxia is a major environmental problem of increasing severity. The 21st century forecast analyzed indicates global coastal waters will warm and experience rapid declines in oxygen. The forecasted median coastal trends for increasing sea surface temperature and decreasing oxygen capacity are 48 % and 18 % faster than the rates observed over the last four decades. Existing hypoxic areas are expected to worsen and new hypoxic areas likely will emerge under these warming-related pressures.
Gaël Many, Caroline Ulses, Claude Estournel, and Patrick Marsaleix
Biogeosciences, 18, 5513–5538,Short summary
The Gulf of Lion shelf is one of the most productive areas in the Mediterranean. A model is used to study the mechanisms that drive the particulate organic carbon (POC). The model reproduces the annual cycle of primary production well. The shelf appears as an autotrophic ecosystem with a high production and as a source of POC for the adjacent basin. The increase in temperature induced by climate change could impact the trophic status of the shelf.
Alireza Merikhi, Peter Berg, and Markus Huettel
Biogeosciences, 18, 5381–5395,Short summary
The aquatic eddy covariance technique is a powerful method for measurements of solute fluxes across the sediment–water interface. Data measured by conventional eddy covariance instruments require a time shift correction that can result in substantial flux errors. We introduce a triple O2 sensor eddy covariance instrument that by design eliminates these errors. Deployments next to a conventional instrument in the Florida Keys demonstrate the improvements achieved through the new design.
Jiatang Hu, Zhongren Zhang, Bin Wang, and Jia Huang
Biogeosciences, 18, 5247–5264,Short summary
In situ observations over 42 years were used to explore the long-term changes to low-oxygen conditions in the Pearl River estuary. Apparent expansion of the low-oxygen conditions in summer was identified, primarily due to the combined effects of increased anthropogenic inputs and decreased sediment load. Large areas of severe low-oxygen events were also observed in early autumn and were formed by distinct mechanisms. The estuary seems to be growing into a seasonal, estuary-wide hypoxic zone.
Indah Ardiningsih, Kyyas Seyitmuhammedov, Sylvia G. Sander, Claudine H. Stirling, Gert-Jan Reichart, Kevin R. Arrigo, Loes J. A. Gerringa, and Rob Middag
Biogeosciences, 18, 4587–4601,Short summary
Organic Fe speciation is investigated along a natural gradient of the western Antarctic Peninsula from an ice-covered shelf to the open ocean. The two major fronts in the region affect the distribution of ligands. The excess ligands not bound to dissolved Fe (DFe) comprised up to 80 % of the total ligand concentrations, implying the potential to solubilize additional Fe input. The ligands on the shelf can increase the DFe residence time and fuel local primary production upon ice melt.
Melissa R. McCutcheon, Hongming Yao, Cory J. Staryk, and Xinping Hu
Biogeosciences, 18, 4571–4586,Short summary
We used 5+ years of discrete samples and 10 months of hourly sensor measurements to explore temporal variability and environmental controls on pH and pCO2 at the Aransas Ship Channel. Seasonal and diel variability were both present but small compared to other regions in the literature. Despite the small tidal range, tidal control often surpassed biological control. In comparison with sensor data, discrete samples were generally representative of mean annual and seasonal carbonate chemistry.
Kai G. Schulz, Eric P. Achterberg, Javier Arístegui, Lennart T. Bach, Isabel Baños, Tim Boxhammer, Dirk Erler, Maricarmen Igarza, Verena Kalter, Andrea Ludwig, Carolin Löscher, Jana Meyer, Judith Meyer, Fabrizio Minutolo, Elisabeth von der Esch, Bess B. Ward, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 18, 4305–4320,Short summary
Upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters to the surface make eastern boundary upwelling systems hot spots of marine productivity. This leads to subsurface oxygen depletion and the transformation of bioavailable nitrogen into inert N2. Here we quantify nitrogen loss processes following a simulated deep water upwelling. Denitrification was the dominant process, and budget calculations suggest that a significant portion of nitrogen that could be exported to depth is already lost in the surface ocean.
Heiner Dietze and Ulrike Löptien
Biogeosciences, 18, 4243–4264,Short summary
In recent years fish-kill events caused by oxygen deficit have been reported in Eckernförde Bight (Baltic Sea). This study sets out to understand the processes causing respective oxygen deficits by combining high-resolution coupled ocean circulation biogeochemical modeling, monitoring data, and artificial intelligence.
Jens A. Hölemann, Bennet Juhls, Dorothea Bauch, Markus Janout, Boris P. Koch, and Birgit Heim
Biogeosciences, 18, 3637–3655,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean receives large amounts of river water rich in terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM), which is an important component of the Arctic carbon cycle. Our analysis shows that mixing of three major freshwater sources is the main factor that regulates the distribution of tDOM concentrations in the Siberian shelf seas. In this context, the formation and melting of the land-fast ice in the Laptev Sea and the peak spring discharge of the Lena River are of particular importance.
Jaard Hauschildt, Soeren Thomsen, Vincent Echevin, Andreas Oschlies, Yonss Saranga José, Gerd Krahmann, Laura A. Bristow, and Gaute Lavik
Biogeosciences, 18, 3605–3629,Short summary
In this paper we quantify the subduction of upwelled nitrate due to physical processes on the order of several kilometers in the coastal upwelling off Peru and its effect on primary production. We also compare the prepresentation of these processes in a high-resolution simulation (~2.5 km) with a more coarsely resolved simulation (~12 km). To do this, we combine high-resolution shipboard observations of physical and biogeochemical parameters with a complex biogeochemical model configuration.
Samantha A. Siedlecki, Darren Pilcher, Evan M. Howard, Curtis Deutsch, Parker MacCready, Emily L. Norton, Hartmut Frenzel, Jan Newton, Richard A. Feely, Simone R. Alin, and Terrie Klinger
Biogeosciences, 18, 2871–2890,Short summary
Future ocean conditions can be simulated using projected trends in fossil fuel use paired with Earth system models. Global models generally do not include local processes important to coastal ecosystems. These coastal processes can alter the degree of change projected. Higher-resolution models that include local processes predict modified changes in carbon stressors when compared to changes projected by global models in the California Current System.
Erik Jacobs, Henry C. Bittig, Ulf Gräwe, Carolyn A. Graves, Michael Glockzin, Jens D. Müller, Bernd Schneider, and Gregor Rehder
Biogeosciences, 18, 2679–2709,Short summary
We use a unique data set of 8 years of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) surface water measurements from a commercial ferry to study upwelling in the Baltic Sea. Its seasonality and regional and interannual variability are examined. Strong upwelling events drastically increase local surface CO2 and CH4 levels and are mostly detected in late summer after long periods of impaired mixing. We introduce an extrapolation method to estimate regional upwelling-induced trace gas fluxes.
Yangyang Zhao, Khanittha Uthaipan, Zhongming Lu, Yan Li, Jing Liu, Hongbin Liu, Jianping Gan, Feifei Meng, and Minhan Dai
Biogeosciences, 18, 2755–2775,Short summary
In situ oxygen consumption rates were estimated for the first time during destruction of coastal hypoxia as disturbed by a typhoon and its reinstatement in the South China Sea off the Pearl River estuary. The reinstatement of summer hypoxia was rapid with a comparable timescale with that of its initial disturbance from frequent tropical cyclones, which has important implications for better understanding the intermittent nature of coastal hypoxia and its prediction in a changing climate.
Dylan R. Brown, Humberto Marotta, Roberta B. Peixoto, Alex Enrich-Prast, Glenda C. Barroso, Mario L. G. Soares, Wilson Machado, Alexander Pérez, Joseph M. Smoak, Luciana M. Sanders, Stephen Conrad, James Z. Sippo, Isaac R. Santos, Damien T. Maher, and Christian J. Sanders
Biogeosciences, 18, 2527–2538,Short summary
Hypersaline tidal flats (HTFs) are coastal ecosystems with freshwater deficits often occurring in arid or semi-arid regions near mangrove supratidal zones with no major fluvial contributions. This study shows that HTFs are important carbon and nutrient sinks which may be significant given their extensive coverage. Our findings highlight a previously unquantified carbon as well as a nutrient sink and suggest that coastal HTF ecosystems could be included in the emerging blue carbon framework.
Giulia Bonino, Elisa Lovecchio, Nicolas Gruber, Matthias Münnich, Simona Masina, and Doroteaciro Iovino
Biogeosciences, 18, 2429–2448,Short summary
Seasonal variations of processes such as upwelling and biological production that happen along the northwestern African coast can modulate the temporal variability of the biological activity of the adjacent open North Atlantic hundreds of kilometers away from the coast thanks to the lateral transport of coastal organic carbon. This happens with a temporal delay, which is smaller than a season up to roughly 500 km from the coast due to the intense transport by small-scale filaments.
Markus Diesing, Terje Thorsnes, and Lilja Rún Bjarnadóttir
Biogeosciences, 18, 2139–2160,Short summary
The upper 10 cm of the seafloor of the North Sea and Skagerrak contain 231×106 t of carbon in organic form. The Norwegian Trough, the deepest sedimentary basin in the studied area, stands out as a zone of strong organic carbon accumulation with rates on par with neighbouring fjords. Conversely, large parts of the North Sea are characterised by rapid organic carbon degradation and negligible accumulation. This dual character is likely typical for continental shelf sediments worldwide.
Arnaud Laurent, Katja Fennel, and Angela Kuhn
Biogeosciences, 18, 1803–1822,Short summary
CMIP5 and CMIP6 models, and a high-resolution regional model, were evaluated by comparing historical simulations with observations in the northwest North Atlantic, a climate-sensitive and biologically productive ocean margin region. Many of the CMIP models performed poorly for biological properties. There is no clear link between model resolution and skill in the global models, but there is an overall improvement in performance in CMIP6 from CMIP5. The regional model performed best.
Heejun Han, Jeomshik Hwang, and Guebuem Kim
Biogeosciences, 18, 1793–1801,Short summary
The main source of excess DOC occurring in coastal seawater off an artificial lake, which is enclosed by a dike along the western coast of South Korea, was determined using a combination of various biogeochemical tools including DOC and nutrient concentrations, stable carbon isotope, and optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter in two different seasons (March 2017 and September 2018).
Michelle N. Simone, Kai G. Schulz, Joanne M. Oakes, and Bradley D. Eyre
Biogeosciences, 18, 1823–1838,Short summary
Estuaries are responsible for a large contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the global C cycle, but it is unknown how this will change in the future. DOC fluxes from unvegetated sediments were investigated ex situ subject to conditions of warming and ocean acidification. The future climate shifted sediment fluxes from a slight DOC source to a significant sink, with global coastal DOC export decreasing by 80 %. This has global implications for C cycling and long-term C storage.
Sara González-Delgado, David González-Santana, Magdalena Santana-Casiano, Melchor González-Dávila, Celso A. Hernández, Carlos Sangil, and José Carlos Hernández
Biogeosciences, 18, 1673–1687,Short summary
We describe the carbon system dynamics of a new CO2 seep system located off the coast of La Palma. We explored for over a year, finding points with lower levels of pH and alkalinity; high levels of carbon; and poorer levels of aragonite and calcite, both essential for calcifying species. The seeps are a key feature for robust experimental designs, aimed at comprehending how life has persisted through past eras or at predicting the consequences of ocean acidification in the marine realm.
Cale A. Miller, Christina Bonsell, Nathan D. McTigue, and Amanda L. Kelley
Biogeosciences, 18, 1203–1221,Short summary
We report here the first year-long high-frequency pH data set for an Arctic lagoon that captures ice-free and ice-covered seasons. pH and salinity correlation varies by year as we observed positive correlation and independence. Photosynthesis is found to drive high pH values, and small changes in underwater solar radiation can result in rapid decreases in pH. We estimate that arctic lagoons may act as sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially offsetting the Arctic Ocean's CO2 sink capacity.
Meike Becker, Are Olsen, Peter Landschützer, Abdirhaman Omar, Gregor Rehder, Christian Rödenbeck, and Ingunn Skjelvan
Biogeosciences, 18, 1127–1147,Short summary
We developed a simple method to refine existing open-ocean maps towards different coastal seas. Using a multi-linear regression, we produced monthly maps of surface ocean fCO2 in the northern European coastal seas (the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Norwegian Coast and the Barents Sea) covering a time period from 1998 to 2016. Based on this fCO2 map, we calculate trends in surface ocean fCO2, pH and the air–sea gas exchange.
Zhengchao Wu, Qian P. Li, Zaiming Ge, Bangqin Huang, and Chunming Dong
Biogeosciences, 18, 1049–1065,Short summary
Seasonal hypoxia in the nearshore bottom waters frequently occurs in the Pearl River estuary. Aerobic respiration is the ultimate cause of local hypoxia. We found an elevated level of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the bottom water outside the estuary, which promoted the growth and metabolism of special groups of particle-attached bacteria and thus contributed to oxygen depletion in hypoxic waters. Our results may be important for understanding coastal hypoxia and its linkages to eutrophication.
Derara Hailegeorgis, Zouhair Lachkar, Christoph Rieper, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 18, 303–325,Short summary
Using a Lagrangian modeling approach, this study provides a quantitative analysis of water and nitrogen offshore transport in the Canary Current System. We investigate the timescales, reach and structure of offshore transport and demonstrate that the Canary upwelling is a key source of nutrients to the open North Atlantic Ocean. Our findings stress the need for improving the representation of the Canary system and other eastern boundary upwelling systems in global coarse-resolution models.
Constance Choquel, Emmanuelle Geslin, Edouard Metzger, Helena L. Filipsson, Nils Risgaard-Petersen, Patrick Launeau, Manuel Giraud, Thierry Jauffrais, Bruno Jesus, and Aurélia Mouret
Biogeosciences, 18, 327–341,Short summary
Marine microorganisms such as foraminifera are able to live temporarily without oxygen in sediments. In a Swedish fjord subjected to seasonal oxygen scarcity, a change in fauna linked to the decrease in oxygen and the increase in an invasive species was shown. The invasive species respire nitrate until 100 % of the nitrate porewater in the sediment and could be a major contributor to nitrogen balance in oxic coastal ecosystems. But prolonged hypoxia creates unfavorable conditions to survive.
Haiyan Zhang, Katja Fennel, Arnaud Laurent, and Changwei Bian
Biogeosciences, 17, 5745–5761,Short summary
In coastal seas, low oxygen, which is detrimental to coastal ecosystems, is increasingly caused by man-made nutrients from land. This is especially so near mouths of major rivers, including the Changjiang in the East China Sea. Here a simulation model is used to identify the main factors determining low-oxygen conditions in the region. High river discharge is identified as the prime cause, while wind and intrusions of open-ocean water modulate the severity and extent of low-oxygen conditions.
Tamar Guy-Haim, Maxim Rubin-Blum, Eyal Rahav, Natalia Belkin, Jacob Silverman, and Guy Sisma-Ventura
Biogeosciences, 17, 5489–5511,Short summary
The availability of nutrients in oligotrophic marine ecosystems is limited. Following jellyfish blooms, large die-off events result in the release of high amounts of nutrients to the water column and sediment. Our study assessed the decomposition effects of an infamous invasive jellyfish in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea. We found that jellyfish decomposition favored heterotrophic bacteria and altered biogeochemical fluxes, further impoverishing this nutrient-poor ecosystem.
Chantal Mears, Helmuth Thomas, Paul B. Henderson, Matthew A. Charette, Hugh MacIntyre, Frank Dehairs, Christophe Monnin, and Alfonso Mucci
Biogeosciences, 17, 4937–4959,Short summary
Major research initiatives have been undertaken within the Arctic Ocean, highlighting this area's global importance and vulnerability to climate change. In 2015, the international GEOTRACES program addressed this importance by devoting intense research activities to the Arctic Ocean. Among various tracers, we used radium and carbonate system data to elucidate the functioning and vulnerability of the hydrographic regime of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, bridging the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
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The carbon cycling of coastal ecosystems over large spatial scales is not well measured relative to the open ocean. In this study we measure the carbonate system in the three habitats, to measure ecosystem-driven changes compared to offshore waters. We find (1) 70 % of seagrass meadows and mangrove forests show large ecosystem-driven changes, and (2) mangrove forests show strong and consistent trends over large scales, while seagrass meadows display more variability.
The carbon cycling of coastal ecosystems over large spatial scales is not well measured relative...