Articles | Volume 19, issue 9
06 May 2022
Research article | 06 May 2022
A nitrate budget of the Bohai Sea based on an isotope mass balance model
Shichao Tian et al.
No articles found.
Kirstin Dähnke, Tina Sanders, Yoana Voynova, and Scott D. Wankel
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Nitrogen is an important macronutrient that can fuel algal production in rivers and coastal regions. We investigated the production and removal of nitrogen-bearing compounds in the freshwater section of the tidal Elbe Estuary and found that particles in the water column are key for the production of nitrate in the water. Using stable isotope measurements, we could pinpoint regions where additional removal of nitrate or input from sediments play an important role for estuarine biogeochemistry.
Gesa Schulz, Tina Sanders, Justus E. E. van Beusekom, Yoana G. Voynova, Andreas Schöl, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 19, 2007–2024,Short summary
Estuaries can significantly alter nutrient loads before reaching coastal waters. Our study of the heavily managed Ems estuary (Northern Germany) reveals three zones of nitrogen turnover along the estuary with water-column denitrification in the most upstream hyper-turbid part, nitrate production in the middle reaches and mixing/nitrate uptake in the North Sea. Suspended particulate matter was the overarching control on nitrogen cycling in the hyper-turbid estuary.
Birgit Gaye, Niko Lahajnar, Natalie Harms, Sophie Anna Luise Paul, Tim Rixen, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 19, 807–830,Short summary
Amino acids were analyzed in a large number of samples of particulate and dissolved organic matter from coastal regions and the open ocean. A statistical analysis produced two new biogeochemical indicators. An indicator of sinking particle and sediment degradation (SDI) traces the degradation of organic matter from the surface waters into the sediments. A second indicator shows the residence time of suspended matter in the ocean (RTI).
Nicole Burdanowitz, Tim Rixen, Birgit Gaye, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Clim. Past, 17, 1735–1749,Short summary
To study the interaction of the westerlies and Indian summer monsoon (ISM) during the Holocene, we used paleoenvironmental reconstructions using a sediment core from the northeast Arabian Sea. We found a climatic transition period between 4.6 and 3 ka BP during which the ISM shifted southwards and the influence of Westerlies became prominent. Our data indicate a stronger influence of agriculture activities and enhanced soil erosion, adding to Bond event impact after this transition period.
Jiao Tang, Jiaqi Wang, Guangcai Zhong, Hongxing Jiang, Yangzhi Mo, Bolong Zhang, Xiaofei Geng, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Congguo Tian, Surat Bualert, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11337–11352,Short summary
This article provides a combined EEM–PARAFAC and statistical analysis method to explore how excitation–emission matrix (EEM) chromophores influence BrC light absorption in soluble organic matter. The application enables us to deduce that BrC absorption is mainly dependent on longer-emission-wavelength chromophores largely associated with biomass burning emissions. This method promotes the application of EEM spectroscopy and helps us understand the light absorption of BrC in the atmosphere.
Tim Rixen, Greg Cowie, Birgit Gaye, Joaquim Goes, Helga do Rosário Gomes, Raleigh R. Hood, Zouhair Lachkar, Henrike Schmidt, Joachim Segschneider, and Arvind Singh
Biogeosciences, 17, 6051–6080,Short summary
The northern Indian Ocean hosts an extensive oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which intensified due to human-induced global changes. This includes the occurrence of anoxic events on the Indian shelf and affects benthic ecosystems and the pelagic ecosystem structure in the Arabian Sea. Consequences for biogeochemical cycles are unknown, which, in addition to the poor representation of mesoscale features, reduces the reliability of predictions of the future OMZ development in the northern Indian Ocean.
Alexander Bratek, Justus E. E. van Beusekom, Andreas Neumann, Tina Sanders, Jana Friedrich, Kay-Christian Emeis, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 17, 2839–2851,Short summary
The following paper highlights the importance of benthic N-transformation rates in different sediment types in the southern North Sea as a source of fixed nitrogen for primary producers and also as a sink of fixed nitrogen. Sedimentary fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen support ∼7 to 59 % of the average annual primary production. Semi-permeable and permeable sediments contribute ∼68 % of the total benthic N2 production rates, counteracting eutrophication in the southern North Sea.
Jiao Tang, Jun Li, Tao Su, Yong Han, Yangzhi Mo, Hongxing Jiang, Min Cui, Bin Jiang, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Jianzhong Song, Ping'an Peng, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2513–2532,Short summary
We investigated the light absorption, fluorescence, and molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon from the simulated combustion of biomass and coal and vehicle emissions with UV–vis spectra, EEM-PARAFAC, and FT-ICR MS. We observed high light absorption capacity from source emissions, and fluorescence spectra and molecular structures varied by source. We concluded that an EEM- and molecular-composition-based methodology could be helpful in the source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols.
Nele Tim, Eduardo Zorita, Kay-Christian Emeis, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Arne Biastoch, and Birgit Hünicke
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 847–858,Short summary
Our study reveals that the latitudinal position and intensity of Southern Hemisphere trades and westerlies are correlated. In the last decades the westerlies have shifted poleward and intensified. Furthermore, the latitudinal shifts and intensity of the trades and westerlies impact the sea surface temperatures around southern Africa and in the South Benguela upwelling region. The future development of wind stress depends on the strength of greenhouse gas forcing.
Natalie C. Harms, Niko Lahajnar, Birgit Gaye, Tim Rixen, Kirstin Dähnke, Markus Ankele, Ulrich Schwarz-Schampera, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 16, 2715–2732,Short summary
The Indian Ocean subtropical gyre is a large oligotrophic area that is likely to adjust to continued warming by increasing stratification, reduced nutrient supply and decreasing biological production. In this study, we investigated concentrations of nutrients and stable isotopes of nitrate. We determine the lateral influence of water masses entering the gyre from the northern Indian Ocean and from the Southern Ocean and quantify the input of nitrogen by N2 fixation into the surface layer.
Johannes Pein, Annika Eisele, Richard Hofmeister, Tina Sanders, Ute Daewel, Emil V. Stanev, Justus van Beusekom, Joanna Staneva, and Corinna Schrum
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The Elbe estuary is subject to vigorous tidal forcing from the sea side and considerable biological inputs from the land side. Our 3D numerical coupled physical-biogeochemical integrates these forcing signals and provides highly realistic hindcasts of the associated dynamics. Model simulations show that the freshwater part of Elbe estuary is inhabited by plankton. According to simulations these organism play a key role in converting organic inputs into nitrate, the major inorganic nutrient.
Tim Rixen, Birgit Gaye, Kay-Christian Emeis, and Venkitasubramani Ramaswamy
Biogeosciences, 16, 485–503,Short summary
Data obtained from sediment trap experiments in the Indian Ocean indicate that lithogenic matter ballast increases organic carbon flux rates on average by 45 % and by up to 62 % at trap locations in the river-influenced regions of the Indian Ocean. Such a strong lithogenic matter ballast effect implies that land use changes and the associated enhanced transport of lithogenic matter may significantly affect the CO2 uptake of the organic carbon pump in the receiving ocean areas.
Birgit Gaye, Anna Böll, Joachim Segschneider, Nicole Burdanowitz, Kay-Christian Emeis, Venkitasubramani Ramaswamy, Niko Lahajnar, Andreas Lückge, and Tim Rixen
Biogeosciences, 15, 507–527,Short summary
The Arabian Sea has one of the most severe oxygen minima of the world's oceans between about 100 and 1200 m of water depth and is therefore a major oceanic nitrogen sink. Stable nitrogen isotopic ratios in sediments record changes in oxygen concentrations and were studied for the last 25 kyr. Oxygen concentrations dropped at the end of the last glacial and became further reduced during the Holocene, probably due to the increasing age of the low-oxygen water mass.
Valerie Menke, Werner Ehrmann, Yvonne Milker, Swaantje Brzelinski, Jürgen Möbius, Uwe Mikolajewicz, Bernd Zolitschka, Karin Zonneveld, Kay Christian Emeis, and Gerhard Schmiedl
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study examines changes in the marine ecosystem during the past 1300 years in the Gulf of Taranto (Italy) to unravel natural and anthropogenic forcing. Our data suggest, that processes at the sea floor are linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. During the past 200 years, the effects of rising northern hemisphere temperature and increasing anthropogenic activity enhanced nutrient and organic matter fluxes leading to more eutrophic conditions.
Tim Rixen, Birgit Gaye, Kay-Christian Emeis, and Venkitasubramani Ramaswamy
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Sediment trap experiments showed that in the river-influenced regions of the Indian Ocean lithogenic matter supplied from land controls the organic carbon export into the deep sea via its ballast effect in sinking particles. Carbonate produced by plankton is the main ballast material in the open ocean. The ballast effect increases the CO2 uptake of the organic carbon pump by enhancing the amount of nutrients used to bind CO2 and by favouring the sedimentation of organic matter.
Juliane Jacob, Tina Sanders, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 13, 5649–5659,Short summary
During a flood in the Elbe in June 2013, a unique co-occurrence of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate in the water column was found. SPM and nutrient concentrations as well as isotopes were analysed. We calculated an isotope effect 15ε of −10.0 ± 0.1 ‰ during net nitrite and 15ε of −4.0 ± 0.1 ‰ and 18ε of −5.3 ± 0.1 ‰ during net nitrate consumption. A simple box-model calculation results in combined riparian denitrification and 22 to 36 % nitrification.
Nele Tim, Eduardo Zorita, Birgit Hünicke, Xing Yi, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Ocean Sci., 12, 807–823,Short summary
The impact of external climate forcing on the four eastern boundary upwelling systems is investigated for the recent past and future. Under increased radiative forcing, upwelling-favourable winds should strengthen due to unequal heating of land and oceans. However, coastal upwelling simulated in ensembles of climate simulations do not show any imprint of external forcing neither for the past millennium nor for the future, with the exception of the strongest future scenario.
Khan M. G. Mostofa, Cong-Qiang Liu, WeiDong Zhai, Marco Minella, Davide Vione, Kunshan Gao, Daisuke Minakata, Takemitsu Arakaki, Takahito Yoshioka, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Eiichi Konohira, Eiichiro Tanoue, Anirban Akhand, Abhra Chanda, Baoli Wang, and Hiroshi Sakugawa
Biogeosciences, 13, 1767–1786,
X.-H. Guo, W.-D. Zhai, M.-H. Dai, C. Zhang, Y. Bai, Y. Xu, Q. Li, and G.-Z. Wang
Biogeosciences, 12, 5495–5514,Short summary
We report the most comprehensive data set of surface seawater pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the East China Sea (ECS) based on 24 surveys conducted in 2006-2011. We categorized the ECS into five different domains characterized by different physics and biogeochemistry to better characterize the seasonality of the pCO2 dynamics and to better constrain the CO2 flux. The annual average CO2 influx into the entire ECS shelf was 6.9+/-4.0 mmol m-2 d-1, about twice the global average in an ocean margin.
W.-D. Zhai and X.-L. Yan
Manuscript not accepted for further review
T. Rixen, A. Baum, B. Gaye, and B. Nagel
Biogeosciences, 11, 5733–5747,
W.-D. Zhai and H.-D. Zhao
Revised manuscript not accepted
W.-D. Zhai, N. Zheng, C. Huo, Y. Xu, H.-D. Zhao, Y.-W. Li, K.-P. Zang, J.-Y. Wang, and X.-M. Xu
Biogeosciences, 11, 1103–1123,
A. Flohr, A. K. van der Plas, K.-C. Emeis, V. Mohrholz, and T. Rixen
Biogeosciences, 11, 885–897,
W.-D. Zhai, M.-H. Dai, B.-S. Chen, X.-H. Guo, Q. Li, S.-L. Shang, C.-Y. Zhang, W.-J. Cai, and D.-X. Wang
Biogeosciences, 10, 7775–7791,
B. Gaye, B. Nagel, K. Dähnke, T. Rixen, N. Lahajnar, and K.-C. Emeis
Biogeosciences, 10, 7689–7702,
K. Dähnke and B. Thamdrup
Biogeosciences, 10, 3079–3088,
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Justin C. Tiano, Jochen Depestele, Gert Van Hoey, João Fernandes, Pieter van Rijswijk, and Karline Soetaert
Biogeosciences, 19, 2583–2598,Short summary
This study gives an assessment of bottom trawling on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics in a location known for its strong currents and variable habitats. Although trawl gears only removed the top 1 cm of the seabed surface, impacts on reef-building tubeworms significantly decreased carbon and nutrient cycling. Lighter trawls slightly reduced the impact on fauna and nutrients. Tubeworms were strongly linked to biogeochemical and faunal aspects before but not after trawling.
Inda Brinkmann, Christine Barras, Tom Jilbert, Tomas Næraa, K. Mareike Paul, Magali Schweizer, and Helena L. Filipsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 2523–2535,Short summary
The concentration of the trace metal barium (Ba) in coastal seawater is a function of continental input, such as riverine discharge. Our geochemical records of the severely hot and dry year 2018, and following wet year 2019, reveal that prolonged drought imprints with exceptionally low Ba concentrations in benthic foraminiferal calcium carbonates of coastal sediments. This highlights the potential of benthic Ba / Ca to trace past climate extremes and variability in coastal marine records.
Gesa Schulz, Tina Sanders, Justus E. E. van Beusekom, Yoana G. Voynova, Andreas Schöl, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 19, 2007–2024,Short summary
Estuaries can significantly alter nutrient loads before reaching coastal waters. Our study of the heavily managed Ems estuary (Northern Germany) reveals three zones of nitrogen turnover along the estuary with water-column denitrification in the most upstream hyper-turbid part, nitrate production in the middle reaches and mixing/nitrate uptake in the North Sea. Suspended particulate matter was the overarching control on nitrogen cycling in the hyper-turbid estuary.
Wiley Evans, Geoffrey T. Lebon, Christen D. Harrington, Yuichiro Takeshita, and Allison Bidlack
Biogeosciences, 19, 1277–1301,Short summary
Information on the marine carbon dioxide system along the northeast Pacific Inside Passage has been limited. To address this gap, we instrumented an Alaskan ferry in order to characterize the marine carbon dioxide system in this region. Data over a 2-year period were used to assess drivers of the observed variability, identify the timing of severe conditions, and assess the extent of contemporary ocean acidification as well as future levels consistent with a 1.5 °C warmer climate.
Melissa Ward, Tye L. Kindinger, Heidi K. Hirsh, Tessa M. Hill, Brittany M. Jellison, Sarah Lummis, Emily B. Rivest, George G. Waldbusser, Brian Gaylord, and Kristy J. Kroeker
Biogeosciences, 19, 689–699,Short summary
Here, we synthesize the results from 62 studies reporting in situ rates of seagrass metabolism to highlight spatial and temporal variability in oxygen fluxes and inform efforts to use seagrass to mitigate ocean acidification. Our analyses suggest seagrass meadows are generally autotrophic and variable in space and time, and the effects on seawater oxygen are relatively small in magnitude.
Tianfei Xue, Ivy Frenger, A. E. Friederike Prowe, Yonss Saranga José, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 19, 455–475,Short summary
The Peruvian system supports 10 % of the world's fishing yield. In the Peruvian system, wind and earth’s rotation bring cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface and allow phytoplankton to grow. But observations show that it grows worse at high upwelling. Using a model, we find that high upwelling happens when air mixes the water the most. Then phytoplankton is diluted and grows slowly due to low light and cool upwelled water. This study helps to estimate how it might change in a warming climate.
Shao-Min Chen, Ulf Riebesell, Kai G. Schulz, Elisabeth von der Esch, Eric P. Achterberg, and Lennart T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 295–312,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones in the ocean are characterized by enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and are being further acidified by increasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2. Here we report CO2 system measurements in a mesocosm study offshore Peru during a rare coastal El Niño event to investigate how CO2 dynamics may respond to ongoing ocean deoxygenation. Our observations show that nitrogen limitation, productivity, and plankton community shift play an important role in driving the CO2 dynamics.
Paula Maria Salgado-Hernanz, Aurore Regaudie-de-Gioux, David Antoine, and Gotzon Basterretxea
Biogeosciences, 19, 47–69,Short summary
For the first time, this study presents the characteristics of primary production in coastal regions of the Mediterranean Sea based on satellite-borne observations for the period 2002–2016. The study concludes that there are significant spatial and temporal variations among different regions. Quantifying primary production is of special importance in the marine food web and in the sequestration of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the deep waters.
Samu Elovaara, Eeva Eronen-Rasimus, Eero Asmala, Tobias Tamelander, and Hermanni Kaartokallio
Biogeosciences, 18, 6589–6616,Short summary
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a significant carbon pool in the marine environment. The composition of the DOM pool, as well as its interaction with microbes, is complex, yet understanding it is important for understanding global carbon cycling. This study shows that two phytoplankton species have different effects on the composition of the DOM pool and, through the DOM they produce, on the ensuing microbial community. These communities in turn have different effects on DOM composition.
Yuan Dong, Qian P. Li, Zhengchao Wu, Yiping Shuai, Zijia Liu, Zaiming Ge, Weiwen Zhou, and Yinchao Chen
Biogeosciences, 18, 6423–6434,Short summary
Temporal change of plankton growth and grazing are less known in the coastal ocean, not to mention the relevant controlling mechanisms. Here, we performed monthly size-specific dilution experiments outside a eutrophic estuary over a 1-year cycle. Phytoplankton growth was correlated to nutrients and grazing mortality to total chlorophyll a. A selective grazing on small cells may be important for maintaining high abundance of large-chain-forming diatoms in this eutrophic system.
Kiefer O. Forsch, Lisa Hahn-Woernle, Robert M. Sherrell, Vincent J. Roccanova, Kaixuan Bu, David Burdige, Maria Vernet, and Katherine A. Barbeau
Biogeosciences, 18, 6349–6375,Short summary
We show that for an unperturbed cold western Antarctic Peninsula fjord, the seasonality of iron and manganese is linked to the dispersal of metal-rich meltwater sources. Geochemical measurements of trace metals in meltwaters, porewaters, and seawater, collected during two expeditions, showed a seasonal cycle of distinct sources. Finally, model results revealed that the dispersal of surface meltwater and meltwater plumes originating from under the glacier is sensitive to katabatic wind events.
Jenny Hieronymus, Kari Eilola, Malin Olofsson, Inga Hense, H. E. Markus Meier, and Elin Almroth-Rosell
Biogeosciences, 18, 6213–6227,Short summary
Dense blooms of cyanobacteria occur every summer in the Baltic Proper and can add to eutrophication by their ability to turn nitrogen gas into dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Being able to correctly estimate the size of this nitrogen fixation is important for management purposes. In this work, we find that the life cycle of cyanobacteria plays an important role in capturing the seasonality of the blooms as well as the size of nitrogen fixation in our ocean model.
Tom Hull, Naomi Greenwood, Antony Birchill, Alexander Beaton, Matthew Palmer, and Jan Kaiser
Biogeosciences, 18, 6167–6180,Short summary
The shallow shelf seas play a large role in the global cycling of CO2 and also support large fisheries. We use an autonomous underwater vehicle in the central North Sea to measure the rates of change in oxygen and nutrients. Using these data we determine the amount of carbon dioxide taken out of the atmosphere by the sea and measure how productive the region is. These observations will be useful for improving our predictive models and help us predict and adapt to a changing ocean.
Puthenveettil Narayana Menon Vinayachandran, Yukio Masumoto, Michael J. Roberts, Jenny A. Huggett, Issufo Halo, Abhisek Chatterjee, Prakash Amol, Garuda V. M. Gupta, Arvind Singh, Arnab Mukherjee, Satya Prakash, Lynnath E. Beckley, Eric Jorden Raes, and Raleigh Hood
Biogeosciences, 18, 5967–6029,Short summary
Upwelling in the coastal ocean triggers biological productivity and thus enhances fisheries. Therefore, understanding the phenomenon of upwelling and the underlying mechanisms is important. In this paper, the present understanding of the upwelling along the coastline of the Indian Ocean from the coast of Africa all the way up to the coast of Australia is reviewed. The review provides a synthesis of the physical processes associated with upwelling and its impact on the marine ecosystem.
Gaël Many, Caroline Ulses, Claude Estournel, and Patrick Marsaleix
Biogeosciences, 18, 5513–5538,Short summary
The Gulf of Lion shelf is one of the most productive areas in the Mediterranean. A model is used to study the mechanisms that drive the particulate organic carbon (POC). The model reproduces the annual cycle of primary production well. The shelf appears as an autotrophic ecosystem with a high production and as a source of POC for the adjacent basin. The increase in temperature induced by climate change could impact the trophic status of the shelf.
Alireza Merikhi, Peter Berg, and Markus Huettel
Biogeosciences, 18, 5381–5395,Short summary
The aquatic eddy covariance technique is a powerful method for measurements of solute fluxes across the sediment–water interface. Data measured by conventional eddy covariance instruments require a time shift correction that can result in substantial flux errors. We introduce a triple O2 sensor eddy covariance instrument that by design eliminates these errors. Deployments next to a conventional instrument in the Florida Keys demonstrate the improvements achieved through the new design.
Jiatang Hu, Zhongren Zhang, Bin Wang, and Jia Huang
Biogeosciences, 18, 5247–5264,Short summary
In situ observations over 42 years were used to explore the long-term changes to low-oxygen conditions in the Pearl River estuary. Apparent expansion of the low-oxygen conditions in summer was identified, primarily due to the combined effects of increased anthropogenic inputs and decreased sediment load. Large areas of severe low-oxygen events were also observed in early autumn and were formed by distinct mechanisms. The estuary seems to be growing into a seasonal, estuary-wide hypoxic zone.
Indah Ardiningsih, Kyyas Seyitmuhammedov, Sylvia G. Sander, Claudine H. Stirling, Gert-Jan Reichart, Kevin R. Arrigo, Loes J. A. Gerringa, and Rob Middag
Biogeosciences, 18, 4587–4601,Short summary
Organic Fe speciation is investigated along a natural gradient of the western Antarctic Peninsula from an ice-covered shelf to the open ocean. The two major fronts in the region affect the distribution of ligands. The excess ligands not bound to dissolved Fe (DFe) comprised up to 80 % of the total ligand concentrations, implying the potential to solubilize additional Fe input. The ligands on the shelf can increase the DFe residence time and fuel local primary production upon ice melt.
Melissa R. McCutcheon, Hongming Yao, Cory J. Staryk, and Xinping Hu
Biogeosciences, 18, 4571–4586,Short summary
We used 5+ years of discrete samples and 10 months of hourly sensor measurements to explore temporal variability and environmental controls on pH and pCO2 at the Aransas Ship Channel. Seasonal and diel variability were both present but small compared to other regions in the literature. Despite the small tidal range, tidal control often surpassed biological control. In comparison with sensor data, discrete samples were generally representative of mean annual and seasonal carbonate chemistry.
Kai G. Schulz, Eric P. Achterberg, Javier Arístegui, Lennart T. Bach, Isabel Baños, Tim Boxhammer, Dirk Erler, Maricarmen Igarza, Verena Kalter, Andrea Ludwig, Carolin Löscher, Jana Meyer, Judith Meyer, Fabrizio Minutolo, Elisabeth von der Esch, Bess B. Ward, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 18, 4305–4320,Short summary
Upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters to the surface make eastern boundary upwelling systems hot spots of marine productivity. This leads to subsurface oxygen depletion and the transformation of bioavailable nitrogen into inert N2. Here we quantify nitrogen loss processes following a simulated deep water upwelling. Denitrification was the dominant process, and budget calculations suggest that a significant portion of nitrogen that could be exported to depth is already lost in the surface ocean.
Heiner Dietze and Ulrike Löptien
Biogeosciences, 18, 4243–4264,Short summary
In recent years fish-kill events caused by oxygen deficit have been reported in Eckernförde Bight (Baltic Sea). This study sets out to understand the processes causing respective oxygen deficits by combining high-resolution coupled ocean circulation biogeochemical modeling, monitoring data, and artificial intelligence.
Stella-Theresa Stoicescu, Jaan Laanemets, Taavi Liblik, Māris Skudra, Oliver Samlas, Inga Lips, and Urmas Lips
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Coastal basins with high input of nutrients often suffer from oxygen deficiency. In summer 2018, the extent of oxygen depletion was exceptional in the Gulf of Riga. We analyzed observational data and found that extensive oxygen deficiency appeared since the water layer close to the seabed, where oxygen is consumed, was separated from the surface layer. The problem worsens if similar conditions restricting vertical transport of oxygen occur more frequently in the future.
Jens A. Hölemann, Bennet Juhls, Dorothea Bauch, Markus Janout, Boris P. Koch, and Birgit Heim
Biogeosciences, 18, 3637–3655,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean receives large amounts of river water rich in terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM), which is an important component of the Arctic carbon cycle. Our analysis shows that mixing of three major freshwater sources is the main factor that regulates the distribution of tDOM concentrations in the Siberian shelf seas. In this context, the formation and melting of the land-fast ice in the Laptev Sea and the peak spring discharge of the Lena River are of particular importance.
Jaard Hauschildt, Soeren Thomsen, Vincent Echevin, Andreas Oschlies, Yonss Saranga José, Gerd Krahmann, Laura A. Bristow, and Gaute Lavik
Biogeosciences, 18, 3605–3629,Short summary
In this paper we quantify the subduction of upwelled nitrate due to physical processes on the order of several kilometers in the coastal upwelling off Peru and its effect on primary production. We also compare the prepresentation of these processes in a high-resolution simulation (~2.5 km) with a more coarsely resolved simulation (~12 km). To do this, we combine high-resolution shipboard observations of physical and biogeochemical parameters with a complex biogeochemical model configuration.
Samantha A. Siedlecki, Darren Pilcher, Evan M. Howard, Curtis Deutsch, Parker MacCready, Emily L. Norton, Hartmut Frenzel, Jan Newton, Richard A. Feely, Simone R. Alin, and Terrie Klinger
Biogeosciences, 18, 2871–2890,Short summary
Future ocean conditions can be simulated using projected trends in fossil fuel use paired with Earth system models. Global models generally do not include local processes important to coastal ecosystems. These coastal processes can alter the degree of change projected. Higher-resolution models that include local processes predict modified changes in carbon stressors when compared to changes projected by global models in the California Current System.
Erik Jacobs, Henry C. Bittig, Ulf Gräwe, Carolyn A. Graves, Michael Glockzin, Jens D. Müller, Bernd Schneider, and Gregor Rehder
Biogeosciences, 18, 2679–2709,Short summary
We use a unique data set of 8 years of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) surface water measurements from a commercial ferry to study upwelling in the Baltic Sea. Its seasonality and regional and interannual variability are examined. Strong upwelling events drastically increase local surface CO2 and CH4 levels and are mostly detected in late summer after long periods of impaired mixing. We introduce an extrapolation method to estimate regional upwelling-induced trace gas fluxes.
Yangyang Zhao, Khanittha Uthaipan, Zhongming Lu, Yan Li, Jing Liu, Hongbin Liu, Jianping Gan, Feifei Meng, and Minhan Dai
Biogeosciences, 18, 2755–2775,Short summary
In situ oxygen consumption rates were estimated for the first time during destruction of coastal hypoxia as disturbed by a typhoon and its reinstatement in the South China Sea off the Pearl River estuary. The reinstatement of summer hypoxia was rapid with a comparable timescale with that of its initial disturbance from frequent tropical cyclones, which has important implications for better understanding the intermittent nature of coastal hypoxia and its prediction in a changing climate.
Dylan R. Brown, Humberto Marotta, Roberta B. Peixoto, Alex Enrich-Prast, Glenda C. Barroso, Mario L. G. Soares, Wilson Machado, Alexander Pérez, Joseph M. Smoak, Luciana M. Sanders, Stephen Conrad, James Z. Sippo, Isaac R. Santos, Damien T. Maher, and Christian J. Sanders
Biogeosciences, 18, 2527–2538,Short summary
Hypersaline tidal flats (HTFs) are coastal ecosystems with freshwater deficits often occurring in arid or semi-arid regions near mangrove supratidal zones with no major fluvial contributions. This study shows that HTFs are important carbon and nutrient sinks which may be significant given their extensive coverage. Our findings highlight a previously unquantified carbon as well as a nutrient sink and suggest that coastal HTF ecosystems could be included in the emerging blue carbon framework.
Giulia Bonino, Elisa Lovecchio, Nicolas Gruber, Matthias Münnich, Simona Masina, and Doroteaciro Iovino
Biogeosciences, 18, 2429–2448,Short summary
Seasonal variations of processes such as upwelling and biological production that happen along the northwestern African coast can modulate the temporal variability of the biological activity of the adjacent open North Atlantic hundreds of kilometers away from the coast thanks to the lateral transport of coastal organic carbon. This happens with a temporal delay, which is smaller than a season up to roughly 500 km from the coast due to the intense transport by small-scale filaments.
Markus Diesing, Terje Thorsnes, and Lilja Rún Bjarnadóttir
Biogeosciences, 18, 2139–2160,Short summary
The upper 10 cm of the seafloor of the North Sea and Skagerrak contain 231×106 t of carbon in organic form. The Norwegian Trough, the deepest sedimentary basin in the studied area, stands out as a zone of strong organic carbon accumulation with rates on par with neighbouring fjords. Conversely, large parts of the North Sea are characterised by rapid organic carbon degradation and negligible accumulation. This dual character is likely typical for continental shelf sediments worldwide.
Arnaud Laurent, Katja Fennel, and Angela Kuhn
Biogeosciences, 18, 1803–1822,Short summary
CMIP5 and CMIP6 models, and a high-resolution regional model, were evaluated by comparing historical simulations with observations in the northwest North Atlantic, a climate-sensitive and biologically productive ocean margin region. Many of the CMIP models performed poorly for biological properties. There is no clear link between model resolution and skill in the global models, but there is an overall improvement in performance in CMIP6 from CMIP5. The regional model performed best.
Heejun Han, Jeomshik Hwang, and Guebuem Kim
Biogeosciences, 18, 1793–1801,Short summary
The main source of excess DOC occurring in coastal seawater off an artificial lake, which is enclosed by a dike along the western coast of South Korea, was determined using a combination of various biogeochemical tools including DOC and nutrient concentrations, stable carbon isotope, and optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of dissolved organic matter in two different seasons (March 2017 and September 2018).
Michelle N. Simone, Kai G. Schulz, Joanne M. Oakes, and Bradley D. Eyre
Biogeosciences, 18, 1823–1838,Short summary
Estuaries are responsible for a large contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the global C cycle, but it is unknown how this will change in the future. DOC fluxes from unvegetated sediments were investigated ex situ subject to conditions of warming and ocean acidification. The future climate shifted sediment fluxes from a slight DOC source to a significant sink, with global coastal DOC export decreasing by 80 %. This has global implications for C cycling and long-term C storage.
Sara González-Delgado, David González-Santana, Magdalena Santana-Casiano, Melchor González-Dávila, Celso A. Hernández, Carlos Sangil, and José Carlos Hernández
Biogeosciences, 18, 1673–1687,Short summary
We describe the carbon system dynamics of a new CO2 seep system located off the coast of La Palma. We explored for over a year, finding points with lower levels of pH and alkalinity; high levels of carbon; and poorer levels of aragonite and calcite, both essential for calcifying species. The seeps are a key feature for robust experimental designs, aimed at comprehending how life has persisted through past eras or at predicting the consequences of ocean acidification in the marine realm.
Cale A. Miller, Christina Bonsell, Nathan D. McTigue, and Amanda L. Kelley
Biogeosciences, 18, 1203–1221,Short summary
We report here the first year-long high-frequency pH data set for an Arctic lagoon that captures ice-free and ice-covered seasons. pH and salinity correlation varies by year as we observed positive correlation and independence. Photosynthesis is found to drive high pH values, and small changes in underwater solar radiation can result in rapid decreases in pH. We estimate that arctic lagoons may act as sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially offsetting the Arctic Ocean's CO2 sink capacity.
Meike Becker, Are Olsen, Peter Landschützer, Abdirhaman Omar, Gregor Rehder, Christian Rödenbeck, and Ingunn Skjelvan
Biogeosciences, 18, 1127–1147,Short summary
We developed a simple method to refine existing open-ocean maps towards different coastal seas. Using a multi-linear regression, we produced monthly maps of surface ocean fCO2 in the northern European coastal seas (the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Norwegian Coast and the Barents Sea) covering a time period from 1998 to 2016. Based on this fCO2 map, we calculate trends in surface ocean fCO2, pH and the air–sea gas exchange.
Zhengchao Wu, Qian P. Li, Zaiming Ge, Bangqin Huang, and Chunming Dong
Biogeosciences, 18, 1049–1065,Short summary
Seasonal hypoxia in the nearshore bottom waters frequently occurs in the Pearl River estuary. Aerobic respiration is the ultimate cause of local hypoxia. We found an elevated level of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the bottom water outside the estuary, which promoted the growth and metabolism of special groups of particle-attached bacteria and thus contributed to oxygen depletion in hypoxic waters. Our results may be important for understanding coastal hypoxia and its linkages to eutrophication.
Derara Hailegeorgis, Zouhair Lachkar, Christoph Rieper, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 18, 303–325,Short summary
Using a Lagrangian modeling approach, this study provides a quantitative analysis of water and nitrogen offshore transport in the Canary Current System. We investigate the timescales, reach and structure of offshore transport and demonstrate that the Canary upwelling is a key source of nutrients to the open North Atlantic Ocean. Our findings stress the need for improving the representation of the Canary system and other eastern boundary upwelling systems in global coarse-resolution models.
Constance Choquel, Emmanuelle Geslin, Edouard Metzger, Helena L. Filipsson, Nils Risgaard-Petersen, Patrick Launeau, Manuel Giraud, Thierry Jauffrais, Bruno Jesus, and Aurélia Mouret
Biogeosciences, 18, 327–341,Short summary
Marine microorganisms such as foraminifera are able to live temporarily without oxygen in sediments. In a Swedish fjord subjected to seasonal oxygen scarcity, a change in fauna linked to the decrease in oxygen and the increase in an invasive species was shown. The invasive species respire nitrate until 100 % of the nitrate porewater in the sediment and could be a major contributor to nitrogen balance in oxic coastal ecosystems. But prolonged hypoxia creates unfavorable conditions to survive.
Haiyan Zhang, Katja Fennel, Arnaud Laurent, and Changwei Bian
Biogeosciences, 17, 5745–5761,Short summary
In coastal seas, low oxygen, which is detrimental to coastal ecosystems, is increasingly caused by man-made nutrients from land. This is especially so near mouths of major rivers, including the Changjiang in the East China Sea. Here a simulation model is used to identify the main factors determining low-oxygen conditions in the region. High river discharge is identified as the prime cause, while wind and intrusions of open-ocean water modulate the severity and extent of low-oxygen conditions.
Tamar Guy-Haim, Maxim Rubin-Blum, Eyal Rahav, Natalia Belkin, Jacob Silverman, and Guy Sisma-Ventura
Biogeosciences, 17, 5489–5511,Short summary
The availability of nutrients in oligotrophic marine ecosystems is limited. Following jellyfish blooms, large die-off events result in the release of high amounts of nutrients to the water column and sediment. Our study assessed the decomposition effects of an infamous invasive jellyfish in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea. We found that jellyfish decomposition favored heterotrophic bacteria and altered biogeochemical fluxes, further impoverishing this nutrient-poor ecosystem.
Chantal Mears, Helmuth Thomas, Paul B. Henderson, Matthew A. Charette, Hugh MacIntyre, Frank Dehairs, Christophe Monnin, and Alfonso Mucci
Biogeosciences, 17, 4937–4959,Short summary
Major research initiatives have been undertaken within the Arctic Ocean, highlighting this area's global importance and vulnerability to climate change. In 2015, the international GEOTRACES program addressed this importance by devoting intense research activities to the Arctic Ocean. Among various tracers, we used radium and carbonate system data to elucidate the functioning and vulnerability of the hydrographic regime of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, bridging the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Lennart Thomas Bach, Allanah Joy Paul, Tim Boxhammer, Elisabeth von der Esch, Michelle Graco, Kai Georg Schulz, Eric Achterberg, Paulina Aguayo, Javier Arístegui, Patrizia Ayón, Isabel Baños, Avy Bernales, Anne Sophie Boegeholz, Francisco Chavez, Gabriela Chavez, Shao-Min Chen, Kristin Doering, Alba Filella, Martin Fischer, Patricia Grasse, Mathias Haunost, Jan Hennke, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Mark Hopwood, Maricarmen Igarza, Verena Kalter, Leila Kittu, Peter Kohnert, Jesus Ledesma, Christian Lieberum, Silke Lischka, Carolin Löscher, Andrea Ludwig, Ursula Mendoza, Jana Meyer, Judith Meyer, Fabrizio Minutolo, Joaquin Ortiz Cortes, Jonna Piiparinen, Claudia Sforna, Kristian Spilling, Sonia Sanchez, Carsten Spisla, Michael Sswat, Mabel Zavala Moreira, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 17, 4831–4852,Short summary
The eastern boundary upwelling system off Peru is among Earth's most productive ocean ecosystems, but the factors that control its functioning are poorly constrained. Here we used mesocosms, moored ~ 6 km offshore Peru, to investigate how processes in plankton communities drive key biogeochemical processes. We show that nutrient and light co-limitation keep productivity and export at a remarkably constant level while stoichiometry changes strongly with shifts in plankton community structure.
James Z. Sippo, Isaac R. Santos, Christian J. Sanders, Patricia Gadd, Quan Hua, Catherine E. Lovelock, Nadia S. Santini, Scott G. Johnston, Yota Harada, Gloria Reithmeir, and Damien T. Maher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4707–4726,Short summary
In 2015–2016, a massive mangrove dieback event occurred along ~1000 km of coastline in Australia. Multiple lines of evidence from climate data, wood and sediment samples suggest low water availability within the dead mangrove forest. Wood and sediments also reveal a large increase in iron concentrations in mangrove sediments during the dieback. This study supports the hypothesis that the forest dieback was associated with low water availability driven by a climate-change-related ENSO event.
Markus Huettel, Peter Berg, and Alireza Merikhi
Biogeosciences, 17, 4459–4476,Short summary
Oxygen fluxes are a valued proxy for organic carbon production and mineralization at the seafloor. These fluxes can be measured non-invasively with the aquatic eddy covariance instrument, but the fast, fragile oxygen sensor it uses often causes questionable flux data. We developed a dual-O2-optode instrument and data evaluation method that allow improved flux measurements. Deployments over carbonate sands in the shallow shelf demonstrate that the instrument can produce reliable oxygen flux data.
Fabian Schwichtenberg, Johannes Pätsch, Michael Ernst Böttcher, Helmuth Thomas, Vera Winde, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 17, 4223–4245,Short summary
Ocean acidification has a range of potentially harmful consequences for marine organisms. It is related to total alkalinity (TA) mainly produced in oxygen-poor situations like sediments in tidal flats. TA reduces the sensitivity of a water body to acidification. The decomposition of organic material and subsequent TA release in the tidal areas of the North Sea (Wadden Sea) is responsible for reduced acidification in the southern North Sea. This is shown with the results of an ecosystem model.
Alexis Beaupré-Laperrière, Alfonso Mucci, and Helmuth Thomas
Biogeosciences, 17, 3923–3942,Short summary
Ocean acidification is the process by which the oceans are changing due to carbon dioxide emissions from human activities. Studying this process in the Arctic Ocean is essential as this ocean and its ecosystems are more vulnerable to the effects of acidification. Water chemistry measurements made in recent years show that waters in and around the Canadian Arctic Archipelago are considerably affected by this process and show dynamic conditions that might have an impact on local marine organisms.
Claudine Hauri, Cristina Schultz, Katherine Hedstrom, Seth Danielson, Brita Irving, Scott C. Doney, Raphael Dussin, Enrique N. Curchitser, David F. Hill, and Charles A. Stock
Biogeosciences, 17, 3837–3857,Short summary
The coastal ecosystem of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) is especially vulnerable to the effects of ocean acidification and climate change. To improve our conceptual understanding of the system, we developed a new regional biogeochemical model setup for the GOA. Model output suggests that bottom water is seasonally high in CO2 between June and January. Such extensive periods of reoccurring high CO2 may be harmful to ocean acidification-sensitive organisms.
Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth H. Shadwick, Hanqin Tian, and Yuanzhi Yao
Biogeosciences, 17, 3779–3796,Short summary
Over the past century, estuaries have experienced global (atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperature) and regional changes (river inputs, land use), but their relative impact remains poorly known. In the Chesapeake Bay, we find that global and regional changes have worked together to enhance how much atmospheric CO2 is taken up by the estuary. The increased uptake is roughly equally due to the global and regional changes, providing crucial perspective for managers of the bay's watershed.
Sarah Z. Rosengard, Robert W. Izett, William J. Burt, Nina Schuback, and Philippe D. Tortell
Biogeosciences, 17, 3277–3298,Short summary
Net community production sets the maximum quantity of phytoplankton carbon available for the marine food web and longer-term storage in the deep ocean. We compared two approaches to estimate this critical variable from autonomous measurements of mixed-layer dissolved oxygen and particulate organic carbon, observing a significant discrepancy between estimates in an upwelling zone near the Oregon coast. We use this discrepancy to assess the fate of organic carbon produced in the mixed layer.
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We constrain the nitrogen budget and in particular the internal sources and sinks of nitrate in the Bohai Sea by using a mass-based and dual stable isotope approach based on δ15N and δ18O of nitrate. Based on available mass fluxes and isotope data an updated nitrogen budget is proposed. Compared to previous estimates, it is more complete and includes the impact of the interior cycle (nitrification) on the nitrate pool. The main external nitrogen sources are rivers contributing 19.2 %–25.6 %.
We constrain the nitrogen budget and in particular the internal sources and sinks of nitrate in...