Articles | Volume 11, issue 16
Research article 19 Aug 2014
Research article | 19 Aug 2014
Evaluating remote sensing of deciduous forest phenology at multiple spatial scales using PhenoCam imagery
S. T. Klosterman et al.
No articles found.
Xin Huang, Dan Lu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, Andrew D. Richardson, Xuehe Lu, Ensheng Weng, Sheng Nie, Lifen Jiang, Enqing Hou, Igor F. Steinmacher, and Yiqi Luo
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5217–5238,Short summary
In the data-rich era, data assimilation is widely used to integrate abundant observations into models to reduce uncertainty in ecological forecasting. However, applications of data assimilation are restricted by highly technical requirements. To alleviate this technical burden, we developed a model-independent data assimilation (MIDA) module which is friendly to ecologists with limited programming skills. MIDA also supports a flexible switch of different models or observations in DA analysis.
Kyle B. Delwiche, Sara Helen Knox, Avni Malhotra, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Gavin McNicol, Sarah Feron, Zutao Ouyang, Dario Papale, Carlo Trotta, Eleonora Canfora, You-Wei Cheah, Danielle Christianson, Ma. Carmelita R. Alberto, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Dennis Baldocchi, Sheel Bansal, David P. Billesbach, Gil Bohrer, Rosvel Bracho, Nina Buchmann, David I. Campbell, Gerardo Celis, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Housen Chu, Higo J. Dalmagro, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Matteo Detto, Han Dolman, Elke Eichelmann, Eugenie Euskirchen, Daniela Famulari, Kathrin Fuchs, Mathias Goeckede, Sébastien Gogo, Mangaliso J. Gondwe, Jordan P. Goodrich, Pia Gottschalk, Scott L. Graham, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Carole Helfter, Kyle S. Hemes, Takashi Hirano, David Hollinger, Lukas Hörtnagl, Hiroki Iwata, Adrien Jacotot, Gerald Jurasinski, Minseok Kang, Kuno Kasak, John King, Janina Klatt, Franziska Koebsch, Ken W. Krauss, Derrick Y. F. Lai, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Giovanni Manca, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Trofim Maximov, Lutz Merbold, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Eiko Nemitz, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Walter C. Oechel, Patricia Y. Oikawa, Keisuke Ono, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, William Riley, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Ayaka Sakabe, Camilo Rey Sanchez, Edward A. Schuur, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Oliver Sonnentag, Jed P. Sparks, Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Cove Sturtevant, Ryan C. Sullivan, Daphne J. Szutu, Jonathan E. Thom, Margaret S. Torn, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Jessica Turner, Masahito Ueyama, Alex C. Valach, Rodrigo Vargas, Andrej Varlagin, Alma Vazquez-Lule, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Timo Vesala, George L. Vourlitis, Eric J. Ward, Christian Wille, Georg Wohlfahrt, Guan Xhuan Wong, Zhen Zhang, Donatella Zona, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Benjamin Poulter, and Robert B. Jackson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3607–3689,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, yet we lack knowledge about its global emissions and drivers. We present FLUXNET-CH4, a new global collection of methane measurements and a critical resource for the research community. We use FLUXNET-CH4 data to quantify the seasonality of methane emissions from freshwater wetlands, finding that methane seasonality varies strongly with latitude. Our new database and analysis will improve wetland model accuracy and inform greenhouse gas budgets.
Rui Cheng, Troy S. Magney, Debsunder Dutta, David R. Bowling, Barry A. Logan, Sean P. Burns, Peter D. Blanken, Katja Grossmann, Sophia Lopez, Andrew D. Richardson, Jochen Stutz, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4523–4544,Short summary
We measured reflected sunlight from an evergreen canopy for a year to detect changes in pigments that play an important role in regulating the seasonality of photosynthesis. Results show a strong mechanistic link between spectral reflectance features and pigment content, which is validated using a biophysical model. Our results show spectrally where, why, and when spectral features change over the course of the season and show promise for estimating photosynthesis remotely.
Istem Fer, Ryan Kelly, Paul R. Moorcroft, Andrew D. Richardson, Elizabeth M. Cowdery, and Michael C. Dietze
Biogeosciences, 15, 5801–5830,Short summary
The computer models we use to understand and forecast the ecosystem changes have multiple components that determine their outcomes. Due to our limited observation capacities, these components bear uncertainties that in return affect our predictions. While there are techniques for reducing these uncertainties, they are not applicable to every model due to computational and statistical barriers. This research presents a method that lowers those barriers and allows us to improve model predictions.
Verónika Ceballos-Núñez, Andrew D. Richardson, and Carlos A. Sierra
Biogeosciences, 15, 1607–1625,Short summary
Will the terrestrial biosphere be a carbon source or sink in the future? Different model simulations cannot reach a consensus, so we need to diagnose the performance of these models. We implemented three models differing in their carbon allocation strategies and assessed their performance using three metrics. The most sensible metric was the distribution of carbon age and transit times. Thus, empirical measurements of these distributions could be key to reduce the model uncertainty.
Paul J. Hanson, Jeffery S. Riggs, W. Robert Nettles, Jana R. Phillips, Misha B. Krassovski, Leslie A. Hook, Lianhong Gu, Andrew D. Richardson, Donald M. Aubrecht, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Jeffrey M. Warren, and Charlotte Barbier
Biogeosciences, 14, 861–883,Short summary
This paper describes operational methods to achieve whole-ecosystem warming (WEW) for tall-stature, high-carbon, boreal forest peatlands. The methods enable scientists to study immediate and longer-term (1 decade) responses of organisms (microbes to trees) and ecosystem functions (carbon, water and nutrient cycles). The WEW technology allows researchers to have a plausible glimpse of future environmental conditions for study that are not available in the current observational record.
M. Verma, M. A. Friedl, A. D. Richardson, G. Kiely, A. Cescatti, B. E. Law, G. Wohlfahrt, B. Gielen, O. Roupsard, E. J. Moors, P. Toscano, F. P. Vaccari, D. Gianelle, G. Bohrer, A. Varlagin, N. Buchmann, E. van Gorsel, L. Montagnani, and P. Propastin
Biogeosciences, 11, 2185–2200,
P. C. Stoy, M. C. Dietze, A. D. Richardson, R. Vargas, A. G. Barr, R. S. Anderson, M. A. Arain, I. T. Baker, T. A. Black, J. M. Chen, R. B. Cook, C. M. Gough, R. F. Grant, D. Y. Hollinger, R. C. Izaurralde, C. J. Kucharik, P. Lafleur, B. E. Law, S. Liu, E. Lokupitiya, Y. Luo, J. W. Munger, C. Peng, B. Poulter, D. T. Price, D. M. Ricciuto, W. J. Riley, A. K. Sahoo, K. Schaefer, C. R. Schwalm, H. Tian, H. Verbeeck, and E. Weng
Biogeosciences, 10, 6893–6909,
Related subject area
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: TerrestrialPatterns in recent and Holocene pollen accumulation rates across Europe – the Pollen Monitoring Programme Database as a tool for vegetation reconstructionCapturing functional strategies and compositional dynamics in vegetation demographic modelsDrought effects on leaf fall, leaf flushing and stem growth in the Amazon forest: reconciling remote sensing data and field observationsVariable tree rooting strategies are key for modelling the distribution, productivity and evapotranspiration of tropical evergreen forestsThe motion of trees in the wind: a data synthesisThe importance of antecedent vegetation and drought conditions as global drivers of burnt areaEvaluating the potential for Haloarchaea to serve as ice nucleating particlesA survey of proximal methods for monitoring leaf phenology in temperate deciduous forestsRecent above-ground biomass changes in central Chukotka (Russian Far East) using field sampling and Landsat satellite dataClimate change and elevated CO2 favor forest over savanna under different future scenarios in South AsiaFunctional convergence of biosphere–atmosphere interactions in response to meteorological conditionsMulti-scale assessment of a grassland productivity modelImproving the monitoring of deciduous broadleaf phenology using the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 16 and 17Factors controlling the productivity of tropical Andean forests: climate and soil are more important than tree diversitySpatial patterns of aboveground phytogenic Si stocks in a grass-dominated catchment – Results from UAS based high resolution remote sensingDrought years in peatland rewetting: rapid vegetation succession can maintain the net CO2 sink functionShift of seed mass and fruit type spectra along longitudinal gradient: high water availability and growth allometryRetrieval and validation of forest background reflectivity from daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data across European forestsUnraveling the physical and physiological basis for the solar- induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis relationship using continuous leaf and canopy measurements of a corn cropMachine learning estimates of eddy covariance carbon flux in a scrub in the Mexican highlandVariability of the surface energy balance in permafrost-underlain boreal forestVegetation modulates the impact of climate extremes on gross primary productionLandsat near-infrared (NIR) band and ELM-FATES sensitivity to forest disturbances and regrowth in the Central AmazonMicroclimatic conditions and water content fluctuations experienced by epiphytic bryophytes in an Amazonian rain forestPlant trait response of tundra shrubs to permafrost thaw and nutrient additionSoils from cold and snowy temperate deciduous forests release more nitrogen and phosphorus after soil freeze–thaw cycles than soils from warmer, snow-poor conditionsResponse of carbon and water fluxes to meteorological and phenological variability in two eastern North American forests of similar age but contrasting species composition – a multiyear comparisonDrought resistance increases from the individual to the ecosystem level in highly diverse Neotropical rainforest: a meta-analysis of leaf, tree and ecosystem responses to droughtAn analysis of forest biomass sampling strategies across scalesComparing stability in random forest models to map Northern Great Plains plant communities in pastures occupied by prairie dogs using Pleiades imageryAfrican biomes are most sensitive to changes in CO2 under recent and near-future CO2 conditionsValidation of demographic equilibrium theory against tree-size distributions and biomass density in AmazoniaSoil carbon release responses to long-term versus short-term climatic warming in an arid ecosystemPartitioning of canopy and soil CO2 fluxes in a pine forest at the dry timberline across a 13-year observation periodN : P stoichiometry and habitat effects on Mediterranean savanna seasonal root dynamicsQuantifying energy use efficiency via entropy production: a case study from longleaf pine ecosystemsRapid response of habitat structure and above-ground carbon storage to altered fire regimes in tropical savannaDissolved organic matter characteristics of deciduous and coniferous forests with variable management: different at the source, aligned in the soilDrought reduces tree growing season length but increases nitrogen resorption efficiency in a Mediterranean ecosystemVarying relationships between fire radiative power and fire size at a global scaleEcosystem responses to elevated CO2 using airborne remote sensing at Mammoth Mountain, CaliforniaIdeas and perspectives: Tree–atmosphere interaction responds to water-related stem variationsLife cycle of bamboo in the southwestern Amazon and its relation to fire eventsContrasting biosphere responses to hydrometeorological extremes: revisiting the 2010 western Russian heatwaveLong-term dynamics of monoterpene synthase activities, monoterpene storage pools and emissions in boreal Scots pineThe impacts of recent drought on fire, forest loss, and regional smoke emissions in lowland BoliviaAlgal richness in BSCs in forests under different management intensity with some implications for P cyclingThe strategies of water–carbon regulation of plants in a subtropical primary forest on karst soils in ChinaFungal loop transfer of nitrogen depends on biocrust constituents and nitrogen formEstimating aboveground carbon density and its uncertainty in Borneo's structurally complex tropical forests using airborne laser scanning
Vojtěch Abraham, Sheila Hicks, Helena Svobodová-Svitavská, Elissaveta Bozilova, Sampson Panajiotidis, Mariana Filipova-Marinova, Christin Eldegard Jensen, Spassimir Tonkov, Irena Agnieszka Pidek, Joanna Święta-Musznicka, Marcelina Zimny, Eliso Kvavadze, Anna Filbrandt-Czaja, Martina Hättestrand, Nurgül Karlıoğlu Kılıç, Jana Kosenko, Maria Nosova, Elena Severova, Olga Volkova, Margrét Hallsdóttir, Laimdota Kalniņa, Agnieszka M. Noryśkiewicz, Bożena Noryśkiewicz, Heather Pardoe, Areti Christodoulou, Tiiu Koff, Sonia L. Fontana, Teija Alenius, Elisabeth Isaksson, Heikki Seppä, Siim Veski, Anna Pędziszewska, Martin Weiser, and Thomas Giesecke
Biogeosciences, 18, 4511–4534,Short summary
We present a continental dataset of pollen accumulation rates (PARs) collected by pollen traps. This absolute measure of pollen rain (grains cm−2 yr−1) has a positive relationship to current vegetation and latitude. Trap and fossil PARs have similar values within one region, so it opens up possibilities for using fossil PARs to reconstruct past changes in plant biomass and primary productivity. The dataset is available in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database.
Polly C. Buotte, Charles D. Koven, Chonggang Xu, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Michael L. Goulden, Samuel Levis, Jessica Katz, Junyan Ding, Wu Ma, Zachary Robbins, and Lara M. Kueppers
Biogeosciences, 18, 4473–4490,Short summary
We present an approach for ensuring the definitions of plant types in dynamic vegetation models are connected to the underlying ecological processes controlling community composition. Our approach can be applied regionally or globally. Robust resolution of community composition will allow us to use these models to address important questions related to future climate and management effects on plant community composition, structure, carbon storage, and feedbacks within the Earth system.
Thomas Janssen, Ype van der Velde, Florian Hofhansl, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Kim Naudts, Bart Driessen, Katrin Fleischer, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 18, 4445–4472,Short summary
Satellite images show that the Amazon forest has greened up during past droughts. Measurements of tree stem growth and leaf litterfall upscaled using machine-learning algorithms show that leaf flushing at the onset of a drought results in canopy rejuvenation and green-up during drought while simultaneously trees excessively shed older leaves and tree stem growth declines. Canopy green-up during drought therefore does not necessarily point to enhanced tree growth and improved forest health.
Boris Sakschewski, Werner von Bloh, Markus Drüke, Anna Amelia Sörensson, Romina Ruscica, Fanny Langerwisch, Maik Billing, Sarah Bereswill, Marina Hirota, Rafael Silva Oliveira, Jens Heinke, and Kirsten Thonicke
Biogeosciences, 18, 4091–4116,Short summary
This study shows how local adaptations of tree roots across tropical and sub-tropical South America explain patterns of biome distribution, productivity and evapotranspiration on this continent. By allowing for high diversity of tree rooting strategies in a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), we are able to mechanistically explain patterns of mean rooting depth and the effects on ecosystem functions. The approach can advance DGVMs and Earth system models.
Toby D. Jackson, Sarab Sethi, Ebba Dellwik, Nikolas Angelou, Amanda Bunce, Tim van Emmerik, Marine Duperat, Jean-Claude Ruel, Axel Wellpott, Skip Van Bloem, Alexis Achim, Brian Kane, Dominick M. Ciruzzi, Steven P. Loheide II, Ken James, Daniel Burcham, John Moore, Dirk Schindler, Sven Kolbe, Kilian Wiegmann, Mark Rudnicki, Victor J. Lieffers, John Selker, Andrew V. Gougherty, Tim Newson, Andrew Koeser, Jason Miesbauer, Roger Samelson, Jim Wagner, Anthony R. Ambrose, Andreas Detter, Steffen Rust, David Coomes, and Barry Gardiner
Biogeosciences, 18, 4059–4072,Short summary
We have all seen trees swaying in the wind, but did you know that this motion can teach us about ecology? We summarized tree motion data from many different studies and looked for similarities between trees. We found that the motion of trees in conifer forests is quite similar to each other, whereas open-grown trees and broadleaf forests show more variation. It has been suggested that additional damping or amplification of tree motion occurs at high wind speeds, but we found no evidence of this.
Alexander Kuhn-Régnier, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Peer Nowack, Matthias Forkel, I. Colin Prentice, and Sandy P. Harrison
Biogeosciences, 18, 3861–3879,Short summary
Along with current climate, vegetation, and human influences, long-term accumulation of biomass affects fires. Here, we find that including the influence of antecedent vegetation and moisture improves our ability to predict global burnt area. Additionally, the length of the preceding period which needs to be considered for accurate predictions varies across regions.
Jessie M. Creamean, Julio E. Ceniceros, Lilyanna Newman, Allyson D. Pace, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Matthew E. Rhodes
Biogeosciences, 18, 3751–3762,Short summary
Microorganisms have the unique ability to form ice in clouds at relatively warm temperatures, especially specific types of plant bacteria. However, to date, members of the domain Archaea have not been evaluated for their cloud-forming capabilities. Here, we show the first results of Haloarchaea that have the ability to form cloud ice at moderate supercooled temperatures that are found in hypersaline environments on Earth.
Kamel Soudani, Nicolas Delpierre, Daniel Berveiller, Gabriel Hmimina, Jean-Yves Pontailler, Lou Seureau, Gaëlle Vincent, and Éric Dufrêne
Biogeosciences, 18, 3391–3408,Short summary
We present an exhaustive comparative survey of eight proximal methods to estimate forest phenology. We focused on methodological aspects and thoroughly assessed deviations between predicted and observed phenological dates and pointed out their main causes. We show that proximal methods provide robust phenological metrics. They can be used to retrieve long-term phenological series at flux measurement sites and help interpret the interannual variability and trends of mass and energy exchanges.
Iuliia Shevtsova, Ulrike Herzschuh, Birgit Heim, Luise Schulte, Simone Stünzi, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, Evgeniy S. Zakharov, and Stefan Kruse
Biogeosciences, 18, 3343–3366,Short summary
In the light of climate changes in subarctic regions, notable general increase in above-ground biomass for the past 15 years (2000 to 2017) was estimated along a tundra–taiga gradient of central Chukotka (Russian Far East). The greatest increase occurred in the northern taiga in the areas of larch closed-canopy forest expansion with Cajander larch as a main contributor. For the estimations, we used field data (taxa-separated plant biomass, 2018) and upscaled it based on Landsat satellite data.
Dushyant Kumar, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Camille Gaillard, Liam Langan, and Simon Scheiter
Biogeosciences, 18, 2957–2979,Short summary
In this paper, we investigated the impact of climate change and rising CO2 on biomes using a vegetation model in South Asia, an often neglected region in global modeling studies. Understanding these impacts guides ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. Our results indicate that savanna regions are at high risk of woody encroachment and transitioning into the forest, and the bioclimatic envelopes of biomes need adjustments to account for shifts caused by climate change and CO2.
Christopher Krich, Mirco Migliavacca, Diego G. Miralles, Guido Kraemer, Tarek S. El-Madany, Markus Reichstein, Jakob Runge, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 18, 2379–2404,Short summary
Ecosystems and the atmosphere interact with each other. These interactions determine e.g. the water and carbon fluxes and thus are crucial to understand climate change effects. We analysed the interactions for many ecosystems across the globe, showing that very different ecosystems can have similar interactions with the atmosphere. Meteorological conditions seem to be the strongest interaction-shaping factor. This means that common principles can be identified to describe ecosystem behaviour.
Shawn D. Taylor and Dawn M. Browning
Biogeosciences, 18, 2213–2220,Short summary
Grasslands in North America provide multiple ecosystem services and drive the production of a lot of grain, beef, and other staples. We evaluated a grassland productivity model using nearly 500 years of grassland camera data and found the areas where the model worked well and locations where it did not. Long-term productivity projections for the suitable locations can be made immediately with the current model, while other areas, such as the southwest, will need further model development.
Kathryn I. Wheeler and Michael C. Dietze
Biogeosciences, 18, 1971–1985,Short summary
Monitoring leaf phenology (i.e., seasonality) allows for tracking the progression of climate change and seasonal variations in a variety of organismal and ecosystem processes. Recent versions of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites allow for the monitoring of a phenological-sensitive index at a high temporal frequency (5–10 min) throughout most of the western hemisphere. Here we show the high potential of these new data to measure the phenology of deciduous forests.
Jürgen Homeier and Christoph Leuschner
Biogeosciences, 18, 1525–1541,Short summary
We studied aboveground productivity in humid tropical montane old-growth forests in two highly diverse Andean regions with large geological and topographic heterogeneity and related productivity to tree diversity and climatic, edaphic and stand structural factors. From our results we conclude that the productivity of highly diverse Neotropical montane forests is primarily controlled by thermal and edaphic factors and stand structural properties, while tree diversity is of minor importance.
Marc Wehrhan, Daniel Puppe, Danuta Kaczorek, and Michael Sommer
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Our study on an artificial catchment shows surprisingly high silicon stocks in the biomass of two grass species (C. epigejos, 7 g m−2; P. australis, 27 g m−2). The spatial distribution of C. epigejos was controlled by the distribution of initial sediment properties (Clay, Tiron-extractable Si). Soil wetness determined the occurrence of P. australis. The combination of UAS remote sensing with Si pools in plants provides a promising tool for new insights into Si biogeochemistry at catchment scale.
Florian Beyer, Florian Jansen, Gerald Jurasinski, Marian Koch, Birgit Schröder, and Franziska Koebsch
Biogeosciences, 18, 917–935,Short summary
Increasing drought frequency can jeopardize the restoration of the CO2 sink function in degraded peatlands. We explored the effect of the summer drought in 2018 on vegetation development and CO2 exchange in a rewetted fen. Drought triggered a rapid spread of new vegetation whose CO2 assimilation could partially outweigh the drought-related rise in respiratory CO2 loss. Our study shows important regulatory mechanisms of a rewetted fen to maintain its net CO2 sink function even in a very dry year.
Shunli Yu, Guoxun Wang, Ofir Katz, Danfeng Li, Qibing Wang, Ming Yue, and Canran Liu
Biogeosciences, 18, 655–667,Short summary
As key traits of plants, the mechanisms of diversity of fruit sizes and seed sizes have not been solved completely until now. Therefore, the research related to them will continue to be done in the future. Our research, combined with future works, will provide a profound basis for solving the origin of fleshy-fruited species and seed size diversity.
Jan Pisek, Angela Erb, Lauri Korhonen, Tobias Biermann, Arnaud Carrara, Edoardo Cremonese, Matthias Cuntz, Silvano Fares, Giacomo Gerosa, Thomas Grünwald, Niklas Hase, Michal Heliasz, Andreas Ibrom, Alexander Knohl, Johannes Kobler, Bart Kruijt, Holger Lange, Leena Leppänen, Jean-Marc Limousin, Francisco Ramon Lopez Serrano, Denis Loustau, Petr Lukeš, Lars Lundin, Riccardo Marzuoli, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Matthias Peichl, Corinna Rebmann, Eva Rubio, Margarida Santos-Reis, Crystal Schaaf, Marius Schmidt, Guillaume Simioni, Kamel Soudani, and Caroline Vincke
Biogeosciences, 18, 621–635,Short summary
Understory vegetation is the most diverse, least understood component of forests worldwide. Understory communities are important drivers of overstory succession and nutrient cycling. Multi-angle remote sensing enables us to describe surface properties by means that are not possible when using mono-angle data. Evaluated over an extensive set of forest ecosystem experimental sites in Europe, our reported method can deliver good retrievals, especially over different forest types with open canopies.
Peiqi Yang, Christiaan van der Tol, Petya K. E. Campbell, and Elizabeth M. Middleton
Biogeosciences, 18, 441–465,Short summary
Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has the potential to facilitate the monitoring of photosynthesis from space. This study presents a systematic analysis of the physical and physiological meaning of the relationship between fluorescence and photosynthesis at both leaf and canopy levels. We unravel the individual effects of incoming light, vegetation structure and leaf physiology and highlight their joint effects on the relationship between canopy fluorescence and photosynthesis.
Aurelio Guevara-Escobar, Enrique González-Sosa, Mónica Cervantes-Jiménez, Humberto Suzán-Azpiri, Mónica Elisa Queijeiro-Bolaños, Israel Carrillo-Ángeles, and Víctor Hugo Cambrón-Sandoval
Biogeosciences, 18, 367–392,Short summary
All vegetation types can sequester carbon dioxide. We compared ground measurements (eddy covariance) with remotely sensed data (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) and machine learning ensembles of primary production in a semiarid scrub in Mexico. The annual carbon sink for this vegetation type was −283.5 g C m−2 y−1; MODIS underestimated the primary productivity, and the machine learning modeling was better locally.
Simone Maria Stuenzi, Julia Boike, William Cable, Ulrike Herzschuh, Stefan Kruse, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Sebastian Westermann, Evgenii S. Zakharov, and Moritz Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 343–365,Short summary
Boreal forests in eastern Siberia are an essential component of global climate patterns. We use a physically based model and field measurements to study the interactions between forests, permanently frozen ground and the atmosphere. We find that forests exert a strong control on the thermal state of permafrost through changing snow cover dynamics and altering the surface energy balance, through absorbing most of the incoming solar radiation and suppressing below-canopy turbulent fluxes.
Milan Flach, Alexander Brenning, Fabian Gans, Markus Reichstein, Sebastian Sippel, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 18, 39–53,Short summary
Drought and heat events affect the uptake and sequestration of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. We study the impact of droughts and heatwaves on the uptake of CO2 of different vegetation types at the global scale. We find that agricultural areas are generally strongly affected. Forests instead are not particularly sensitive to the events under scrutiny. This implies different water management strategies of forests but also a lack of sensitivity to remote-sensing-derived vegetation activity.
Robinson I. Negrón-Juárez, Jennifer A. Holm, Boris Faybishenko, Daniel Magnabosco-Marra, Rosie A. Fisher, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Alessandro C. de Araujo, William J. Riley, and Jeffrey Q. Chambers
Biogeosciences, 17, 6185–6205,Short summary
The temporal variability in the Landsat satellite near-infrared (NIR) band captured the dynamics of forest regrowth after disturbances in Central Amazon. This variability was represented by the dynamics of forest regrowth after disturbances were properly represented by the ELM-FATES model (Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) in the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Land Model (ELM)).
Nina Löbs, David Walter, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, Rodrigo P. Alves, Gabriela R. Cerqueira, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Florian Ditas, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Ana Paula Pires Florentino, Stefan Wolff, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Sylvia Mota de Oliveira, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 17, 5399–5416,Short summary
Cryptogamic organisms, such as bryophytes, lichens, and algae, cover major parts of vegetation in the Amazonian rain forest, but their relevance in biosphere–atmosphere exchange, climate processes, and nutrient cycling is largely unknown. Over the duration of 2 years we measured their water content, temperature, and light conditions to get better insights into their physiological activity patterns and thus their potential impact on local, regional, and even global biogeochemical processes.
Maitane Iturrate-Garcia, Monique M. P. D. Heijmans, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Fritz H. Schweingruber, Pascal A. Niklaus, and Gabriela Schaepman-Strub
Biogeosciences, 17, 4981–4998,Short summary
Changes on plant traits associated with climate warming might alter vegetation–climate interactions. We investigated experimentally the effects of enhanced permafrost thaw and soil nutrients on a wide set of tundra shrub traits. We found a coordinated trait response to some treatments, which suggests a shift in shrub resource, growth and defence strategies. This shift might feed back into permafrost thaw – through mechanisms associated with water demand – and into carbon and energy fluxes.
Juergen Kreyling, Rhena Schumann, and Robert Weigel
Biogeosciences, 17, 4103–4117,Short summary
Temperate forest soils (sites dominated by European beech, Fagus sylvatica) from cold and snowy sites in northern Poland release more nitrogen and phosphorus after soil freeze–thaw cycles (FTCs) than soils from warmer, snow-poor conditions in northern Germany. Our data suggest that previously cold sites, which will lose their protective snow cover during climate change, are most vulnerable to increasing FTC frequency and magnitude, resulting in strong shifts in nitrogen leaching.
Eric R. Beamesderfer, M. Altaf Arain, Myroslava Khomik, Jason J. Brodeur, and Brandon M. Burns
Biogeosciences, 17, 3563–3587,Short summary
Temperate forests play a major role in the global carbon and water cycles, sequestering atmospheric CO2 on annual timescales. This research examined the annual carbon and water dynamics of two similar (age, soil, climate, etc.) eastern North American temperate forests of different species composition (i.e., broadleaf vs. needleleaf). Ultimately, fluxes of the deciduous forest were found to be less sensitive to temperature and water limitations – conditions expected with future climate warming.
Thomas Janssen, Katrin Fleischer, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Kim Naudts, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 17, 2621–2645,Short summary
The frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase in the tropics, impacting the functioning of tropical forests. Here, we synthesized observed responses to drought in Neotropical forests. We find that, during drought, trees generally close their leaf stomata, resulting in reductions in photosynthesis, growth and transpiration. However, on the ecosystem scale, these responses are not visible. This indicates that resistance to drought increases from the leaf to ecosystem scale.
Jessica Hetzer, Andreas Huth, Thorsten Wiegand, Hans Jürgen Dobner, and Rico Fischer
Biogeosciences, 17, 1673–1683,Short summary
Due to limited accessibility in tropical regions, only small parts of the forest landscape can be surveyed in forest plots. Since there is an ongoing debate about how representative estimations based on samples are at larger scales, this study analyzes how many plots are needed to quantify the biomass of the entire South American tropical forest. Through novel computational and statistical investigations we show that the spatial plot positioning is crucial for continent-wide biomass estimations.
Jameson R. Brennan, Patricia S. Johnson, and Niall P. Hanan
Biogeosciences, 17, 1281–1292,Short summary
Prairie dogs have been described as a keystone species and are important for grassland conservation, yet concerns exist over the impact of prairie dogs on livestock production. The aim of this study was to classify plant communities on and off prairie dog towns in South Dakota and determine the utility of using remote sensing to identity prairie dog colony extent. The results show that remote sensing is effective at determining prairie dog colony boundaries.
Simon Scheiter, Glenn R. Moncrieff, Mirjam Pfeiffer, and Steven I. Higgins
Biogeosciences, 17, 1147–1167,Short summary
Current rates of climate and atmospheric change are likely higher than during the last millions of years. Vegetation cannot keep pace with these changes and lags behind climate. We used a vegetation model to study how these lags are influenced by CO2 and fire in Africa. Our results indicate that vegetation is most sensitive to CO2 change under current and near-future conditions and that vegetation will be committed to further change even if CO2 emissions are reduced and the climate stabilizes.
Jonathan R. Moore, Arthur P. K. Argles, Kai Zhu, Chris Huntingford, and Peter M. Cox
Biogeosciences, 17, 1013–1032,Short summary
The distribution of tree sizes across Amazonia can be fitted very well (for both trunk diameter and tree mass) by a simple equilibrium model assuming power law growth and size-independent mortality. We find tree growth to mirror some aspects of metabolic scaling theory and that there may be a trade-off between fast-growing, short-lived and longer-lived, slow-growing ones. Our Amazon mortality-to-growth ratio is very similar to US temperate forests, hinting at a universal property for trees.
Hongying Yu, Zhenzhu Xu, Guangsheng Zhou, and Yaohui Shi
Biogeosciences, 17, 781–792,Short summary
Climate change severely impacts grassland carbon cycling, especially in arid ecosystems, such as desert steppes. The current results highlight the great dependence of soil carbon emission on warming regimes of different duration and the important role of precipitation pulse during growing season in assessing the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance and cycle.
Rafat Qubaja, Fyodor Tatarinov, Eyal Rotenberg, and Dan Yakir
Biogeosciences, 17, 699–714,Short summary
This paper presents a study of the CO2 fluxes in a pine forest plantation at the dry timberline in the Negev, combining the present time with the long-term perspective. Two key issues that limit our understanding are the need to know the sources of CO2 fluxes and the need for long-term perspectives. We provide evidence that helps explain the forest plantation productivity under stressful conditions, which can assist in predicting the response of forest to future drying climate.
Richard K. F. Nair, Kendalynn A. Morris, Martin Hertel, Yunpeng Luo, Gerardo Moreno, Markus Reichstein, Marion Schrumpf, and Mirco Migliavacca
Biogeosciences, 16, 1883–1901,Short summary
We investigated how nutrient availability affects seasonal timing of root growth and death in a Spanish savanna, adapted to a long summer drought. We found that nitrogen (N) additions led to more root biomass but number of roots was higher with N and phosphorus together. These effects were strongly affected by the time of year. In autumn root growth occurred after leaf production. This has implications for how we understand biomass production and carbon uptake in these systems.
Susanne Wiesner, Christina L. Staudhammer, Paul C. Stoy, Lindsay R. Boring, and Gregory Starr
Biogeosciences, 16, 1845–1863,Short summary
We studied entropy production in longleaf savanna sites with variations in land use legacy, plant diversity, and soil water availability which experienced drought. Sites with greater land use legacy had lower metabolic energy use efficiency, which delayed recovery from drought. Sites with more hardwood captured less solar radiation but more efficiently used absorbed energy. Future management applications could use these methods to quantify energy use efficiency across global ecosystems.
Shaun R. Levick, Anna E. Richards, Garry D. Cook, Jon Schatz, Marcus Guderle, Richard J. Williams, Parash Subedi, Susan E. Trumbore, and Alan N. Andersen
Biogeosciences, 16, 1493–1503,Short summary
We used airborne lidar to map the three-dimensional structure and model the biomass of plant canopies across a long-term fire experiment in the Northern Territory of Australia. Our results show that late season fires occurring every 2 years reduce the amount of carbon stored above-ground by 50 % relative to unburnt control plots. We also show how increased fire intensity removes the shrub layer from savannas and discuss the implications for biodiversity conservation.
Lisa Thieme, Daniel Graeber, Diana Hofmann, Sebastian Bischoff, Martin T. Schwarz, Bernhard Steffen, Ulf-Niklas Meyer, Martin Kaupenjohann, Wolfgang Wilcke, Beate Michalzik, and Jan Siemens
Biogeosciences, 16, 1411–1432,Short summary
To improve our understanding of the effects of tree species selection and management intensity on dissolved organic matter (DOM), we studied solution samples along the water flow path through forests with spectroscopic methods and biodegradation tests. There are distinct changes in DOM composition and biodegradability following the water path. Aboveground DOM was influenced by tree species selection but not by management intensity. Differences became aligned in mineral soil.
Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Cathy Kurz Besson, Maria Conceição Caldeira, Maria Manuela Chaves, and João Santos Pereira
Biogeosciences, 16, 1265–1279,Short summary
By comparing the cork oak tree vegetative phenology in two contrasting precipitation years in a Mediterranean ecosystem, we showed the critical role of water availability in extending the length of the growing season and determining tree growth. The observed higher transfer of nitrogen from senescent to green leaves in response to drought might compensate for the limited nitrogen uptake by the roots. Our results improve our understanding of the ecosystem's responses to climate change.
Pierre Laurent, Florent Mouillot, Maria Vanesa Moreno, Chao Yue, and Philippe Ciais
Biogeosciences, 16, 275–288,Short summary
Fire propagation and fire size are usually considered to be proportional to fire intensity. We used a global database of fire patch size and fire radiative power, used as a proxy of fire intensity, to test this relationship at a global scale. We showed that in some regions fire size tends to saturate when a regional fire intensity threshold is reached. We concluded that increasing landscape fragmentation limits fire propagation and this effect should be accounted for in global fire modules.
Kerry Cawse-Nicholson, Joshua B. Fisher, Caroline A. Famiglietti, Amy Braverman, Florian M. Schwandner, Jennifer L. Lewicki, Philip A. Townsend, David S. Schimel, Ryan Pavlick, Kathryn J. Bormann, Antonio Ferraz, Emily L. Kang, Pulong Ma, Robert R. Bogue, Thomas Youmans, and David C. Pieri
Biogeosciences, 15, 7403–7418,Short summary
Carbon dioxide levels are rising globally, and it is important to understand how this rise will affect plants over long time periods. Volcanoes such as Mammoth Mountain, California, have been releasing CO2 from their flanks for decades, and this provides a test environment in order to study the way plants respond to long-term CO2 exposure. We combined several airborne measurements to show that plants may have fewer, more productive leaves in areas with increasing CO2.
Tim van Emmerik, Susan Steele-Dunne, Pierre Gentine, Rafael S. Oliveira, Paulo Bittencourt, Fernanda Barros, and Nick van de Giesen
Biogeosciences, 15, 6439–6449,Short summary
Trees are very important for the water and carbon cycles. Climate and weather models often assume constant vegetation parameters because good measurements are missing. We used affordable accelerometers to measure tree sway of 19 trees in the Amazon rainforest. We show that trees respond very differently to the same weather conditions, which means that vegetation parameters are dynamic. With our measurements trees can be accounted for more realistically, improving climate and weather models.
Ricardo Dalagnol, Fabien Hubert Wagner, Lênio Soares Galvão, Bruce Walker Nelson, and Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de Aragão
Biogeosciences, 15, 6087–6104,Short summary
We used a time series of MODIS (MAIAC) satellite images from 2000 to 2017 to map the distribution of bamboo-dominated forests in the southwest Amazon and detect when the bamboo populations are suffering massive die-offs. The aim was to test if bamboo die-off is associated with higher fire probability, which could impact other plant species while promoting bamboo dominance. Our findings show 15.5 million ha of bamboo forests which are not directly associated with fire, except in drought years.
Milan Flach, Sebastian Sippel, Fabian Gans, Ana Bastos, Alexander Brenning, Markus Reichstein, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 15, 6067–6085,Short summary
Northern forests enhanced their productivity during and before the 2010 Russian mega heatwave. We scrutinize this issue with a novel type of multivariate extreme event detection approach. Forests compensate for 54 % of the carbon losses in agricultural ecosystems due to vulnerable conditions in spring and better water management in summer. The findings highlight the importance of forests in mitigating climate change, while not alleviating the consequences of extreme events for food security.
Anni Vanhatalo, Andrea Ghirardo, Eija Juurola, Jörg-Peter Schnitzler, Ina Zimmer, Heidi Hellén, Hannele Hakola, and Jaana Bäck
Biogeosciences, 15, 5047–5060,Short summary
We analysed the relationships between Scots pine needle monoterpene synthase activities, monoterpene storage pools and emissions of needles. The results showed changes in the monoterpene synthase activity of needles, linked to seasonality and needle ontogenesis, while the pool did not change considerably as a function of needle aging. Monoterpene emissions did not correlate with synthase activity or storage pool size. Additionally, we observed notably high plant-to-plant variation.
Joshua P. Heyer, Mitchell J. Power, Robert D. Field, and Margreet J. E. van Marle
Biogeosciences, 15, 4317–4331,Short summary
A variety of data were explored to better understand relationships among climate, fire, smoke emissions, and human land use in lowland Bolivia. Paleosedimentary work and modern fire records have linked drought to fire in the southern Amazon. From 2000 to 2015, our results indicate drought was the dominant control on wildfire in lowland Bolivia and in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park. Note that fire was most common in the Cerrado and seasonally inundated wetland biomes.
Karin Glaser, Karen Baumann, Peter Leinweber, Tatiana Mikhailyuk, and Ulf Karsten
Biogeosciences, 15, 4181–4192,
Jing Wang, Xuefa Wen, Xinyu Zhang, and Shenggong Li
Biogeosciences, 15, 4193–4203,Short summary
The different contributions of gs, gm, and Vcmax to A indicated that plants utilized diverse trade-offs between CO2 supply and demand to maintain relatively high A. The iWUE was relatively low, but ranged widely, indicating that plants used a "profligate/opportunistic" water use strategy to maintain their survival, growth, and the structure of the community. These findings highlight the importance of covariation of gs, gm, and Vcmax for the adaptation of plants to the harsh karst environment.
Zachary T. Aanderud, Trevor B. Smart, Nan Wu, Alexander S. Taylor, Yuanming Zhang, and Jayne Belnap
Biogeosciences, 15, 3831–3840,Short summary
Besides performing multiple ecosystem services individually and collectively, biocrust constituents may also create biological networks connecting spatially and temporally distinct processes. We found evidence of fungal loops within biocrusts but only in cyanobacteria-dominated crusts for the inorganic N form NH4+. Combined with our sequencing effort, our findings suggest that even localized, minor rainfall events may allow dark septate Pleosporales to rapidly translocate N within biocrusts.
Tommaso Jucker, Gregory P. Asner, Michele Dalponte, Philip G. Brodrick, Christopher D. Philipson, Nicholas R. Vaughn, Yit Arn Teh, Craig Brelsford, David F. R. P. Burslem, Nicolas J. Deere, Robert M. Ewers, Jakub Kvasnica, Simon L. Lewis, Yadvinder Malhi, Sol Milne, Reuben Nilus, Marion Pfeifer, Oliver L. Phillips, Lan Qie, Nathan Renneboog, Glen Reynolds, Terhi Riutta, Matthew J. Struebig, Martin Svátek, Edgar C. Turner, and David A. Coomes
Biogeosciences, 15, 3811–3830,Short summary
Efforts to protect tropical forests hinge on recognizing the ecosystem services they provide, including their ability to store carbon. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) captures information on the 3-D structure of forests, allowing carbon stocks to be mapped. By combining ALS with data from 173 field plots on the island of Borneo, we develop a simple yet general model for estimating forest carbon stocks from the air. Our model underpins ongoing efforts to restore Borneo's unique tropical forests.
Aono, Y. and Kazui, K.: Phenological data series of cherry tree flowering in Kyoto, Japan, and its application to reconstruction of springtime temperatures since the 9th century, Int. J. Climatol., 28, 905–914, 2008.
Archetti, M., Richardson, A. D., O'Keefe, J., and Delpierre, N.: Predicting Climate Change Impacts on the Amount and Duration of Autumn Colors in a New England Forest, edited by B. Bond-Lamberty, PLoS One, 8, e57373, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057373, 2013.
Basler, D. and Korner, C.: Photoperiod and temperature responses of bud swelling and bud burst in four temperate forest tree species, Tree Physiol., 34, https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpu021, 2014.
Cescatti, A., Marcolla, B., Santhana Vannan, S. K., Pan, J. Y., Román, M. O., Yang, X., Ciais, P., Cook, R. B., Law, B. E., Matteucci, G., Migliavacca, M., Moors, E., Richardson, A. D., Seufert, G., and Schaaf, C. B.: Intercomparison of MODIS albedo retrievals and in situ measurements across the global FLUXNET network, Remote Sens. Environ., 121, 323–334, 2012.
Cong, N., Piao, S., Chen, A., Wang, X., Lin, X., Chen, S., Han, S., Zhou, G., and Zhang, X.: Spring vegetation green-up date in China inferred from SPOT NDVI data: A multiple model analysis, Agric. For. Meteorol., 165, 104–113, 2012.
Dragoni, D. and Rahman, A. F.: Trends in fall phenology across the deciduous forests of the Eastern USA, Agric. For. Meteorol., 157, 96–105, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.01.019, 2012.
Elmore, A. J., Guinn, S. M., Minsley, B. J., and Richardson, A. D.: Landscape controls on the timing of spring, fall, and growing season length in mid-Atlantic forests, Glob. Chang. Biol., 18, 656–674, 2012.
Friedl, M. A., Sulla-Menashe, D., Tan, B., Schneider, A., Ramankutty, N., Sibley, A., and Huang, X.: MODIS Collection 5 global land cover: Algorithm refinements and characterization of new datasets, Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 168–182, 2010.
Ganguly, S., Friedl, M. A., Tan, B., Zhang, X., and Verma, M.: Land surface phenology from MODIS: Characterization of the Collection 5 global land cover dynamics product, Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 1805–1816, 2010.
Garrity, S. R., Bohrer, G., Maurer, K. D., Mueller, K. L., Vogel, C. S., and Curtis, P. S.: A comparison of multiple phenology data sources for estimating seasonal transitions in deciduous forest carbon exchange, Agric. For. Meteorol., 151, 1741–1752, 2011.
Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Fan, S. M., Daube, B. C., and Wofsy, S. C.: Exchange of Carbon Dioxide by a Deciduous Forest?: Response to Interannual Climate Variability, Science, 271, 1576, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.271.5255.1576, 1996.
Gu, L., Hanson, P. J., Post, W. M., Kaiser, D. P., Yang, B., Nemani, R., Pallardy, S. G., and Meyers, T.: The 2007 Eastern US Spring Freeze: Increased Cold Damage in a Warming World, Bioscience, 58, 253, https://doi.org/10.1641/B580311, 2008.
Hmimina, G., Dufrêne, E., Pontailler, J.-Y., Delpierre, N., Aubinet, M., Caquet, B., de Grandcourt, A., Burban, B., Flechard, C., Granier, A., Gross, P., Heinesch, B., Longdoz, B., Moureaux, C., Ourcival, J.-M., Rambal, S., Saint André, L., and Soudani, K.: Evaluation of the potential of MODIS satellite data to predict vegetation phenology in different biomes: An investigation using ground-based NDVI measurements, Remote Sens. Environ., 132, 145–158, 2013.
Hopkins, A. D.: The Bioclimatic Law as Applied Entomological Research and Farm Practise, Sci. Mon., 8, 496–513, 1919.
Huemmrich, K. F., Black, T. A., Jarvis, P. G., McCaughey, J. H., and Hall, F. G.: High temporal resolution NDVI phenology from micrometeorological radiation sensors, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27935, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD900164, 1999.
Huete, A., Didan, K., Miura, T., Rodriguez, E., Gao, X., and Ferreira, L.: Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices, Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 195–213, 2002.
Hufkens, K., Friedl, M., Sonnentag, O., Braswell, B. H., Milliman, T., and Richardson, A. D.: Linking near-surface and satellite remote sensing measurements of deciduous broadleaf forest phenology, Remote Sens. Environ., 117, 307–321, 2012.
Jenkins, J. P., Richardson, A. D., Braswell, B. H., Ollinger, S. V, Hollinger, D. Y., and Smith, M. L.: Refining light-use efficiency calculations for a deciduous forest canopy using simultaneous tower-based carbon flux and radiometric measurements, Agric. For. Meteorol., 143, 64–79, 2007.
Keenan, T. F., Darby, B., Felts, E., Sonnentag, O., Friedl, M., Hufkens, K., O'Keefe, J., Klosterman, S., Munger, J. W., Toomey, M., and Richardson, A. D.: Tracking forest phenology and seasonal physiology using digital repeat photography: a critical assessment, Ecol. Appl., in press, available at: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/13-0652.1, last access: 15 August 2014.
Kline, M.: Calculus: An Intuitive and Physical Approach (Second Edition) (Dover Books on Mathematics), Dover Publications, 1998.
Lawrence, D. M., Oleson, K. W., Flanner, M. G., Thornton, P. E., Swenson, S. C., Lawrence, P. J., Zeng, X., Yang, Z.-L., Levis, S., Sakaguchi, K., Bonan, G. B., and Slater, A. G.: Parameterization improvements and functional and structural advances in Version 4 of the Community Land Model, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 3, 1–27, 2011.
Liang, L., Schwartz, M. D., and Fei, S.: Validating satellite phenology through intensive ground observation and landscape scaling in a mixed seasonal forest, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 143–157, 2011.
Medvigy, D., Wofsy, S. C., Munger, J. W., Hollinger, D. Y., and Moorcroft, P. R.: Mechanistic scaling of ecosystem function and dynamics in space and time: Ecosystem Demography model version 2, J. Geophys. Res., 114, G01002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JG000812, 2009.
Menzel, A.: Trends in phenological phases in Europe between 1951 and 1996, Int. J. Biometeorol., 44, 76–81, 2000.
Morin, X., Roy, J., Sonié, L., and Chuine, I.: Changes in leaf phenology of three European oak species in response to experimental climate change., New Phytol., 186, 900–10, 2010.
Morisette, J. T., Richardson, A. D., Knapp, A. K., Fisher, J. I., Graham, E. a, Abatzoglou, J., Wilson, B. E., Breshears, D. D., Henebry, G. M., Hanes, J. M., and Liang, L.: Tracking the rhythm of the seasons in the face of global change: phenological research in the 21st century, Front. Ecol. Environ., 7, 253–260, 2009.
Norby, R. J., Hartz-Rubin, J. S., and Verbrugge, M. J.: Phenological responses in maple to experimental atmospheric warming and CO2 enrichment, Glob. Chang. Biol., 9, 1792–1801, 2003.
Richards, F. J.: A Flexible Growth Function for Empirical Use, J. Exp. Bot., 10, 290–301, 1959.
Richardson, A. D., Bailey, A. S., Denny, E. G., Martin, C. W., and O'Keefe, J.: Phenology of a northern hardwood forest canopy, Glob. Chang. Biol., 12, 1174–1188, 2006.
Richardson, A. D., Jenkins, J. P., Braswell, B. H., Hollinger, D. Y., Ollinger, S. V., and Smith, M.-L.: Use of digital webcam images to track spring green-up in a deciduous broadleaf forest, Oecologia, 152, 323–334, 2007.
Richardson, A. D., Braswell, B. H., Hollinger, D. Y., Jenkins, J. P., and Ollinger, S. V: Near-surface remote sensing of spatial and temporal variation in canopy phenology, Ecol. Appl., 19, 1417–1428, 2009.
Richardson, A. D., Anderson, R. S., Arain, M. A., Barr, A. G., Bohrer, G., Chen, G., Chen, J. M., Ciais, P., Davis, K. J., Desai, A. R., Dietze, M. C., Dragoni, D., Garrity, S. R., Gough, C. M., Grant, R., Hollinger, D. Y., Margolis, H. a., McCaughey, H., Migliavacca, M., Monson, R. K., Munger, J. W., Poulter, B., Raczka, B. M., Ricciuto, D. M., Sahoo, A. K., Schaefer, K., Tian, H., Vargas, R., Verbeeck, H., Xiao, J., and Xue, Y.: Terrestrial biosphere models need better representation of vegetation phenology: results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis, Glob. Chang. Biol., 18, 566–584, 2012.
Richardson, A. D., Keenan, T. F., Migliavacca, M., Ryu, Y., Sonnentag, O., and Toomey, M.: Climate change, phenology, and phenological control of vegetation feedbacks to the climate system, Agric. For. Meteorol., 169, 156–173, 2013a.
Richardson, A. D., Klosterman, S., and Toomey, M.: Near-surface sensor derived phenology, in Phenology: An Integrative Environmental Science, edited by: Schwartz, M. D., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2013b.
Rouse, J., Haas, R., Schell, J., and Deering, D.: Monitoring vegetation systems in the great plains with ERTS, in Third ERTS symposium, 1, 309–317, NASA SP-351., 1973.
Schaaf, C. B., Gao, F., Strahler, A. H., Lucht, W., Li, X., Tsang, T., Strugnell, N. C., Zhang, X., Jin, Y., Muller, J.-P., Lewis, P., Barnsley, M., Hobson, P., Disney, M., Roberts, G., Dunderdale, M., Doll, C., d'Entremont, R. P., Hu, B., Liang, S., Privette, J. L., and Roy, D.: First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 135–148, 2002.
Schaaf, C. B., Liu, J., Gao, F., and Strahler, A. H.: Aqua and Terra MODIS Albedo and Reflectance Anisotropy Products, in: Land Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change, edited by: Ramachandran, B., Justice, C. O., and Abrams, M. J., Springer New York, New York, NY, 11, 549–561, 2011.
Sonnentag, O., Hufkens, K., Teshera-Sterne, C., Young, A. M., Friedl, M., Braswell, B. H., Milliman, T., O'Keefe, J., and Richardson, A. D.: Digital repeat photography for phenological research in forest ecosystems, Agric. For. Meteorol., 152, 159–177, 2012.
Soudani, K., le Maire, G., Dufrêne, E., François, C., Delpierre, N., Ulrich, E., and Cecchini, S.: Evaluation of the onset of green-up in temperate deciduous broadleaf forests derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 2643–2655, 2008.
Soudani, K., Hmimina, G., Delpierre, N., Pontailler, J.-Y., Aubinet, M., Bonal, D., Caquet, B., de Grandcourt, a., Burban, B., Flechard, C., Guyon, D., Granier, a., Gross, P., Heinesh, B., Longdoz, B., Loustau, D., Moureaux, C., Ourcival, J.-M., Rambal, S., Saint André, L., and Dufrêne, E.: Ground-based Network of NDVI measurements for tracking temporal dynamics of canopy structure and vegetation phenology in different biomes, Remote Sens. Environ., 123, 234–245, 2012.
Sparks, T. H. and Carey, P. D.: The responses of species to climate over two centuries: An analysis of the Marsham phenological record, 1736–1947, J. Ecol., 83, 321–329, 1995.
Vitasse, Y., Delzon, S., Dufrêne, E., Pontailler, J.-Y., Louvet, J.-M., Kremer, A., and Michalet, R.: Leaf phenology sensitivity to temperature in European trees: Do within-species populations exhibit similar responses?, Agric. For. Meteorol., 149, 735–744, 2009.
Vogelmann, J. E., Howard, S. M., Yang, L., Larson, C. R., Wylie, B. K., and Van Driel, N.: Completion of the 1990s National Land Cover Data Set for the Conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper Data and Ancillary Data Sources, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., 67, 650–662, 2001.
White, M. A., de Beurs, K. M., Didan, K., Inouye, D. W., Richardson, A. D., Jensen, O. P., O'Keefe, J., Zhang, G., Nemani, R. R., van Leeuwen, W. J. D., Brown, J. F., de Wit, A., Schaepman, M., Lin, X., Dettinger, M., Bailey, A. S., Kimball, J., Schwartz, M. D., Baldocchi, D. D., Lee, J. T., and Lauenroth, W. K.: Intercomparison, interpretation, and assessment of spring phenology in North America estimated from remote sensing for 1982–2006, Glob. Chang. Biol., 15, 2335–2359, 2009.
Wulder, M. A., White, J. C., Cranny, M., Hall, R. J., Luther, J. E., Beaudoin, A., Goodenough, D. G., and Dechka, J. A.: Monitoring Canada's forests. Part 1: Completion of the EOSD land cover project, Can. J. Remote Sens., 34, 549–562, 2008.
Xin, Q., Olofsson, P., Zhu, Z., Tan, B., and Woodcock, C. E.: Toward near real-time monitoring of forest disturbance by fusion of MODIS and Landsat data, Remote Sens. Environ., 135, 234–247, 2013.
Yang, X., Tang, J., and Mustard, J.: Beyond leaf color: comparing camera-based phenological metrics with leaf biochemical, biophysical and spectral properties throughout the growing season of a temperate deciduous forest, J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci., 119, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JG002460, 2014.
Zhang, X., Friedl, M. a., Schaaf, C. B., Strahler, A. H., Hodges, J. C. F., Gao, F., Reed, B. C., and Huete, A.: Monitoring vegetation phenology using MODIS, Remote Sens. Environ., 84, 471–475, 2003.