Articles | Volume 15, issue 10
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The role of diatom resting spores in pelagic–benthic coupling in the Southern Ocean
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Océanographie Microbienne (LOMIC), Observatoire Océanologique, 66650 Banyuls-sur-mer, France
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Océanographie Microbienne (LOMIC), Observatoire Océanologique, 66650 Banyuls-sur-mer, France
British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environmental Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK
British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environmental Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK
School of Environmental Sciences, 4 Brownlow Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GP, UK
School of Environmental Sciences, 4 Brownlow Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GP, UK
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Océanographie Microbienne (LOMIC), Observatoire Océanologique, 66650 Banyuls-sur-mer, France
Faroe Marine Research Institute, Box 3051, 110, Torshavn, Faroe Islands
No articles found.
Michael J. Whitehouse, Katharine R. Hendry, Geraint A. Tarling, Sally E. Thorpe, and Petra ten Hoopen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 211–224,Short summary
We present a database of Southern Ocean macronutrient, temperature and salinity measurements collected on 20 oceanographic cruises between 1980 and 2009. Vertical profiles and underway surface measurements were collected year-round as part of an integrated ecosystem study. Our data provide a novel view of biogeochemical cycling in biologically productive regions across a critical period in recent climate history and will contribute to a better understanding of the drivers of primary production.
Anna Belcher, Sian Henley, Katharine Hendry, Marianne Wootton, Lisa Friberg, Ursula Dallman, Tong Wang, and Clara Manno
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
The oceans play a crucial role in the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide, particularly the Southern Ocean. The biological pumping of carbon from the surface to the deep ocean is key to this. Using sediment trap samples from the Scotia Sea, we examine biogeochemical fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and biogenic silica, and their stable isotope compositions. We find phytoplankton community structure and physically mediated processes are important controls on particulate fluxes to the deep ocean.
Roberta Johnson, Clara Manno, and Patrizia Ziveri
Revised manuscript not accepted
Bernd Wagner, Thomas Wilke, Alexander Francke, Christian Albrecht, Henrike Baumgarten, Adele Bertini, Nathalie Combourieu-Nebout, Aleksandra Cvetkoska, Michele D'Addabbo, Timme H. Donders, Kirstin Föller, Biagio Giaccio, Andon Grazhdani, Torsten Hauffe, Jens Holtvoeth, Sebastien Joannin, Elena Jovanovska, Janna Just, Katerina Kouli, Andreas Koutsodendris, Sebastian Krastel, Jack H. Lacey, Niklas Leicher, Melanie J. Leng, Zlatko Levkov, Katja Lindhorst, Alessia Masi, Anna M. Mercuri, Sebastien Nomade, Norbert Nowaczyk, Konstantinos Panagiotopoulos, Odile Peyron, Jane M. Reed, Eleonora Regattieri, Laura Sadori, Leonardo Sagnotti, Björn Stelbrink, Roberto Sulpizio, Slavica Tofilovska, Paola Torri, Hendrik Vogel, Thomas Wagner, Friederike Wagner-Cremer, George A. Wolff, Thomas Wonik, Giovanni Zanchetta, and Xiaosen S. Zhang
Biogeosciences, 14, 2033–2054,Short summary
Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest existing lake in Europe. Moreover, it has a very high degree of endemic biodiversity. During a drilling campaign at Lake Ohrid in 2013, a 569 m long sediment sequence was recovered from Lake Ohrid. The ongoing studies of this record provide first important information on the environmental and evolutionary history of the lake and the reasons for its high endimic biodiversity.
Anna Belcher, Clara Manno, Peter Ward, Stephanie A. Henson, Richard Sanders, and Geraint A. Tarling
Biogeosciences, 14, 1511–1525,Short summary
Faecal pellets (FPs) are a dominant part of the deep ocean carbon fluxes. We compare estimates of FP production, to measurements of FPs in the meso- and bathypelagic. Despite being produced in high numbers in the surface ocean, small FPs are not transferred efficiently to depth. Changes in FP morphology point to the repacking of surface FPs in the mesopelagic and in situ production at depth, highlighting the importance of deep zooplankton communities for the transfer of carbon to the deep ocean.
Angus Atkinson, Simeon L. Hill, Evgeny A. Pakhomov, Volker Siegel, Ricardo Anadon, Sanae Chiba, Kendra L. Daly, Rod Downie, Sophie Fielding, Peter Fretwell, Laura Gerrish, Graham W. Hosie, Mark J. Jessopp, So Kawaguchi, Bjørn A. Krafft, Valerie Loeb, Jun Nishikawa, Helen J. Peat, Christian S. Reiss, Robin M. Ross, Langdon B. Quetin, Katrin Schmidt, Deborah K. Steinberg, Roshni C. Subramaniam, Geraint A. Tarling, and Peter Ward
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 193–210,Short summary
KRILLBASE is a data rescue and compilation project to improve the availability of information on two key Southern Ocean zooplankton: Antarctic krill and salps. We provide a circumpolar database that combines 15 194 scientific net hauls (1926 to 2016) from 10 countries. These data provide a resource for analysing the distribution and abundance of krill and salps throughout the Southern Ocean to support ecological and biogeochemical research as well as fisheries management and conservation.
Ivia Closset, Damien Cardinal, Mathieu Rembauville, François Thil, and Stéphane Blain
Biogeosciences, 13, 6049–6066,Short summary
Isotopic measurements were used to investigate the seasonal evolution of the silicon (Si) biogeochemical cycle in a naturally iron-fertilized area of the Southern Ocean. When comparing data from early spring and summer periods, the relationship between Si depletion, biogenic silica production, and their isotopic composition appears decoupled in this region. Considering these results, we refined the seasonal net Si production that was mainly sustained by surface phytoplankton populations.
A. J. Cavagna, F. Fripiat, M. Elskens, P. Mangion, L. Chirurgien, I. Closset, M. Lasbleiz, L. Florez-Leiva, D. Cardinal, K. Leblanc, C. Fernandez, D. Lefèvre, L. Oriol, S. Blain, B. Quéguiner, and F. Dehairs
Biogeosciences, 12, 6515–6528,Short summary
Primary production, NO3- and NH4+ uptake, and nitrification rates were measured during the KEOPS 2 cruise (austral spring 2011) in the Kerguelen Plateau area. Natural iron fertilization stimulated primary production which is much higher in the fertilized areas compared to the HNLC site. We report high rates of nitrification in the mixed layer below the euphotic zone. We conclude that high productivity in deep mixing system stimulates the N cycle by increasing both assimilation and regeneration.
F. d'Ovidio, A. Della Penna, T. W. Trull, F. Nencioli, M.-I. Pujol, M.-H. Rio, Y.-H. Park, C. Cotté, M. Zhou, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 5567–5581,Short summary
Field campaigns are instrumental in providing ground truth for understanding and modeling global ocean biogeochemical budgets. A survey however can only inspect a fraction of the global oceans, typically a region hundreds of kilometers wide for a temporal window of the order of (at most) several weeks. In this spatiotemporal domain, mesoscale variability can mask climatological contrasts. Here we propose the use of multisatellite-based Lagrangian diagnostics to solve this issue.
A. R. Bowie, P. van der Merwe, F. Quéroué, T. Trull, M. Fourquez, F. Planchon, G. Sarthou, F. Chever, A. T. Townsend, I. Obernosterer, J.-B. Sallée, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 4421–4445,Short summary
Iron biogeochemical budgets during the natural ocean fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2 showed that complex circulation and transport pathways were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic and lithogenic pools was highly dynamic, resulting in a decoupling of iron supply and carbon export and controlling the efficiency of fertilization.
F. Quéroué, G. Sarthou, H. F. Planquette, E. Bucciarelli, F. Chever, P. van der Merwe, D. Lannuzel, A. T. Townsend, M. Cheize, S. Blain, F. d'Ovidio, and A. R. Bowie
Biogeosciences, 12, 3869–3883,Short summary
Dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations were measured in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands. Direct island runoff, glacial melting, and resuspended sediments were identified as important inputs of dFe that could potentially fertilise the northern part of the plateau. Overall, heterogeneous sources of Fe over and off the plateau, in addition to strong variability in Fe supply by vertical or horizontal transport, may explain the high variability in dFe concentrations observed during this study.
M. Rembauville, I. Salter, N. Leblond, A. Gueneugues, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 3153–3170,
M. Rembauville, S. Blain, L. Armand, B. Quéguiner, and I. Salter
Biogeosciences, 12, 3171–3195,
I. Obernosterer, M. Fourquez, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1983–1992,
C. Manno, G. Stowasser, P. Enderlein, S. Fielding, and G. A. Tarling
Biogeosciences, 12, 1955–1965,Short summary
In the Scotia Sea, the zooplankton community shifting from a herbivorous to omnivorous diet strongly influences the chance of faecal pellets to reach the bottom. Faecal pellet flux was mainly a product of the vertically migrating and deeper-dwelling zooplankton in the iron-fertilized and iron-limited region respectively. The results demonstrate that the behaviour of the zooplankton community plays a critical role in controlling the quantity and quality of carbon exported in this area.
M. Fourquez, I. Obernosterer, D. M. Davies, T. W. Trull, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1893–1906,Short summary
In this manuscript, we present the results of iron uptake measured in the naturally iron-fertilized area during the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study 2 cruise (KEOPS2). Iron uptake by bulk community and several size fractions (microplankton, pico-nanoplankton and bacteria) are presented, compared and discussed in the present paper. This work also presents first investigations on the potential competition between bacteria and phytoplankton for access to iron.
V. Sanial, P. van Beek, B. Lansard, M. Souhaut, E. Kestenare, F. d'Ovidio, M. Zhou, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1415–1430,Short summary
We investigated the origin and mechanisms of the natural iron fertilization that sustains a phytoplankton bloom downstream of the Kerguelen Islands. We used radium isotopes to trace the fate of shelf waters that may transport iron and other micronutrients towards offshore waters. We show that shelf waters are rapidly transferred offshore and may be transported across the polar front (PF). The PF may thus not be a strong physical barrier for chemical elements released by the shelf sediments.
T. W. Trull, D. M. Davies, F. Dehairs, A.-J. Cavagna, M. Lasbleiz, E. C. Laurenceau-Cornec, F. d'Ovidio, F. Planchon, K. Leblanc, B. Quéguiner, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1029–1056,Short summary
The KEOPS2 oceanographic study surveyed more than 30 sites downstream from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean to examine the degree of variation in phytoplankton community responses to natural iron inputs. Our observations of community structure based on the chemical compositions of six microbial size fractions suggest that early spring trophodynamic and export responses differed between regions with persistently low levels versus punctually high levels of iron fertilisation.
E. C. Laurenceau-Cornec, T. W. Trull, D. M. Davies, S. G. Bray, J. Doran, F. Planchon, F. Carlotti, M.-P. Jouandet, A.-J. Cavagna, A. M. Waite, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1007–1027,
P. van der Merwe, A. R. Bowie, F. Quéroué, L. Armand, S. Blain, F. Chever, D. Davies, F. Dehairs, F. Planchon, G. Sarthou, A. T. Townsend, and T. W. Trull
Biogeosciences, 12, 739–755,Short summary
Trace metal analysis of suspended and settling particles and underlying sediment was undertaken to elucidate the source to sink progression of the particulate trace metal pool near Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean). Findings indicate that the Kerguelen Plateau is a source of trace metals via resuspended shelf sediments, especially below the mixed layer. However, glacial/fluvial runoff into shallow coastal waters is an important mode of fertilisation to areas downstream of Kerguelen Island.
S. Blain, J. Capparos, A. Guéneuguès, I. Obernosterer, and L. Oriol
Biogeosciences, 12, 623–635,
U. Christaki, D. Lefèvre, C. Georges, J. Colombet, P. Catala, C. Courties, T. Sime-Ngando, S. Blain, and I. Obernosterer
Biogeosciences, 11, 6739–6753,Short summary
The concurrent investigation of several parameters has provided insight into two key roles of heterotrophic bacteria, and the microbial food web functioning, at the onset and late phase of the spring phytoplankton bloom induced by natural iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean.
M. Lasbleiz, K. Leblanc, S. Blain, J. Ras, V. Cornet-Barthaux, S. Hélias Nunige, and B. Quéguiner
Biogeosciences, 11, 5931–5955,
M.-P. Jouandet, G. A. Jackson, F. Carlotti, M. Picheral, L. Stemmann, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 11, 4393–4406,
M. Zhou, Y. Zhu, F. d'Ovidio, Y.-H. Park, I. Durand, E. Kestenare, V. Sanial, P. Van-Beek, B. Queguiner, F. Carlotti, and S. Blain
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
C. Guinet, X. Xing, E. Walker, P. Monestiez, S. Marchand, B. Picard, T. Jaud, M. Authier, C. Cotté, A. C. Dragon, E. Diamond, D. Antoine, P. Lovell, S. Blain, F. D'Ortenzio, and H. Claustre
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 15–29,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Organic BiogeochemistryRecently fixed carbon fuels microbial activity several meters below the soil surfaceDistributions of bacteriohopanepolyols in lakes and coastal lagoons of the Azores ArchipelagoEnvironmental and hydrologic controls on sediment and organic carbon export from a subalpine catchment: insights from a time seriesClimate and geology overwrite land use effects on soil organic nitrogen cycling on a continental scalePotential bioavailability of pyrogenic organic matter resembles natural dissolved organic matter poolsCompositions of dissolved organic matter in the ice-covered waters above the Aurora hydrothermal vent system, Gakkel Ridge, Arctic OceanOrganic matter characteristics of a rapidly eroding permafrost cliff in NE Siberia (Lena Delta, Laptev Sea region)Microbial labilization and diversification of pyrogenic dissolved organic matterBacterial and eukaryotic intact polar lipids point to in situ production as a key source of labile organic matter in hadal surface sediment of the Atacama TrenchWhat can we learn from amino acids about oceanic organic matter cycling and degradation?Bacteriohopanetetrol-x: constraining its application as a lipid biomarker for marine anammox using the water column oxygen gradient of the Benguela upwelling systemActive and passive fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the northern South China SeaCyanobacteria net community production in the Baltic Sea as inferred from profiling pCO2 measurementsReviews and syntheses: Heterotrophic fixation of inorganic carbon – significant but invisible flux in environmental carbon cyclingRevised fractional abundances and warm-season temperatures substantially improve brGDGT calibrations in lake sedimentsArchaeal intact polar lipids in polar waters: a comparison between the Amundsen and Scotia seasReproducible determination of dissolved organic matter photosensitivityTechnical note: Uncovering the influence of methodological variations on the extractability of iron-bound organic carbonAnthropocene climate warming enhances autochthonous carbon cycling in an upland Arctic lake, Disko Island, West GreenlandNovel hydrocarbon-utilizing soil mycobacteria synthesize unique mycocerosic acids at a Sicilian everlasting fireAlkenone isotopes show evidence of active carbon concentrating mechanisms in coccolithophores as aqueous carbon dioxide concentrations fall below 7 µmol L−1Seasonal variability and sources of in situ brGDGT production in a permanently stratified African crater lakeSediment release of dissolved organic matter to the oxygen minimum zone off PeruBetter molecular preservation of organic matter in an oxic than in a sulfidic depositional environment: evidence from Thalassiphora pelagica (Dinoflagellata, Eocene) cystsAssessing branched tetraether lipids as tracers of soil organic carbon transport through the Carminowe Creek catchment (southwest England)The nonconservative distribution pattern of organic matter in the Rajang, a tropical river with peatland in its estuaryPredominance of hexamethylated 6-methyl branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in the Mariana Trench: source and environmental implicationHigh-pH and anoxic conditions during soil organic matter extraction increases its electron-exchange capacity and ability to stimulate microbial Fe(III) reduction by electron shuttlingSterol preservation in hypersaline microbial matsStructural elucidation and environmental distributions of butanetriol and pentanetriol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (BDGTs and PDGTs)Distribution and degradation of terrestrial organic matter in the sediments of peat-draining rivers, Sarawak, Malaysian BorneoValidation of carbon isotope fractionation in algal lipids as a pCO2 proxy using a natural CO2 seep (Shikine Island, Japan)Composition and cycling of dissolved organic matter from tropical peatlands of coastal Sarawak, Borneo, revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysisLatitudinal variations in δ30Si and δ15N signatures along the Peruvian shelf: quantifying the effects of nutrient utilization versus denitrification over the past 600 yearsDiapycnal dissolved organic matter supply into the upper Peruvian oxyclineComposition and vertical flux of particulate organic matter to the oxygen minimum zone of the central Baltic Sea: impact of a sporadic North Sea inflowMain drivers of transparent exopolymer particle distribution across the surface Atlantic OceanBiochemical and structural controls on the decomposition dynamics of boreal upland forest moss tissuesSpatiotemporal transformation of dissolved organic matter along an alpine stream flow path on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: importance of source and permafrost degradationA quest for the biological sources of long chain alkyl diols in the western tropical North Atlantic OceanLong-chain diols in rivers: distribution and potential biological sourcesLeaf wax n-alkanes in modern plants and topsoils from eastern Georgia (Caucasus) – implications for reconstructing regional paleovegetationCalcium content and high calcium adaptation of plants in karst areas of southwestern Hunan, ChinaSubstrate potential of last interglacial to Holocene permafrost organic matter for future microbial greenhouse gas productionVariation pattern of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in oceans and inland watersC5 glycolipids of heterocystous cyanobacteria track symbiont abundance in the diatom Hemiaulus hauckii across the tropical North AtlanticMolecular fingerprinting of particulate organic matter as a new tool for its source apportionment: changes along a headwater drainage in coarse, medium and fine particles as a function of rainfallsVariations and determinants of carbon content in plants: a global synthesisThe Holocene sedimentary record of cyanobacterial glycolipids in the Baltic Sea: an evaluation of their application as tracers of past nitrogen fixationTechnical note: An inverse method to relate organic carbon reactivity to isotope composition from serial oxidation
Andrea Scheibe, Carlos A. Sierra, and Marie Spohn
Biogeosciences, 20, 827–838,Short summary
We explored carbon cycling in soils in three climate zones in Chile down to a depth of 6 m, using carbon isotopes. Our results show that microbial activity several meters below the soil surface is mostly fueled by recently fixed carbon and that strong decomposition of soil organic matter only occurs in the upper decimeters of the soils. The study shows that different layers of the critical zone are tightly connected and that processes in the deep soil depend on recently fixed carbon.
Nora Richter, Ellen C. Hopmans, Danica Mitrović, Pedro M. Raposeiro, Vítor Gonçalves, Ana C. Costa, Linda A. Amaral-Zettler, Laura Villanueva, and Darci Rush
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are a diverse class of lipids produced by bacteria across a wide range of environments. This study characterizes the diversity of BHPs in lakes and coastal lagoons from the Azores Archipelago, as well as a co-culture enriched for methanotrophs. We highlight the potential of BHPs as taxonomic markers for bacteria associated with certain ecological niches, which can be preserved in sedimentary records.
Melissa Sophia Schwab, Hannah Gies, Chantal Valérie Freymond, Maarten Lupker, Negar Haghipour, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 19, 5591–5616,Short summary
The majority of river studies focus on headwater or floodplain systems, while often neglecting intermediate river segments. Our study on the subalpine Sihl River bridges the gap between streams and lowlands and demonstrates that moderately steep river segments are areas of significant instream alterations, modulating the export of organic carbon over short distances.
Lisa Noll, Shasha Zhang, Qing Zheng, Yuntao Hu, Florian Hofhansl, and Wolfgang Wanek
Biogeosciences, 19, 5419–5433,Short summary
Cleavage of proteins to smaller nitrogen compounds allows microorganisms and plants to exploit the largest nitrogen reservoir in soils and is considered the bottleneck in soil organic nitrogen cycling. Results from soils covering a European transect show that protein turnover is constrained by soil geochemistry, shifts in climate and associated alterations in soil weathering and should be considered as a driver of soil nitrogen availability with repercussions on carbon cycle processes.
Emily B. Graham, Hyun-Seob Song, Samantha Grieger, Vanessa Garayburu-Caruso, James Stegen, Kevin D. Bladon, and Allison Myers-Pigg
Intensifying wildfires are increasing pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) production and its impact on water quality. Recent work indicates that PyOM may have greater impact on aquatic biogeochemistry than previously assumed, driven by higher bioavailability. We provide a full assessment of the potential bioavailability of PyOM across its chemical spectrum. We indicate that PyOM can be actively transformed within the river corridor, and therefore, may be a growing source of riverine C emissions.
Muhammed Fatih Sert, Helge Niemann, Eoghan P. Reeves, Mats A. Granskog, Kevin P. Hand, Timo Kekäläinen, Janne Jänis, Pamela E. Rossel, Bénédicte Ferré, Anna Silyakova, and Friederike Gründger
Biogeosciences, 19, 2101–2120,Short summary
We investigate organic matter composition in the Arctic Ocean water column. We collected seawater samples from sea ice to deep waters at six vertical profiles near an active hydrothermal vent and its plume. In comparison to seawater, we found that the organic matter in waters directly affected by the hydrothermal plume had different chemical composition. We suggest that hydrothermal processes may influence the organic matter distribution in the deep ocean.
Charlotte Haugk, Loeka L. Jongejans, Kai Mangelsdorf, Matthias Fuchs, Olga Ogneva, Juri Palmtag, Gesine Mollenhauer, Paul J. Mann, P. Paul Overduin, Guido Grosse, Tina Sanders, Robyn E. Tuerena, Lutz Schirrmeister, Sebastian Wetterich, Alexander Kizyakov, Cornelia Karger, and Jens Strauss
Biogeosciences, 19, 2079–2094,Short summary
Buried animal and plant remains (carbon) from the last ice age were freeze-locked in permafrost. At an extremely fast eroding permafrost cliff in the Lena Delta (Siberia), we found this formerly frozen carbon well preserved. Our results show that ongoing degradation releases substantial amounts of this carbon, making it available for future carbon emissions. This mobilisation at the studied cliff and also similarly eroding sites bear the potential to affect rivers and oceans negatively.
Aleksandar I. Goranov, Andrew S. Wozniak, Kyle W. Bostick, Andrew R. Zimmerman, Siddhartha Mitra, and Patrick G. Hatcher
Biogeosciences, 19, 1491–1514,Short summary
Wildfire-derived molecules are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, but their biological fate remains understudied. We have evaluated the compositional changes that occur to wildfire-derived molecules after incubation with soil microbes. We observe a significant degradation but also a production of numerous new labile molecules. Our results indicate that wildfire-derived molecules can be broken down and the carbon and nitrogen therein can be incorporated into microbial food webs.
Edgart Flores, Sebastian I. Cantarero, Paula Ruiz-Fernández, Nadia Dildar, Matthias Zabel, Osvaldo Ulloa, and Julio Sepúlveda
Biogeosciences, 19, 1395–1420,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the chemical diversity and abundance of microbial lipids as markers of organic matter sources in the deepest points of the Atacama Trench sediments and compare them to similar lipid stocks in shallower surface sediments and in the overlying water column. We evaluate possible organic matter provenance and some potential chemical adaptations of the in situ microbial community to the extreme conditions of high hydrostatic pressure in hadal realm.
Birgit Gaye, Niko Lahajnar, Natalie Harms, Sophie Anna Luise Paul, Tim Rixen, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 19, 807–830,Short summary
Amino acids were analyzed in a large number of samples of particulate and dissolved organic matter from coastal regions and the open ocean. A statistical analysis produced two new biogeochemical indicators. An indicator of sinking particle and sediment degradation (SDI) traces the degradation of organic matter from the surface waters into the sediments. A second indicator shows the residence time of suspended matter in the ocean (RTI).
Zoë R. van Kemenade, Laura Villanueva, Ellen C. Hopmans, Peter Kraal, Harry J. Witte, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Darci Rush
Biogeosciences, 19, 201–221,Short summary
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an important nitrogen-removal process in the ocean. We assess the distribution of bacteriohopanetetrol-x (BHT-x), used to trace past anammox, along a redox gradient in the water column of the Benguela upwelling system. BHT-x / BHT ratios of >0.18 correspond to the presence of living anammox bacteria and oxygen levels <50 μmol L−1. This allows for a more robust application of BHT-x to trace past marine anammox and deoxygenation in dynamic marine systems.
Jia-Jang Hung, Ching-Han Tung, Zong-Ying Lin, Yuh-ling Lee Chen, Shao-Hung Peng, Yen-Huei Lin, and Li-Shan Tsai
Biogeosciences, 18, 5141–5162,Short summary
We report measured active and passive fluxes and their controlling mechanisms in the northern South China Sea (NSCS). The total fluxes were higher than most reports in open oceans, indicating the significance of NSCS in atmospheric CO2 uptake and in storing that CO2 in the ocean’s interior. Winter cooling and extreme events enhanced nutrient availability and elevated fluxes. Global warming may have profound impacts on reducing ocean’s uptake and storage of CO2 in subtropical–tropical oceans.
Jens Daniel Müller, Bernd Schneider, Ulf Gräwe, Peer Fietzek, Marcus Bo Wallin, Anna Rutgersson, Norbert Wasmund, Siegfried Krüger, and Gregor Rehder
Biogeosciences, 18, 4889–4917,Short summary
Based on profiling pCO2 measurements from a field campaign, we quantify the biomass production of a cyanobacteria bloom in the Baltic Sea, the export of which would foster deep water deoxygenation. We further demonstrate how this biomass production can be accurately reconstructed from long-term surface measurements made on cargo vessels in combination with modelled temperature profiles. This approach enables a better understanding of a severe concern for the Baltic’s good environmental status.
Alexander Braun, Marina Spona-Friedl, Maria Avramov, Martin Elsner, Federico Baltar, Thomas Reinthaler, Gerhard J. Herndl, and Christian Griebler
Biogeosciences, 18, 3689–3700,Short summary
It is known that CO2 fixation by photoautotrophic organisms is the major sink from the atmosphere. While biologists are aware that CO2 fixation also occurs in heterotrophic organisms, this route of inorganic carbon, and its quantitative role, is hardly recognized in biogeochemistry. We demonstrate that a considerable amount of CO2 is fixed annually through anaplerotic reactions in heterotrophic organisms, and a significant quantity of inorganic carbon is temporally sequestered in biomass.
Jonathan H. Raberg, David J. Harning, Sarah E. Crump, Greg de Wet, Aria Blumm, Sebastian Kopf, Áslaug Geirsdóttir, Gifford H. Miller, and Julio Sepúlveda
Biogeosciences, 18, 3579–3603,Short summary
BrGDGT lipids are a proxy for temperature in lake sediments, but other parameters like pH can influence them, and seasonality can affect the temperatures they record. We find a warm-season bias at 43 new high-latitude sites. We also present a new method that deconvolves the effects of temperature, pH, and conductivity and generate global calibrations for these variables. Our study provides new paleoclimate tools, insight into brGDGTs at the biochemical level, and a new method for future study.
Charlotte L. Spencer-Jones, Erin L. McClymont, Nicole J. Bale, Ellen C. Hopmans, Stefan Schouten, Juliane Müller, E. Povl Abrahamsen, Claire Allen, Torsten Bickert, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Elaine Mawbey, Victoria Peck, Aleksandra Svalova, and James A. Smith
Biogeosciences, 18, 3485–3504,Short summary
Long-term ocean temperature records are needed to fully understand the impact of West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are powerful tools for reconstructing ocean temperature but can be difficult to apply to the Southern Ocean. Our results show active GDGT synthesis in relatively warm depths of the ocean. This research improves the application of GDGT palaeoceanographic proxies in the Southern Ocean.
Alec W. Armstrong, Leanne Powers, and Michael Gonsior
Biogeosciences, 18, 3367–3390,Short summary
Living things decay into organic matter, which can dissolve into water (like tea brewing). Tea receives its color by absorbing light. Similarly, this material absorbs light, which can then cause chemical reactions that change it. By measuring changes in these optical properties, we found that materials from some places are more sensitive to light than others. Comparing sensitivity to light helps us understand where these materials come from and what happens as they move through water.
Ben J. Fisher, Johan C. Faust, Oliver W. Moore, Caroline L. Peacock, and Christian März
Biogeosciences, 18, 3409–3419,Short summary
Organic carbon can be protected from microbial degradation in marine sediments through association with iron minerals on 1000-year timescales. Despite the importance of this carbon sink, our spatial and temporal understanding of iron-bound organic carbon interactions globally is poor. Here we show that caution must be applied when comparing quantification of iron-bound organic carbon extracted by different methods as the extraction strength and method specificity can be highly variable.
Mark A. Stevenson, Suzanne McGowan, Emma J. Pearson, George E. A. Swann, Melanie J. Leng, Vivienne J. Jones, Joseph J. Bailey, Xianyu Huang, and Erika Whiteford
Biogeosciences, 18, 2465–2485,Short summary
We link detailed stable isotope and biomarker analyses from the catchments of three Arctic upland lakes on Disko Island (West Greenland) to a recent dated sediment core to understand how carbon cycling has changed over the past ~500 years. We find that the carbon deposited in sediments in these upland lakes is predominately sourced from in-lake production due to the catchment's limited terrestrial vegetation and elevation and that recent increases in algal production link with climate change.
Nadine T. Smit, Laura Villanueva, Darci Rush, Fausto Grassa, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Mira Holzheimer, Adriaan J. Minnaard, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 18, 1463–1479,Short summary
Soils from an everlasting fire (gas seep) in Sicily, Italy, reveal high relative abundances of novel uncultivated mycobacteria and unique 13C-depleted mycocerosic acids (multi-methyl branched fatty acids) close to the main gas seep. Our results imply that mycocerosic acids in combination with their depleted δ13C values offer a new biomarker tool to study the role of soil mycobacteria as hydrocarbon consumers in the modern and past global carbon cycle.
Marcus P. S. Badger
Biogeosciences, 18, 1149–1160,Short summary
Reconstructing ancient atmospheric CO2 is an important aim of palaeoclimate science in order to understand the Earth's climate system. One method, the alkenone proxy based on molecular fossils of coccolithophores, has been recently shown to be ineffective at low-to-moderate CO2 levels. In this paper I show that this is likely due to changes in the biogeochemistry of the coccolithophores when there is low carbon availability, but for much of the Cenozoic the alkenone proxy should have utility.
Loes G. J. van Bree, Francien Peterse, Allix J. Baxter, Wannes De Crop, Sigrid van Grinsven, Laura Villanueva, Dirk Verschuren, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 17, 5443–5463,Short summary
Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are used as a paleothermometer based on their temperature dependence in global soils, but aquatic production complicates their use in lakes. BrGDGTs in the water column of Lake Chala, East Africa, respond to oxygen conditions and mixing. Changes in their signal can be linked to bacterial community composition rather than membrane adaptation to changing conditions. Their integrated signal in the sediment reflects mean air temperature.
Alexandra N. Loginova, Andrew W. Dale, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Sören Thomsen, Stefan Sommer, David Clemens, Klaus Wallmann, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 17, 4663–4679,Short summary
We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON) and matter (DOM) optical properties in pore waters and near-bottom waters of the eastern tropical South Pacific off Peru. The difference between diffusion-driven and net fluxes of DOC and DON and qualitative changes in DOM optical properties suggested active microbial utilisation of the released DOM at the sediment–water interface. Our results suggest that the sediment release of DOM contributes to microbial processes in the area.
Gerard J. M. Versteegh, Alexander J. P. Houben, and Karin A. F. Zonneveld
Biogeosciences, 17, 3545–3561,Short summary
Anoxic sediments mostly contain much more organic matter than oxic ones, and therefore organic matter in anoxic settings is often considered to be preserved better than in oxic settings. However, through the analysis of the same fossil dinoflagellate cyst species from both oxic and anoxic settings, we show that at a molecular level the preservation in the oxic sediments may be better since in the anoxic setting the cyst macromolecule has been altered by postdepositional modification.
Jingjing Guo, Miriam Glendell, Jeroen Meersmans, Frédérique Kirkels, Jack J. Middelburg, and Francien Peterse
Biogeosciences, 17, 3183–3201,Short summary
The fluxes of soil organic carbon (OC) transport from land to sea are poorly constrained, mostly due to the lack of a specific tracer for soil OC. Here we evaluate the use of specific molecules derived from soil bacteria as a tracer for soil OC in a small river catchment. We find that the initial soil signal is lost upon entering the aquatic environment. However, the local environmental history of the catchment is reflected by these molecules in the lake sediments that act as their sink.
Zhuo-Yi Zhu, Joanne Oakes, Bradley Eyre, Youyou Hao, Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Shan Jiang, Moritz Müller, and Jing Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 2473–2485,Short summary
Samples were collected in August 2016 in the Rajang River and its estuary, with tropical forest in the river basin and peatland in the estuary. Organic matter composition was influenced by transportation in the river basin, whereas peatland added clear biodegraded parts to the fluvial organic matter, which implies modification of the initial lability and/or starting points in the subsequent degradation and alternation processes after the organic matter enters the sea.
Wenjie Xiao, Yasong Wang, Yongsheng Liu, Xi Zhang, Linlin Shi, and Yunping Xu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2135–2148,Short summary
The hadal zone (6–11 km depth) is the least explored habitat on Earth. We studied microbial branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench. One unique feature is the strong predominance of 6-methyl brGDGT, which likely reflects an adaption of brGDGT-producing bacteria to alkaline seawater and low temperature. BrGDGTs, with elemental and isotopic data, suggest an autochthonous product for brGDGT. A new approach is proposed for brGDGT sourcing.
Yuge Bai, Edisson Subdiaga, Stefan B. Haderlein, Heike Knicker, and Andreas Kappler
Biogeosciences, 17, 683–698,Short summary
Biogeochemical processes of SOM are key for greenhouse gas emission and water quality. We extracted SOM by water or by NaOH–HCl under oxic–anoxic conditions. Chemical and anoxic extractions lead to higher SOM electron exchange capacities, resulting in stimulation of microbial Fe(III) reduction. Therefore, aqueous pH-neutral SOM extracts should be used to reflect environmental SOM redox processes, and artifacts of chemical extractions need to be considered when evaluating SOM redox processes.
Yan Shen, Volker Thiel, Pablo Suarez-Gonzalez, Sebastiaan W. Rampen, and Joachim Reitner
Biogeosciences, 17, 649–666,Short summary
Today, sterols are widespread in plants, animals, and fungi but are almost absent in the oldest rocks. Microbial mats, representing the earliest complex ecosystems on Earth, were omnipresent in Precambrian marine environments and may have degraded the sterols at that time. Here we analyze the distribution of sterols through a microbial mat. This provides insight into how variations in biological and nonbiological factors affect the preservation of sterols in modern and ancient microbial mats.
Sarah Coffinet, Travis B. Meador, Lukas Mühlena, Kevin W. Becker, Jan Schröder, Qing-Zeng Zhu, Julius S. Lipp, Verena B. Heuer, Matthew P. Crump, and Kai-Uwe Hinrichs
Biogeosciences, 17, 317–330,Short summary
This study deals with two membrane lipids called BDGTs and PDGTs. Membrane lipids are molecules forming the cell envelope of all organisms. Different organisms produce different lipids thus they can be used to detect the presence of specific organisms in the environment. We analyzed the structure of these new lipids and looked for potential producers. We found that they are likely made by microbes emitting methane below the sediment surface and could be used to track these specific microbes.
Ying Wu, Kun Zhu, Jing Zhang, Moritz Müller, Shan Jiang, Aazani Mujahid, Mohd Fakharuddin Muhamad, and Edwin Sien Aun Sia
Biogeosciences, 16, 4517–4533,Short summary
Our understanding of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) in tropical peat-draining rivers remains limited, especially in Southeast Asia. We explored the characteristics of TOM via bulk parameters and lignin phenols of sediment in Malaysia. This showed that the most important plant source of the organic matter in these rivers is woody angiosperm C3 plants with limited diagenetic alteration. This slower degradation of TOM may be a link to higher total nitrogen content, especially for the small river.
Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Sylvain Agostini, Ben P. Harvey, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 16, 4451–4461,Short summary
Carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2) in the atmosphere play an integral role in Earth system dynamics, especially climate. Past climates help us understand future ones, but reconstructing pCO2 over the geologic record remains a challenge. This research demonstrates new approaches for exploring past pCO2 via the carbon isotope fractionation in general algal lipids, which we test over a high CO2 gradient from a naturally occurring CO2 seep.
Yongli Zhou, Patrick Martin, and Moritz Müller
Biogeosciences, 16, 2733–2749,Short summary
We found that peatlands in coastal Sarawak, Borneo, export extremely humified organic matter, which dominates the riverine organic matter pool and conservatively mixes with seawater, while the freshly produced fraction is low and stable in concentration at all salinities. We estimated that terrigenous fractions, which showed high photolability, still account for 20 % of the coastal dissolved organic carbon pool, implying the importance of peat-derived organic matter in the coastal carbon cycle.
Kristin Doering, Claudia Ehlert, Philippe Martinez, Martin Frank, and Ralph Schneider
Biogeosciences, 16, 2163–2180,
Alexandra N. Loginova, Sören Thomsen, Marcus Dengler, Jan Lüdke, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 16, 2033–2047,Short summary
High primary production in the Peruvian upwelling system is followed by rapid heterotrophic utilization of organic matter and supports the formation of one of the most intense oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world. Here, we estimated vertical fluxes of oxygen and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the surface to the OMZ. Our results suggest that DOM remineralization substantially reduces oxygen concentration in the upper water column and controls the shape of the upper oxycline.
Carolina Cisternas-Novoa, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 16, 927–947,Short summary
We investigate the composition and vertical fluxes of POM in two deep basins of the Baltic Sea (GB: Gotland Basin and LD: Landsort Deep). The two basins showed different O2 regimes resulting from the intrusion of oxygen-rich water from the North Sea that ventilated the deep waters in GB, but not in LD. In GB, O2 intrusions lead to a high abundance of manganese oxides that aggregate with POM, altering its composition and vertical flux and contributing to a higher POC transfer efficiency in GB.
Marina Zamanillo, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Sdena Nunes, Pablo Rodríguez-Ros, Manuel Dall'Osto, Marta Estrada, Maria Montserrat Sala, and Rafel Simó
Biogeosciences, 16, 733–749,Short summary
Many marine microorganisms produce polysaccharide-rich transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs) for rather unknown reasons but with important consequences for the ocean carbon cycle, sea–air gas exchange and formation of organic aerosols. Here we compare surface–ocean distributions of TEPs and physical, chemical and biological variables along a N–S transect in the Atlantic Ocean. Our data suggest that phytoplankton and not bacteria are the main TEP producers, and solar radiation acts as a sink.
Michael Philben, Sara Butler, Sharon A. Billings, Ronald Benner, Kate A. Edwards, and Susan E. Ziegler
Biogeosciences, 15, 6731–6746,Short summary
We explored the relationship between chemical composition and the temperature sensitivity of moss decomposition using 959-day lab incubations. Mass loss was low despite the predominance of carbohydrates, indicating the persistence of labile C. Scanning electron microscopy revealed little change in the moss cell-wall structure. These results suggest that the moss cell-wall matrix protects labile C from decomposition, contributing to the globally important stocks of moss-derived C.
Yinghui Wang, Robert G. M. Spencer, David C. Podgorski, Anne M. Kellerman, Harunur Rashid, Phoebe Zito, Wenjie Xiao, Dandan Wei, Yuanhe Yang, and Yunping Xu
Biogeosciences, 15, 6637–6648,Short summary
With global warming, thawing of permafrost releases dissolved organic matter (DOM) into streams. By analyzing DOM along an alpine stream on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, we found DOM was mainly from the active layer, but with deepening of the active layer, the contribution of the deep permafrost layer increased, causing a change in the chemical composition of DOM. From the head- to downstream, DOM is undergoing rapid degradation, but some components are persistent and can be transported downstream.
Sergio Balzano, Julie Lattaud, Laura Villanueva, Sebastiaan W. Rampen, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Judith van Bleijswijk, Nicole Bale, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 5951–5968,Short summary
We tried to identify the microbes which biosynthesize a class of lipids widespread in seawater, the long chain alkyl diols (LCDs). We could not find any microorganism likely involved in the production of LCDs. The amounts of LCDs found are too high to be produced by living organisms and are likely to be part of the refractory organic matter persisting for long periods in the water column.
Julie Lattaud, Frédérique Kirkels, Francien Peterse, Chantal V. Freymond, Timothy I. Eglinton, Jens Hefter, Gesine Mollenhauer, Sergio Balzano, Laura Villanueva, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Ellen C. Hopmans, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 4147–4161,Short summary
Long-chain diols (LCDs) are biomarkers that occur widespread in marine environments and also in lakes and rivers. In this study, we looked at the distribution of LCDs in three river systems (Godavari, Danube, and Rhine) in relation to season, precipitation, and temperature. We found out that the LCDs are likely being produced in calm areas of the river systems and that marine LCDs have a different distribution than riverine LCDs.
Marcel Bliedtner, Imke K. Schäfer, Roland Zech, and Hans von Suchodoletz
Biogeosciences, 15, 3927–3936,Short summary
In this study, we systematically analyze leaf wax derived n-alkane patterns in eastern Georgia to test their potential for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the semi-humid to semi-arid central southern Caucasus region. We investigated the influence of vegetation types on the leaf wax signal in modern plants and topsoil material. Our results show distinct and systematic differences in the n-alkane patterns between vegetation types and prove their potential for vegetation reconstructions.
Xiaocong Wei, Xiangwen Deng, Wenhua Xiang, Pifeng Lei, Shuai Ouyang, Hongfang Wen, and Liang Chen
Biogeosciences, 15, 2991–3002,Short summary
Karst is a kind of typical calcium-rich environment, which is widely distributed. We measured the Ca2+ content of 41 plant species, as well as soil total Ca2+ and exchange Ca2+. We found out that different plants have different ways to high Ca2+ adaptation. According to the different high Ca2+ adaptation of the 17 dominant species, we divided them into 3 categories: Ca-indifferent plants, high-Ca plants and low-Ca plants. Our results can provide a theoretical basis for vegetation restoration.
Janina G. Stapel, Georg Schwamborn, Lutz Schirrmeister, Brian Horsfield, and Kai Mangelsdorf
Biogeosciences, 15, 1969–1985,Short summary
Climate warming in the Arctic results in thawing of permafrost deposits. This promotes the accessibility of freeze-locked old organic matter (OM) accumulated during the past. Characterizing OM of different depositional ages, we were able to show that OM from last glacial Yedoma deposits possess the highest potential to provide organic substrates such as acetate for microbial greenhouse gas production and therefore to accelerate the carbon–climate feedback cycle during ongoing global warming.
Changchun Huang, Quanliang Jiang, Ling Yao, Hao Yang, Chen Lin, Tao Huang, A-Xing Zhu, and Yimin Zhang
Biogeosciences, 15, 1827–1841,Short summary
The latitudinal dependency of POC / PON in ocean and inland water is significant, regulated by trophic state and climate, etc. factors. POC / PON significantly increased from coastal water (6.89 ± 2.38) to open ocean (7.59 ± 4.22) with the increasing rate of 0.0024 / km. The re-examination of the global relationship between, and variations in, POC and PON could be important for the global and regional coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ocean and freshwater.
Nicole J. Bale, Tracy A. Villareal, Ellen C. Hopmans, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Marc Besseling, Denise Dorhout, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 1229–1241,Short summary
Associations between diatoms and N-fixing cyanobacteria (diatom–diazotroph associations, DDAs) play an important role in the N cycle of the tropical North Atlantic. Heterocysts are the site of N fixation and contain unique glycolipids. We measured these glycolipids in the water column and surface sediment from the tropical North Atlantic. We found a significant correlation between the concentration of glycolipid and of DDAs, strengthening their application as biomarkers.
Laurent Jeanneau, Richard Rowland, and Shreeram Inamdar
Biogeosciences, 15, 973–985,Short summary
The source of particulate organic matter in headwaters during storm events remains an open question. We use the molecular composition of organic matter sampled during four spring–summer storms and compare it to potential sources. We identify litter, streambed and vicinal soils as the main sources of particulate organic matter. Their proportions depend on (i) the size of the catchment and (ii) the rain event.
Suhui Ma, Feng He, Di Tian, Dongting Zou, Zhengbing Yan, Yulong Yang, Tiancheng Zhou, Kaiyue Huang, Haihua Shen, and Jingyun Fang
Biogeosciences, 15, 693–702,Short summary
Plant carbon (C) content is critical to the assessment of the global C cycle. Our results showed that the global average C contents in organs were significantly lower than a canonical value of 50 %. Plant C content tended to decrease with increasing latitude, and life form explained more variation than climate. Our findings suggest that specific C content values of different organs and life forms should be incorporated into the estimations of regional and global vegetation biomass C stocks.
Martina Sollai, Ellen C. Hopmans, Nicole J. Bale, Anchelique Mets, Lisa Warden, Matthias Moros, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 14, 5789–5804,Short summary
The Baltic Sea is characterized by recurring summer phytoplankton blooms, dominated by a few cyanobacterial species. These bacteria are able to use dinitrogen gas as the source for nitrogen and produce very specific lipids. We analyzed these lipids in a sediment core to study their presence over the past 7000 years. This reveals that cyanobacterial blooms have not only occurred in the last decades but were common at times when the Baltic was connected to the North Sea.
Jordon D. Hemingway, Daniel H. Rothman, Sarah Z. Rosengard, and Valier V. Galy
Biogeosciences, 14, 5099–5114,Short summary
The balance between organic matter (OM) fixation and decay is a major control on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Understanding the environmental, chemical, and physical mechanisms that control the distribution of OM decay rates is therefore critical for constraining the global carbon cycle. In this manuscript, we derive a method to relate OM reactivity to its isotope composition using a kinetic model and provide a novel framework to discern the controls on OM decay rates.
Armand, L. K., Cornet-Barthaux, V., Mosseri, J., and Quéguiner, B.: Late summer diatom biomass and community structure on and around the naturally iron-fertilised Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 653–676, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.12.031, 2008.
Assmy, P., Smetacek, V., Montresor, M., Klaas, C., Henjes, J., Strass, V. H., Arrieta, J. M., Bathmann, U., Berg, G. M., Breitbarth, E., Cisewski, B., Friedrichs, L., Fuchs, N., Herndl, G. J., Jansen, S., Krägefsky, S., Latasa, M., Peeken, I., Röttgers, R., Scharek, R., Schüller, S. E., Steigenberger, S., Webb, A., and Wolf-Gladrow, D.: Thick-shelled, grazer-protected diatoms decouple ocean carbon and silicon cycles in the iron-limited Antarctic Circumpolar Current, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 20633–20638, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1309345110, 2013.
Baker, B. J. and Kerr, R. G.: Biosynthesis of marine sterols, in: Marine Natural Products – Diversity and Biosynthesis, edited by: Scheuer, P. P. J., Topics in Current Chemistry, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 1–31, 1993.
Berger, W. H.: Sedimentation of planktonic foraminifera, Mar. Geol., 11, 325–358, https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(71)90035-1, 1971.
Billett, D. S. M., Lampitt, R. S., Rice, A. L., and Mantoura, R. F. C.: Seasonal sedimentation of phytoplankton to the deep-sea benthos, Nature, 302, 520–522, https://doi.org/10.1038/302520a0, 1983.
Billett, D. S. M., Bett, B. J., Rice, A. L., Thurston, M. H., Galéron, J., Sibuet, M., and Wolff, G. A.: Long-term change in the megabenthos of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic), High resolution temporal and spatial study of the benthic biology and geochemistry of a North-Eastern Atlantic abyssal locality (BENGAL), Prog. Oceanogr., 50, 325–348, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00060-X, 2001.
Blain, S., Quéguiner, B., Armand, L., Belviso, S., Bombled, B., Bopp, L., Bowie, A., Brunet, C., Brussaard, C., Carlotti, F., Christaki, U., Corbière, A., Durand, I., Ebersbach, F., Fuda, J.-L., Garcia, N., Gerringa, L., Griffiths, B., Guigue, C., Guillerm, C., Jacquet, S., Jeandel, C., Laan, P., Lefèvre, D., Lo Monaco, C., Malits, A., Mosseri, J., Obernosterer, I., Park, Y.-H., Picheral, M., Pondaven, P., Remenyi, T., Sandroni, V., Sarthou, G., Savoye, N., Scouarnec, L., Souhaut, M., Thuiller, D., Timmermans, K., Trull, T., Uitz, J., van Beek, P., Veldhuis, M., Vincent, D., Viollier, E., Vong, L., and Wagener, T.: Effect of natural iron fertilization on carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean, Nature, 446, 1070–1074, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05700, 2007.
Blain, S., Sarthou, G., and Laan, P.: Distribution of dissolved iron during the natural iron-fertilization experiment KEOPS (Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Ocean), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 594–605, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.12.028, 2008.
Bowie, A. R., van der Merwe, P., Quéroué, F., Trull, T., Fourquez, M., Planchon, F., Sarthou, G., Chever, F., Townsend, A. T., Obernosterer, I., Sallëe, J.-B., and Blain, S.: Iron budgets for three distinct biogeochemical sites around the Kerguelen Archipelago (Southern Ocean) during the natural fertilisation study, KEOPS-2, Biogeosciences, 12, 4421–4445, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-4421-2015, 2015.
Boyd, P. and Newton, P.: Evidence of the potential influence of planktonic community structure on the interannual variability of particulate organic carbon flux, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 42, 619–639, https://doi.org/10.1016/0967-0637(95)00017-Z, 1995.
Boyd, P. W. and Trull, T. W.: Understanding the export of biogenic particles in oceanic waters: Is there consensus?, Prog. Oceanogr., 72, 276–312, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2006.10.007, 2007.
Bradshaw, S. A. and Eglinton, G.: Marine Invertebrate Feeding and the Sedimentary Lipid Record, in: Organic Geochemistry, Topics in Geobiology, edited by: Engel, M. H. and Macko, S. A., Springer, USA, 225–235, 1993.
Brandt, A., Gooday, A. J., Brandão, S. N., Brix, S., Brökeland, W., Cedhagen, T., Choudhury, M., Cornelius, N., Danis, B., De Mesel, I., Diaz, R. J., Gillan, D. C., Ebbe, B., Howe, J. A., Janussen, D., Kaiser, S., Linse, K., Malyutina, M., Pawlowski, J., Raupach, M., and Vanreusel, A.: First insights into the biodiversity and biogeography of the Southern Ocean deep sea, Nature, 447, 307–311, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05827, 2007.
Budge, S. M. and Parrish, C. C.: Lipid biogeochemistry of plankton, settling matter and sediments in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. II. Fatty acids, Org. Geochem., 29, 1547–1559, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(98)00177-6, 1998.
Buesseler, K., Bacon, M. P., Cochran, J. K., and Livingston, H. D.: Carbon and nitrogen export during the JGOFS North Atlantic bloom experiment estimated from 234Th:238U disequilibria, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 39, 1115–1137, 1992.
Buesseler, K. O., Steinberg, D. K., Michaels, A. F., Johnson, R. J., Andrews, J. E., Valdes, J. R., and Price, J. F.: A comparison of the quantity and composition of material caught in a neutrally buoyant versus surface-tethered sediment trap, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 47, 277–294, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(99)00056-4, 2000.
Chen, Y.-C.: The biomass and total lipid content and composition of twelve species of marine diatoms cultured under various environments, Food Chem., 131, 211–219, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.062, 2012.
Crosta, X., Pichon, J.-J., and Labracherie, M.: Distribution of Chaetoceros resting spores in modern peri-Antarctic sediments, Mar. Micropaleontol., 29, 283–299, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8398(96)00033-3, 1997.
de Baar, H. J. W., Buma, A. G. J., Nolting, R. F., Cadée, G. C., Jacques, G., and Tréguer, P.: On iron limitation of the Southern Ocean: experimental observations in the Weddell and Scotia Seas, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 65, 105–122, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps065105, 1990.
Doucette, G. J. and Fryxell, G. A.: Thalassiosira antarctica: vegetative and resting stage chemical composition of an ice-related marine diatom, Mar. Biol., 78, 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00392964, 1983.
Dufourc, E. J.: Sterols and membrane dynamics, J. Chem. Biol., 1, 63–77, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12154-008-0010-6, 2008.
Dunstan, G. A., Volkman, J. K., Barrett, S. M., Leroi, J.-M., and Jeffrey, S. W.: Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids from 14 species of diatom (Bacillariophyceae), Phytochemistry, 35, 155–161, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90525-9, 1993.
Emerson, S.: Annual net community production and the biological carbon flux in the ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 28, 2013GB004680, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GB004680, 2014.
Emerson, S., Quay, P., Karl, D., Winn, C., Tupas, L., and Landy, M.: Experimental determination of the organic carbon flux from open-ocean surface waters, Nature, 359, 951–954, https://doi.org/10.1038/40111, 1997.
Eppley, R. W. and Peterson, B. J.: Particulate organic matter flux and new production in the deep ocean, Nature, 282, 677–680, https://doi.org/10.1038/282677a0, 1979.
French, F. W. and Hargraves, P. E.: Spore Formation in the Life Cycles of the Diatoms Chaetoceros Diadema and Leptocylindrus Danicus, J. Phycol., 21, 477–483, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.1985.00477.x, 1985.
Galeron, J., Sibuet, M., Vanreusel, A., Mackenzie, K. L., Gooday, A. J., Dinet, A., and Wolff, G. A.: Temporal patterns among meiofauna and macrofauna taxa related to changes in sediment geochemistry at an abyssal NE Atlantic site, Prog. Oceanogr., 50, 303–324, 2001.
Goad, L. J.: Sterol biosynthesis and metabolism in marine invertebrates, Pure Appl. Chem., 53, 837–852, https://doi.org/10.1351/pac198153040837, 1981.
Graf, G.: Benthic-pelagic coupling in a deep-sea benthic community, Nature, 341, 437–439, 1989.
Guidi, L., Chaffron, S., Bittner, L., Eveillard, D., Larhlimi, A., Roux, S., Darzi, Y., Audic, S., Berline, L., Brum, J., Coelho, L. P., Espinoza, J. C. I., Malviya, S., Sunagawa, S., Dimier, C., Kandels-Lewis, S., Picheral, M., Poulain, J., Searson, S., Tara Oceans Consortium Coordinators, Stemmann, L., Not, F., Hingamp, P., Speich, S., Follows, M., Karp-Boss, L., Boss, E., Ogata, H., Pesant, S., Weissenbach, J., Wincker, P., Acinas, S. G., Bork, P., de Vargas, C., Iudicone, D., Sullivan, M. B., Raes, J., Karsenti, E., Bowler, C., and Gorsky, G.: Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean, Nature, published online first, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16942, 2016.
Harland, R. and Pudsey, C. J.: Dinoflagellate cysts from sediment traps deployed in the Bellingshausen, Weddell and Scotia seas, Antarctica, Mar. Micropaleontol., 37, 77–99, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8398(99)00016-X, 1999.
Honjo, S.: Coccoliths: Production, transportation and sedimentation, Mar. Micropaleontol., 1, 65–79, https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8398(76)90005-0, 1976.
Honjo, S., Manganini, S. J., Krishfield, R. A., and Francois, R.: Particulate organic carbon fluxes to the ocean interior and factors controlling the biological pump: A synthesis of global sediment trap programs since 1983, Prog. Oceanogr., 76, 217–285, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2007.11.003, 2008.
Kanazawa, A.: Sterols in marine invertebrates, Fish. Sci., 67, 997–1007, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1444-2906.2001.00354.x, 2001.
Kaneda, T.: Iso- and anteiso-fatty acids in bacteria: biosynthesis, function, and taxonomic significance, Microbiol. Rev., 55, 288–302, 1991.
Kates, M. and Volcani, B. E.: Lipid components of diatoms, Biochim. Biophys. Acta BBA – Lipids Lipid Metab., 116, 264–278, https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2760(66)90009-9, 1966.
Kiriakoulakis, K., Stutt, E., Rowland, S. J., Vangriesheim, A., Lampitt, R. S., and Wolff, G. A.: Controls on the organic chemical composition of settling particles in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, Prog. Oceanogr., 50, 65–87, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00048-9, 2001.
Korb, R. E., Whitehouse, M. J., Atkinson, A., and Thorpe, S. E.: Magnitude and maintenance of the phytoplankton bloom at South Georgia: a naturally iron-replete environment, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 368, 75–91, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07525, 2008.
Korb, R. E., Whitehouse, M. J., Gordon, M., Ward, P., and Poulton, A. J.: Summer microplankton community structure across the Scotia Sea: implications for biological carbon export, Biogeosciences, 7, 343–356, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-343-2010, 2010.
Kuwata, A. and Tsuda, A.: Selection and viability after ingestion of vegetative cells, resting spores and resting cells of the marine diatom, Chaetoceros pseudocurvisetus, by two copepods, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 322, 143–151, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2005.02.013, 2005.
Kuwata, A., Hama, T., and Takahashi, M.: Ecophysiological characterization of two life forms, resting spores and resting cells, of a marine planktonic diatom, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 102, 245–255, 1993.
Kwon, E. Y., Primeau, F., and Sarmiento, J. L.: The impact of remineralization depth on the air–sea carbon balance, Nat. Geosci., 2, 630–635, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo612, 2009.
Lee, R. F., Nevenzel, J. C., and Paffenhöfer, G.-A.: Wax Esters in Marine Copepods, Science, 167, 1510–1511, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.167.3924.1510, 1970.
Lee, R. F., Hirota, J., and Barnett, A. M.: Distribution and importance of wax esters in marine copepods and other zooplankton, Deep-Sea Res., 18, 1147–1165, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(71)90023-4, 1971.
Lee, R. F., Hagen, W., and Kattner, G.: Lipid storage in marine zooplankton, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 307, 273–306, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps307273, 2006.
Lee, C., Peterson, M. L., Wakeham, S. G., Armstrong, R. A., Cochran, J. K., Miquel, J. C., Fowler, S. W., Hirschberg, D., Beck, A., and Xue, J.: Particulate organic matter and ballast fluxes measured using time-series and settling velocity sediment traps in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 56, 1420–1436, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.029, 2009.
Legendre, P. and Gallagher, E. D.: Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data, Oecologia, 129, 271–280, https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420100716, 2001.
Legendre, P. and Legendre, L.: Numerical Ecology, Édition: 2, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, New York, 1998.
Levitan, O., Dinamarca, J., Hochman, G., and Falkowski, P. G.: Diatoms: a fossil fuel of the future, Trends Biotechnol., 32, 117–124, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2014.01.004, 2014.
Liang, Y., Maeda, Y., Yoshino, T., Matsumoto, M., and Tanaka, T.: Profiling of fatty acid methyl esters from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580 under nutrition-sufficient and -deficient conditions, J. Appl. Phycol., 26, 2295–2302, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-014-0265-y, 2014.
Lins, L., da Silva, M. C., Hauquier, F., Esteves, A. M., and Vanreusel, A.: Nematode community composition and feeding shaped by contrasting productivity regimes in the Southern Ocean, Prog. Oceanogr., 134, 356–369, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2015.03.006, 2015.
Mackey, A. P., Atkinson, A., Hill, S. L., Ward, P., Cunningham, N. J., Johnston, N. M., and Murphy, E. J.: Antarctic macrozooplankton of the southwest Atlantic sector and Bellingshausen Sea: Baseline historical distributions (Discovery Investigations, 1928–1935) related to temperature and food, with projections for subsequent ocean warming, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 59, 130–146, 2012.
Manno, C., Stowasser, G., Enderlein, P., Fielding, S., and Tarling, G. A.: The contribution of zooplankton faecal pellets to deep-carbon transport in the Scotia Sea (Southern Ocean), Biogeosciences, 12, 1955–1965, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-1955-2015, 2015.
Martin, J. H., Knauer, G. A., Karl, D. M., and Broenkow, W. W.: VERTEX: carbon cycling in the northeast Pacific, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 34, 267–285, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(87)90086-0, 1987.
Martin, J. H., Gordon, R. M., and Fitzwater, S. E.: Iron in Antarctic waters, Nature, 345, 156–158, https://doi.org/10.1038/345156a0, 1990.
Matsueda, H., Handa, N., Inoue, I., and Takano, H.: Ecological significance of salp fecal pellets collected by sediment traps in the eastern North Pacific, Mar. Biol., 91, 421–431, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00428636, 1986.
Matsumoto, M., Sugiyama, H., Maeda, Y., Sato, R., Tanaka, T., and Matsunaga, T.: Marine Diatom, Navicula sp. Strain JPCC DA0580 and Marine Green Alga, Chlorella sp. Strain NKG400014 as Potential Sources for Biodiesel Production, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 161, 483–490, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-009-8766-x, 2009.
Mayzaud, P., Lacombre, S., and Boutoute, M.: Seasonal and growth stage changes in lipid and fatty acid composition in the multigeneration copepod Drepanopus pectinatus from Iles Kerguelen, Antarct. Sci., 23, 3–17, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102010000519, 2011.
McQuoid, M. R. and Hobson, L. A.: Diatom Resting Stages, J. Phycol., 32, 889–902, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3646.1996.00889.x, 1996.
Minas, H. J., Minas, M., and Packard, T. T.: Productivity in upwelling areas deduced from hydrographic and chemical fields, Limnol. Oceanogr., 31, 1182–1206, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.19126.96.36.1992, 1986.
Mincks, S. L., Smith, C. R., and DeMaster, D. J.: Persistence of labile organic matter and microbial biomass in Antarctic shelf sediments: evidence of a sediment `food bank', Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 300, 3–19, 2005.
Nielsdóttir, M. C., Bibby, T. S., Moore, C. M., Hinz, D. J., Sanders, R., Whitehouse, M., Korb, R., and Achterberg, E. P.: Seasonal and spatial dynamics of iron availability in the Scotia Sea, Mar. Chem., 130–131, 62–72, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2011.12.004, 2012.
Obata, T., Fernie, A. R., and Nunes-Nesi, A.: The Central Carbon and Energy Metabolism of Marine Diatoms, Metabolites, 3, 325–346, https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo3020325, 2013.
Oku, O. and Kamatani, A.: Resting spore formation and biochemical composition of the marine planktonic diatom Chaetoceros pseudocurvisetus in culture: ecological significance of decreased nucleotide content and activation of the xanthophyll cycle by resting spore formation, Mar. Biol., 135, 425–436, https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270050643, 1999.
Opute, F. K.: Lipid and Fatty-acid Composition of Diatoms, J. Exp. Bot., 25, 823–835, 1974.
Pollard, R. T., Salter, I., Sanders, R. J., Lucas, M. I., Moore, C. M., Mills, R. A., Statham, P. J., Allen, J. T., Baker, A. R., Bakker, D. C. E., Charette, M. A., Fielding, S., Fones, G. R., French, M., Hickman, A. E., Holland, R. J., Hughes, J. A., Jickells, T. D., Lampitt, R. S., Morris, P. J., Nédélec, F. H., Nielsdóttir, M., Planquette, H., Popova, E. E., Poulton, A. J., Read, J. F., Seeyave, S., Smith, T., Stinchcombe, M., Taylor, S., Thomalla, S., Venables, H. J., Williamson, R., and Zubkov, M. V.: Southern Ocean deep-water carbon export enhanced by natural iron fertilization, Nature, 457, 577–580, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07716, 2009.
Pond, D. W. and Tarling, G. A.: Phase transitions of wax esters adjust buoyancy in diapausing Calanoides acutus, Limnol. Oceanogr., 56, 1310–1318, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2011.56.4.1310, 2011.
Prahl, F. G., Eglinton, G., Corner, E. D. S., and O'hara, S. C. M.: Copepod Fecal Pellets as a Source of Dihydrophytol in Marine Sediments, Science, 224, 1235–1237, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.224.4654.1235, 1984.
Quéguiner, B.: Iron fertilization and the structure of planktonic communities in high nutrient regions of the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 90, 43–54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.07.024, 2013.
Rampen, S. W., Abbas, B. A., Schouten, S., and Sinninghe Damste, J. S.: A comprehensive study of sterols in marine diatoms (Bacillariophyta): Implications for their use as tracers for diatom productivity, Limnol. Oceanogr., 55, 91–105, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2010.55.1.0091, 2010.
Rembauville, M., Blain, S., Armand, L., Quéguiner, B., and Salter, I.: Export fluxes in a naturally iron-fertilized area of the Southern Ocean – Part 2: Importance of diatom resting spores and faecal pellets for export, Biogeosciences, 12, 3171–3195, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-3171-2015, 2015.
Rembauville, M., Manno, C., Tarling, G.A., Blain, S., and Salter, I.: Strong contribution of diatom resting spores to deep-sea carbon transfer in naturally iron-fertilized waters downstream of South Georgia, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 115, 22–35, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2016.05.002, 2016a.
Rembauville, M., Meilland, J., Ziveri, P., Schiebel, R., Blain, S., and Salter, I.: Planktic foraminifer and coccolith contribution to carbonate export fluxes over the central Kerguelen Plateau, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 111, 91–101, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2016.02.017, 2016b.
Rembauville, M., Salter, I., Dehairs, F., Miquel, J. C., and Blain, S.: Annual particulate matter and diatom export in a high nutrient, low chlorophyll area of the Southern Ocean, Polar Biol., 41, 25–40, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-017-2167-3, 2017.
Rigual-Hernández, A. S., Bárcena, M. A., Sierro, F. J., Flores, J. A., Hernández-Almeida, I., Sanchez-Vidal, A., Palanques, A., and Heussner, S.: Seasonal to interannual variability and geographic distribution of the silicoflagellate fluxes in the Western Mediterranean, Mar. Micropaleontol., 77, 46–57, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2010.07.003, 2010.
Rivkin, R. B., Legendre, L., Deibel, D., Tremblay, J.-É., Klein, B., Crocker, K., Roy, S., Silverberg, N., Lovejoy, C., Mesplé, F., Romero, N., Anderson, M. R., Matthews, P., Savenkoff, C., Vézina, A., Therriault, J.-C., Wesson, J., Bérubé, C., and Ingram, R. G.: Vertical Flux of Biogenic Carbon in the Ocean: Is There Food Web Control?, Science, 272, 1163–1166, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.272.5265.1163, 1996.
Ruhl, H. A. and Smith, K. L.: Shifts in Deep-Sea Community Structure Linked to Climate and Food Supply, Science, 305, 513–515, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1099759, 2004.
Ruhl, H. A., Ellena, J. A., and Smith, K. L.: Connections between climate, food limitation, and carbon cycling in abyssal sediment communities, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 105, 17006–17011, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0803898105, 2008.
Sallée, J. B., Speer, K., and Morrow, R.: Southern Ocean Fronts and their variability to climate modes, J. Climate, 21, 3020–3039, 2008.
Salter, I., Lampitt, R.S., Sanders, R., Poulton, A., Kemp, A. E. S., Boorman, B., Saw, K., and Pearce, R.: Estimating carbon, silica and diatom export from a naturally fertilised phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean using PELAGRA: A novel drifting sediment trap, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 54, 2233–2259, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.06.008, 2007.
Salter, I., Kemp, A. E. S., Lampitt, R. S., and Gledhill, M.: The association between biogenic and inorganic minerals and the amino acid composition of settling particles, Limnol. Oceanogr., 55, 2207–2218, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2010.55.5.2207, 2010.
Salter, I., Kemp, A. E. S., Moore, C. M., Lampitt, R. S., Wolff, G. A., and Holtvoeth, J.: Diatom resting spore ecology drives enhanced carbon export from a naturally iron-fertilized bloom in the Southern Ocean, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 26, GB1014, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GB003977, 2012.
Salter, I., Schiebel, R., Ziveri, P., Movellan, A., Lampitt, R., and Wolff, G. A.: Carbonate counter pump stimulated by natural iron fertilization in the Polar Frontal Zone, Nat. Geosci., 7, 885–889, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2285, 2014.
Sarmiento, J. L., Toggweiler, J. R., Najjar, R., Webb, D. J., Jenkins, W. J., Wunsch, C., Elderfield, H., Whitfield, M., and Minster, J.-F.: Ocean Carbon-Cycle Dynamics and Atmospheric pCO2, Philos. T. R. Soc. Lond. Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 325, 3–21, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1988.0039, 1988.
Sarmiento, J. L., Gruber, N., Brzezinski, M. A., and Dunne, J. P.: High latitude controls of thermocline nutrients and low latitude biological productivity, Nature, 427, 56–60, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02127, 2004.
Savoye, N., Benitez-Nelson, C., Burd, A. B., Cochran, J. K., Charette, M., Buesseler, K. O., Jackson, G. A., Roy-Barman, M., Schmidt, S., and Elskens, M.: 234-Th sorption and export models in the water column: A review, Mar. Chem., 100, 234–249, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2005.10.014, 2006.
Smetacek, V., Assmy, P., and Henjes, J.: The role of grazing in structuring Southern Ocean pelagic ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, Antarct. Sci., 16, 541–558, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954102004002317, 2004.
Smetacek, V. S.: Role of sinking in diatom life-history cycles: ecological, evolutionary and geological significance, Mar. Biol., 84, 239–251, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00392493, 1985.
Smith, C. R., Mincks, S., and DeMaster, D. J.: A synthesis of bentho-pelagic coupling on the Antarctic shelf: food banks, ecosystem inertia and global climate change, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 53, 875–894, 2006.
Stübing, D., Hagen, W., and Schmidt, K.: On the use of lipid biomarkers in marine food web analyses: An experimental case study on the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, Limnol. Oceanogr., 48, 1685–1700, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2003.48.4.1685, 2003.
Takahashi, K. and Honjo, S.: Radiolaria: flux, ecology, and taxonomy in the Pacific and Atlantic, Ocean Biocoenosis Series, 3, 1991, https://doi.org/10.1575/1912/408, 1991.
Tarling, G. A., Ward, P., Atkinson, A., Collins, M. A., and Murphy, E. J.: DISCOVERY 2010: Spatial and temporal variability in a dynamic polar ecosystem, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 59–60, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.10.001, 2012.
Ternois, Y., Sicre, M.-A., Boireau, A., Beaufort, L., Miquel, J.-C., and Jeandel, C.: Hydrocarbons, sterols and alkenones in sinking particles in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean, Org. Geochem., 28, 489–501, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(98)00008-4, 1998.
Tsukazaki, C., Ishii, K.-I., Saito, R., Matsuno, K., Yamaguchi, A., and Imai, I.: Distribution of viable diatom resting stage cells in bottom sediments of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 94, 22–30, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.03.020, 2013.
Volk, T. and Hoffert, M. I.: Ocean carbon pumps: Analysis of relative strengths and efficiencies in ocean-driven atmospheric CO2 changes, in: Geophysical Monograph Series, edited by: Sundquist, E. T. and Broecker, W. S., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 99–110, 1985.
Volkman, J. K.: A review of sterol markers for marine and terrigenous organic matter, Org. Geochem., 9, 83–99, https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(86)90089-6, 1986.
Volkman, J. K.: Sterols in microorganisms, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 60, 495–506, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-002-1172-8, 2003.
Wakeham, S. G.: Organic matter from a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial north Atlantic: wax esters, steryl esters, triacylglycerols and alkyldiacylglycerols, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 46, 2239–2257, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(82)90198-3, 1982.
Wakeham, S. G. and Lee, C.: Production, Transport, and Alteration of Particulate Organic Matter in the Marine Water Column, in: Organic Geochemistry, Topics in Geobiology, edited by: Engel, M. H. and Macko, S. A., Springer, USA, 145–169, 1993.
Wakeham, S. G., Farrington, J. W., Gagosian, R. B., Lee, C., DeBaar, H., Nigrelli, G. E., Tripp, B. W., Smith, S. O., and Frew, N. M.: Organic matter fluxes from sediment traps in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, Nature, 286, 798–800, https://doi.org/10.1038/286798a0, 1980.
Wakeham, S. G., Lee, C., Farrington, J. W., and Gagosian, R. B.: Biogeochemistry of particulate organic matter in the oceans: results from sediment trap experiments, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 31, 509–528, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(84)90099-2, 1984.
Wakeham, S. G., Hedges, J. I., Lee, C., Peterson, M. L., and Hernes, P. J.: Compositions and transport of lipid biomarkers through the water column and surficial sediments of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 44, 2131–2162, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(97)00035-0, 1997.
Wakeham, S. G., Lee, C., Peterson, M. L., Liu, Z., Szlosek, J., Putnam, I. F., and Xue, J.: Organic biomarkers in the twilight zone – Time series and settling velocity sediment traps during MedFlux, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 56, 1437–1453, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.030, 2009.
Ward, P., Atkinson, A., and Tarling, G.: Mesozooplankton community structure and variability in the Scotia Sea: a seasonal comparison, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 59, 78–92, 2012.
Wilson, S. E., Steinberg, D. K., and Buesseler, K. O.: Changes in fecal pellet characteristics with depth as indicators of zooplankton repackaging of particles in the mesopelagic zone of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 1636–1647, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.04.019, 2008.
Wilson, S. E., Ruhl, H. A., and Smith Jr., K. L.: Zooplankton fecal pellet flux in the abyssal northeast Pacific: A 15 year time-series study, Limnol. Oceanogr., 58, 881–892, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2013.58.3.0881, 2013.
Wolff, G. A., Billett, D. S. M., Bett, B. J., Holtvoeth, J., FitzGeorge-Balfour, T., Fisher, E. H., Cross, I., Shannon, R., Salter, I., Boorman, B., King, N. J., Jamieson, A., and Chaillan, F.: The Effects of Natural Iron Fertilisation on Deep-Sea Ecology: The Crozet Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean, PLoS ONE, 6, e20697, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020697, 2011.
Xue, J., Lee, C., Wakeham, S. G., and Armstrong, R. A.: Using principal components analysis (PCA) with cluster analysis to study the organic geochemistry of sinking particles in the ocean, Org. Geochem., 42, 356–367, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2011.01.012, 2011.
Zhukova, N. V. and Aizdaicher, N. A.: Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition during Vegetative and Resting Stages of the Marine Diatom Chaetoceros salsugineus, Bot. Mar., 44, 287–293, https://doi.org/10.1515/BOT.2001.037, 2001.
Ziveri, P., de Bernardi, B., Baumann, K. H., Stoll, H. M., and Mortyn, P. G.: Sinking of coccolith carbonate and potential contribution to organic carbon ballasting in the deep ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 54, 659–675, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.01.006, 2007.
- Full-text XML
Sinking phytoplankton from the surface ocean provide the principal energy source to deep-ocean ecosystems. Our aim was to understand how different phytoplankton communities impact the chemical nature of this sinking material. We show certain types of phytoplankton can preferentially export energy-rich storage compounds to the seafloor. Any climate-driven effects on phytoplankton community structure could thus impact remote deep-ocean ecosystems thousands of kilometres beneath the surface.
Sinking phytoplankton from the surface ocean provide the principal energy source to deep-ocean...