Articles | Volume 18, issue 15
Research article 03 Aug 2021
Research article | 03 Aug 2021
Patterns in recent and Holocene pollen accumulation rates across Europe – the Pollen Monitoring Programme Database as a tool for vegetation reconstruction
Vojtěch Abraham et al.
No articles found.
Sandy P. Harrison, Roberto Villegas-Diaz, Esmeralda Cruz-Silva, Daniel Gallagher, David Kesner, Paul Lincoln, Yicheng Shen, Luke Sweeney, Daniele Colombaroli, Adam Ali, Chéïma Barhoumi, Yves Bergeron, Tatiana Blyakharchuk, Přemysl Bobek, Richard Bradshaw, Jennifer L. Clear, Sambor Czerwiński, Anne-Laure Daniau, John Dodson, Kevin J. Edwards, Mary E. Edwards, Angelica Feurdean, David Foster, Konrad Gajewski, Mariusz Gałka, Michelle Garneau, Thomas Giesecke, Graciela Gil Romera, Martin P. Girardin, Dana Hoefer, Kangyou Huang, Jun Inoue, Eva Jamrichová, Naurius Jasiunis, Wenying Jiang, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno, Monika Karpińska-Kołaczek, Piotr Kołaczek, Niina Kuosmanen, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Martin Lavoie, Fang Li, Jianyong Li, Olga Lisitsyna, J. Antonio López-Sáez, Reyes Luelmo-Lautenschlaeger, Gabriel Magnan, Eniko K. Magyari, Alekss Maksims, Katarzyna Marcisz, Elena Marinova, Jenn Marlon, Scott Mensing, Joanna Miroslaw-Grabowska, Wyatt Oswald, Sebastián Pérez-Díaz, Ramón Pérez-Obiol, Sanna Piilo, Anneli Poska, Xiaoguang Qin, Cécile C. Remy, Pierre Richard, Sakari Salonen, Naoko Sasaki, Hieke Schneider, William Shotyk, Migle Stancikaite, Dace Šteinberga, Normunds Stivrins, Hikaru Takahara, Zhihai Tan, Liva Trasune, Charles E. Umbanhowar, Minna Väliranta, Jüri Vassiljev, Xiayun Xiao, Qinghai Xu, Xin Xu, Edyta Zawisza, Yan Zhao, and Zheng Zhou
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
We provide a new global data set of charcoal preserved in sediments that can be used to examine how fire regimes have changed during past millennia and to investigate what caused these changes. The individual records have been standardised and new age models have been constructed to allow better comparison across sites. The data set contains 1681 records from 1477 sites worldwide.
Basil A. S. Davis, Manuel Chevalier, Philipp Sommer, Vachel A. Carter, Walter Finsinger, Achille Mauri, Leanne N. Phelps, Marco Zanon, Roman Abegglen, Christine M. Åkesson, Francisca Alba-Sánchez, R. Scott Anderson, Tatiana G. Antipina, Juliana R. Atanassova, Ruth Beer, Nina I. Belyanina, Tatiana A. Blyakharchuk, Olga K. Borisova, Elissaveta Bozilova, Galina Bukreeva, M. Jane Bunting, Eleonora Clò, Daniele Colombaroli, Nathalie Combourieu-Nebout, Stéphanie Desprat, Federico Di Rita, Morteza Djamali, Kevin J. Edwards, Patricia L. Fall, Angelica Feurdean, William Fletcher, Assunta Florenzano, Giulia Furlanetto, Emna Gaceur, Arsenii T. Galimov, Mariusz Gałka, Iria García-Moreiras, Thomas Giesecke, Roxana Grindean, Maria A. Guido, Irina G. Gvozdeva, Ulrike Herzschuh, Kari L. Hjelle, Sergey Ivanov, Susanne Jahns, Vlasta Jankovska, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno, Monika Karpińska-Kołaczek, Ikuko Kitaba, Piotr Kołaczek, Elena G. Lapteva, Małgorzata Latałowa, Vincent Lebreton, Suzanne Leroy, Michelle Leydet, Darya A. Lopatina, José Antonio López-Sáez, André F. Lotter, Donatella Magri, Elena Marinova, Isabelle Matthias, Anastasia Mavridou, Anna Maria Mercuri, Jose Manuel Mesa-Fernández, Yuri A. Mikishin, Krystyna Milecka, Carlo Montanari, César Morales-Molino, Almut Mrotzek, Castor Muñoz Sobrino, Olga D. Naidina, Takeshi Nakagawa, Anne Birgitte Nielsen, Elena Y. Novenko, Sampson Panajiotidis, Nata K. Panova, Maria Papadopoulou, Heather S. Pardoe, Anna Pędziszewska, Tatiana I. Petrenko, María J. Ramos-Román, Cesare Ravazzi, Manfred Rösch, Natalia Ryabogina, Silvia Sabariego Ruiz, J. Sakari Salonen, Tatyana V. Sapelko, James E. Schofield, Heikki Seppä, Lyudmila Shumilovskikh, Normunds Stivrins, Philipp Stojakowits, Helena Svobodova Svitavska, Joanna Święta-Musznicka, Ioan Tantau, Willy Tinner, Kazimierz Tobolski, Spassimir Tonkov, Margarita Tsakiridou, Verushka Valsecchi, Oksana G. Zanina, and Marcelina Zimny
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2423–2445,Short summary
The Eurasian Modern Pollen Database (EMPD) contains pollen counts and associated metadata for 8134 modern pollen samples from across the Eurasian region. The EMPD is part of, and complementary to, the European Pollen Database (EPD) which contains data on fossil pollen found in Late Quaternary sedimentary archives. The purpose of the EMPD is to provide calibration datasets and other data to support palaeoecological research on past climates and vegetation cover over the Quaternary period.
Lisa Claire Orme, Xavier Crosta, Arto Miettinen, Dmitry V. Divine, Katrine Husum, Elisabeth Isaksson, Lukas Wacker, Rahul Mohan, Olivier Ther, and Minoru Ikehara
Clim. Past, 16, 1451–1467,Short summary
A record of past sea temperature in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, spanning the last 14 200 years, has been developed by analysis of fossil diatoms in marine sediment. During the late deglaciation the reconstructed temperature changes were highly similar to those over Antarctica, most likely due to a reorganisation of global ocean and atmospheric circulation. During the last 11 600 years temperatures gradually cooled and became increasingly variable.
Angelica Feurdean, Boris Vannière, Walter Finsinger, Dan Warren, Simon C. Connor, Matthew Forrest, Johan Liakka, Andrei Panait, Christian Werner, Maja Andrič, Premysl Bobek, Vachel A. Carter, Basil Davis, Andrei-Cosmin Diaconu, Elisabeth Dietze, Ingo Feeser, Gabriela Florescu, Mariusz Gałka, Thomas Giesecke, Susanne Jahns, Eva Jamrichová, Katarzyna Kajukało, Jed Kaplan, Monika Karpińska-Kołaczek, Piotr Kołaczek, Petr Kuneš, Dimitry Kupriyanov, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Carsten Lemmen, Enikö K. Magyari, Katarzyna Marcisz, Elena Marinova, Aidin Niamir, Elena Novenko, Milena Obremska, Anna Pędziszewska, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Anneli Poska, Manfred Rösch, Michal Słowiński, Miglė Stančikaitė, Marta Szal, Joanna Święta-Musznicka, Ioan Tanţău, Martin Theuerkauf, Spassimir Tonkov, Orsolya Valkó, Jüri Vassiljev, Siim Veski, Ildiko Vincze, Agnieszka Wacnik, Julian Wiethold, and Thomas Hickler
Biogeosciences, 17, 1213–1230,Short summary
Our study covers the full Holocene (the past 11 500 years) climate variability and vegetation composition and provides a test on how vegetation and climate interact to determine fire hazard. An important implication of this test is that percentage of tree cover can be used as a predictor of the probability of fire occurrence. Biomass burned is highest at ~ 45 % tree cover in temperate forests and at ~ 60–65 % tree cover in needleleaf-dominated forests.
Alexander Kurganskiy, Carsten Ambelas Skjøth, Alexander Baklanov, Mikhail Sofiev, Annika Saarto, Elena Severova, Sergei Smyshlyaev, and Eigil Kaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2099–2121,Short summary
The aim of the study was to evaluate three birch pollen source maps using a state-of-the-art atmospheric model Enviro-HIRLAM. Enviro-HIRLAM is a so-called online model where both weather and air pollution are calculated at all time steps. The evaluation has been performed for 12 pollen observation sites located in Denmark, Finland, and Russia.
Liisa Ilvonen, José Antonio López-Sáez, Lasse Holmström, Francisca Alba-Sánchez, Sebastián Pérez-Díaz, José S. Carrión, and Heikki Seppä
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
In the Iberian Peninsula, precipitation is a key driver of vegetation changes. Here, we use a pollen-climate calibration set and fossil pollen data from seven sites in Spain to reconstruct annual precipitation values for the last 15 000 years using two different quantitative methods. The results suggest that the precipitation changes have occurred in pace with the temperature changes in northern Europe, with warm periods in the North corresponding with humid periods in the Iberian Peninsula.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Bernhard Aichner, Florian Ott, Michał Słowiński, Agnieszka M. Noryśkiewicz, Achim Brauer, and Dirk Sachse
Clim. Past, 14, 1607–1624,Short summary
Abundances of plant biomarkers are compared with pollen data in a 3000-year climate archive covering the Late Glacial to Holocene transition in northern Poland. Both parameters synchronously show the rapid onset (12680–12600 yr BP) and termination (11580–11490 yr BP) of the Younger Dryas cold interval in the study area. This demonstrates the suitability of such proxies to record pronounced changes in vegetation cover without significant delay.
Dimitri Osmont, Isabel A. Wendl, Loïc Schmidely, Michael Sigl, Carmen P. Vega, Elisabeth Isaksson, and Margit Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12777–12795,Short summary
This study presents the first long-term and high-resolution refractory black carbon (rBC) ice core record from Svalbard, spanning the last 800 years. Our results show that rBC has had a predominant anthropogenic origin since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and that rBC concentrations have been declining in the last 40 years. We discuss the impact of 20th century snowmelt on our record. We reconstruct biomass burning trends prior to 1800 by using a multi-proxy approach.
Mackenzie M. Grieman, Murat Aydin, Elisabeth Isaksson, Margit Schwikowski, and Eric S. Saltzman
Clim. Past, 14, 637–651,Short summary
This study presents organic acid levels in an ice core from Svalbard over the past 800 years. These acids are produced from wildfire emissions and transported as aerosol. Organic acid levels are high early in the record and decline until the 20th century. Siberia and Europe are likely the primary source regions of the fire emissions. The data are similar to those from a Siberian ice core prior to 1400 CE. The timing of the divergence after 1400 CE is similar to a shift in North Atlantic climate.
Carmen Paulina Vega, Elisabeth Isaksson, Elisabeth Schlosser, Dmitry Divine, Tõnu Martma, Robert Mulvaney, Anja Eichler, and Margit Schwikowski-Gigar
The Cryosphere, 12, 1681–1697,Short summary
Ions were measured in firn and ice cores from Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica, to evaluate sea-salt loads. A significant sixfold increase in sea salts was found in the S100 core after 1950s which suggests that it contains a more local sea-salt signal, dominated by processes during sea-ice formation in the neighbouring waters. In contrast, firn cores from three ice rises register the larger-scale signal of atmospheric flow conditions and transport of sea-salt aerosols produced over open water.
Barbara Stenni, Mark A. J. Curran, Nerilie J. Abram, Anais Orsi, Sentia Goursaud, Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Raphael Neukom, Hugues Goosse, Dmitry Divine, Tas van Ommen, Eric J. Steig, Daniel A. Dixon, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Nancy A. N. Bertler, Elisabeth Isaksson, Alexey Ekaykin, Martin Werner, and Massimo Frezzotti
Clim. Past, 13, 1609–1634,Short summary
Within PAGES Antarctica2k, we build an enlarged database of ice core water stable isotope records. We produce isotopic composites and temperature reconstructions since 0 CE for seven distinct Antarctic regions. We find a significant cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE across all regions. Since 1900 CE, significant warming trends are identified for three regions. Only for the Antarctic Peninsula is this most recent century-scale trend unusual in the context of last-2000-year natural variability.
Elizabeth R. Thomas, J. Melchior van Wessem, Jason Roberts, Elisabeth Isaksson, Elisabeth Schlosser, Tyler J. Fudge, Paul Vallelonga, Brooke Medley, Jan Lenaerts, Nancy Bertler, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Daniel A. Dixon, Massimo Frezzotti, Barbara Stenni, Mark Curran, and Alexey A. Ekaykin
Clim. Past, 13, 1491–1513,Short summary
Regional Antarctic snow accumulation derived from 79 ice core records is evaluated as part of the PAGES Antarctica 2k working group. Our results show that surface mass balance for the total Antarctic ice sheet has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt dec-1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ~ 0.02 mm dec-1 since 1800 and ~ 0.04 mm dec-1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula.
Meri M. Ruppel, Joana Soares, Jean-Charles Gallet, Elisabeth Isaksson, Tõnu Martma, Jonas Svensson, Jack Kohler, Christina A. Pedersen, Sirkku Manninen, Atte Korhola, and Johan Ström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12779–12795,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) deposition enhances Arctic warming and melting. We present Svalbard ice core BC data from 2005 to 2015, comparing the results with chemical transport model data. The ice core and modelled BC deposition trends clearly deviate from measured and observed atmospheric concentration trends, and thus meteorological processes such as precipitation and scavenging efficiency seem to have a stronger influence on the BC deposition trend than BC emission or atmospheric concentration trends.
Carmen P. Vega, Elisabeth Schlosser, Dmitry V. Divine, Jack Kohler, Tõnu Martma, Anja Eichler, Margit Schwikowski, and Elisabeth Isaksson
The Cryosphere, 10, 2763–2777,Short summary
Surface mass balance and water stable isotopes from firn cores on three ice rises at Fimbul Ice Shelf are reported. The results suggest that the ice rises are suitable sites for the retrieval of longer firn and ice cores. The first deuterium excess data for the area suggests a possible role of seasonal moisture transport changes on the annual isotopic signal. Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns most likely provide the dominant influence on water stable isotope ratios at the sites.
Carmen P. Vega, Veijo A. Pohjola, Emilie Beaudon, Björn Claremar, Ward J. J. van Pelt, Rickard Pettersson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Tõnu Martma, Margit Schwikowski, and Carl E. Bøggild
The Cryosphere, 10, 961–976,Short summary
To quantify post-depositional relocation of major ions by meltwater in snow and firn at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, consecutive ice cores drilled at this site were used to construct a synthetic core. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1 m between 2007 and 2010. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution.
Yurui Zhang, Hans Renssen, and Heikki Seppä
Clim. Past, 12, 1119–1135,Short summary
We explore how forcings contributed to climate change during the early Holocene that marked the final transition to the warm and stable stage. Our results indicate that 1) temperature at the Holocene onset was lower than in the preindustrial over the northern extratropics with the exception in Alaska, and the magnitude of this cooling varies regionally as a response to varying climate forcings and diverse mechanisms, and 2) the rate of the early Holocene warming was also spatially heterogeneous.
M. Sofiev, U. Berger, M. Prank, J. Vira, J. Arteta, J. Belmonte, K.-C. Bergmann, F. Chéroux, H. Elbern, E. Friese, C. Galan, R. Gehrig, D. Khvorostyanov, R. Kranenburg, U. Kumar, V. Marécal, F. Meleux, L. Menut, A.-M. Pessi, L. Robertson, O. Ritenberga, V. Rodinkova, A. Saarto, A. Segers, E. Severova, I. Sauliene, P. Siljamo, B. M. Steensen, E. Teinemaa, M. Thibaudon, and V.-H. Peuch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8115–8130,Short summary
The paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment for forecasting the atmospheric dispersion of birch pollen in Europe. The study included 7 models of MACC-ENS tested over the season of 2010 and applied for 2013 in forecasting and reanalysis modes. The results were compared with observations in 11 countries, members of European Aeroallergen Network. The models successfully reproduced the timing of the unusually late season of 2013 but had more difficulties with absolute concentration.
I. A. Wendl, A. Eichler, E. Isaksson, T. Martma, and M. Schwikowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7287–7300,Short summary
Nitrate and ammonium ice core records from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, indicated anthropogenic pollution from Eurasia as major source during the 20th century. In pre-industrial times nitrate is correlated with methane sulfonate, which we explain with a fertilising effect, presumably triggered by enhanced atmospheric nitrogen input to the ocean. Eurasia was likely the main source area also of pre-industrial nitrate, but for ammonium, biogenic emissions from Siberian boreal forests were dominant.
S. Altnau, E. Schlosser, E. Isaksson, and D. Divine
The Cryosphere, 9, 925–944,Short summary
The first comprehensive study of a set of 76 firn cores in Dronning Maud Land was carried out. The δ18O of both the plateau and the ice shelf cores exhibit a slight positive trend over the second half of the 20th century. The SMB has a negative trend in the ice shelf cores, but increases on the plateau. Comparison with meteorological data revealed that for the ice shelf regions, atmospheric dynamic effects are more important, while on the plateau, thermodynamic effects predominate.
M. M. Ruppel, E. Isaksson, J. Ström, E. Beaudon, J. Svensson, C. A. Pedersen, and A. Korhola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11447–11460,
A. Spolaor, P. Vallelonga, J. Gabrieli, T. Martma, M. P. Björkman, E. Isaksson, G. Cozzi, C. Turetta, H. A. Kjær, M. A. J. Curran, A. D. Moy, A. Schönhardt, A.-M. Blechschmidt, J. P. Burrows, J. M. C. Plane, and C. Barbante
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9613–9622,
H. S. Sundqvist, D. S. Kaufman, N. P. McKay, N. L. Balascio, J. P. Briner, L. C. Cwynar, H. P. Sejrup, H. Seppä, D. A. Subetto, J. T. Andrews, Y. Axford, J. Bakke, H. J. B. Birks, S. J. Brooks, A. de Vernal, A. E. Jennings, F. C. Ljungqvist, K. M. Rühland, C. Saenger, J. P. Smol, and A. E. Viau
Clim. Past, 10, 1605–1631,
N. Korhonen, A. Venäläinen, H. Seppä, and H. Järvinen
Clim. Past, 10, 1489–1500,
G. Strandberg, E. Kjellström, A. Poska, S. Wagner, M.-J. Gaillard, A.-K. Trondman, A. Mauri, B. A. S. Davis, J. O. Kaplan, H. J. B. Birks, A. E. Bjune, R. Fyfe, T. Giesecke, L. Kalnina, M. Kangur, W. O. van der Knaap, U. Kokfelt, P. Kuneš, M. Lata\l owa, L. Marquer, F. Mazier, A. B. Nielsen, B. Smith, H. Seppä, and S. Sugita
Clim. Past, 10, 661–680,
A. Spolaor, J. Gabrieli, T. Martma, J. Kohler, M. B. Björkman, E. Isaksson, C. Varin, P. Vallelonga, J. M. C. Plane, and C. Barbante
The Cryosphere, 7, 1645–1658,
W. J. J. van Pelt, J. Oerlemans, C. H. Reijmer, R. Pettersson, V. A. Pohjola, E. Isaksson, and D. Divine
The Cryosphere, 7, 987–1006,
Related subject area
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: TerrestrialSpatial patterns of aboveground phytogenic Si stocks in a grass-dominated catchment – results from UAS-based high-resolution remote sensingCapturing functional strategies and compositional dynamics in vegetation demographic modelsDrought effects on leaf fall, leaf flushing and stem growth in the Amazon forest: reconciling remote sensing data and field observationsVariable tree rooting strategies are key for modelling the distribution, productivity and evapotranspiration of tropical evergreen forestsThe motion of trees in the wind: a data synthesisThe importance of antecedent vegetation and drought conditions as global drivers of burnt areaEvaluating the potential for Haloarchaea to serve as ice nucleating particlesA survey of proximal methods for monitoring leaf phenology in temperate deciduous forestsRecent above-ground biomass changes in central Chukotka (Russian Far East) using field sampling and Landsat satellite dataClimate change and elevated CO2 favor forest over savanna under different future scenarios in South AsiaFunctional convergence of biosphere–atmosphere interactions in response to meteorological conditionsMulti-scale assessment of a grassland productivity modelImproving the monitoring of deciduous broadleaf phenology using the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 16 and 17Factors controlling the productivity of tropical Andean forests: climate and soil are more important than tree diversityDrought years in peatland rewetting: rapid vegetation succession can maintain the net CO2 sink functionShift of seed mass and fruit type spectra along longitudinal gradient: high water availability and growth allometryRetrieval and validation of forest background reflectivity from daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data across European forestsUnraveling the physical and physiological basis for the solar- induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis relationship using continuous leaf and canopy measurements of a corn cropMachine learning estimates of eddy covariance carbon flux in a scrub in the Mexican highlandVariability of the surface energy balance in permafrost-underlain boreal forestVegetation modulates the impact of climate extremes on gross primary productionLandsat near-infrared (NIR) band and ELM-FATES sensitivity to forest disturbances and regrowth in the Central AmazonMicroclimatic conditions and water content fluctuations experienced by epiphytic bryophytes in an Amazonian rain forestPlant trait response of tundra shrubs to permafrost thaw and nutrient additionSoils from cold and snowy temperate deciduous forests release more nitrogen and phosphorus after soil freeze–thaw cycles than soils from warmer, snow-poor conditionsResponse of carbon and water fluxes to meteorological and phenological variability in two eastern North American forests of similar age but contrasting species composition – a multiyear comparisonDrought resistance increases from the individual to the ecosystem level in highly diverse Neotropical rainforest: a meta-analysis of leaf, tree and ecosystem responses to droughtAn analysis of forest biomass sampling strategies across scalesComparing stability in random forest models to map Northern Great Plains plant communities in pastures occupied by prairie dogs using Pleiades imageryAfrican biomes are most sensitive to changes in CO2 under recent and near-future CO2 conditionsValidation of demographic equilibrium theory against tree-size distributions and biomass density in AmazoniaSoil carbon release responses to long-term versus short-term climatic warming in an arid ecosystemPartitioning of canopy and soil CO2 fluxes in a pine forest at the dry timberline across a 13-year observation periodN : P stoichiometry and habitat effects on Mediterranean savanna seasonal root dynamicsQuantifying energy use efficiency via entropy production: a case study from longleaf pine ecosystemsRapid response of habitat structure and above-ground carbon storage to altered fire regimes in tropical savannaDissolved organic matter characteristics of deciduous and coniferous forests with variable management: different at the source, aligned in the soilDrought reduces tree growing season length but increases nitrogen resorption efficiency in a Mediterranean ecosystemVarying relationships between fire radiative power and fire size at a global scaleEcosystem responses to elevated CO2 using airborne remote sensing at Mammoth Mountain, CaliforniaIdeas and perspectives: Tree–atmosphere interaction responds to water-related stem variationsLife cycle of bamboo in the southwestern Amazon and its relation to fire eventsContrasting biosphere responses to hydrometeorological extremes: revisiting the 2010 western Russian heatwaveLong-term dynamics of monoterpene synthase activities, monoterpene storage pools and emissions in boreal Scots pineThe impacts of recent drought on fire, forest loss, and regional smoke emissions in lowland BoliviaAlgal richness in BSCs in forests under different management intensity with some implications for P cyclingThe strategies of water–carbon regulation of plants in a subtropical primary forest on karst soils in ChinaFungal loop transfer of nitrogen depends on biocrust constituents and nitrogen formEstimating aboveground carbon density and its uncertainty in Borneo's structurally complex tropical forests using airborne laser scanningTechnical note: Rapid image-based field methods improve the quantification of termite mound structures and greenhouse-gas fluxes
Marc Wehrhan, Daniel Puppe, Danuta Kaczorek, and Michael Sommer
Biogeosciences, 18, 5163–5183,Short summary
UAS remote sensing provides a promising tool for new insights into Si biogeochemistry at catchment scale. Our study on an artificial catchment shows surprisingly high silicon stocks in the biomass of two grass species (C. epigejos, 7 g m−2; P. australis, 27 g m−2). The distribution of initial sediment properties (clay, Tiron-extractable Si, nitrogen, plant-available potassium) controlled the spatial distribution of C. epigejos. Soil wetness determined the occurrence of P. australis.
Polly C. Buotte, Charles D. Koven, Chonggang Xu, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Michael L. Goulden, Samuel Levis, Jessica Katz, Junyan Ding, Wu Ma, Zachary Robbins, and Lara M. Kueppers
Biogeosciences, 18, 4473–4490,Short summary
We present an approach for ensuring the definitions of plant types in dynamic vegetation models are connected to the underlying ecological processes controlling community composition. Our approach can be applied regionally or globally. Robust resolution of community composition will allow us to use these models to address important questions related to future climate and management effects on plant community composition, structure, carbon storage, and feedbacks within the Earth system.
Thomas Janssen, Ype van der Velde, Florian Hofhansl, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Kim Naudts, Bart Driessen, Katrin Fleischer, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 18, 4445–4472,Short summary
Satellite images show that the Amazon forest has greened up during past droughts. Measurements of tree stem growth and leaf litterfall upscaled using machine-learning algorithms show that leaf flushing at the onset of a drought results in canopy rejuvenation and green-up during drought while simultaneously trees excessively shed older leaves and tree stem growth declines. Canopy green-up during drought therefore does not necessarily point to enhanced tree growth and improved forest health.
Boris Sakschewski, Werner von Bloh, Markus Drüke, Anna Amelia Sörensson, Romina Ruscica, Fanny Langerwisch, Maik Billing, Sarah Bereswill, Marina Hirota, Rafael Silva Oliveira, Jens Heinke, and Kirsten Thonicke
Biogeosciences, 18, 4091–4116,Short summary
This study shows how local adaptations of tree roots across tropical and sub-tropical South America explain patterns of biome distribution, productivity and evapotranspiration on this continent. By allowing for high diversity of tree rooting strategies in a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), we are able to mechanistically explain patterns of mean rooting depth and the effects on ecosystem functions. The approach can advance DGVMs and Earth system models.
Toby D. Jackson, Sarab Sethi, Ebba Dellwik, Nikolas Angelou, Amanda Bunce, Tim van Emmerik, Marine Duperat, Jean-Claude Ruel, Axel Wellpott, Skip Van Bloem, Alexis Achim, Brian Kane, Dominick M. Ciruzzi, Steven P. Loheide II, Ken James, Daniel Burcham, John Moore, Dirk Schindler, Sven Kolbe, Kilian Wiegmann, Mark Rudnicki, Victor J. Lieffers, John Selker, Andrew V. Gougherty, Tim Newson, Andrew Koeser, Jason Miesbauer, Roger Samelson, Jim Wagner, Anthony R. Ambrose, Andreas Detter, Steffen Rust, David Coomes, and Barry Gardiner
Biogeosciences, 18, 4059–4072,Short summary
We have all seen trees swaying in the wind, but did you know that this motion can teach us about ecology? We summarized tree motion data from many different studies and looked for similarities between trees. We found that the motion of trees in conifer forests is quite similar to each other, whereas open-grown trees and broadleaf forests show more variation. It has been suggested that additional damping or amplification of tree motion occurs at high wind speeds, but we found no evidence of this.
Alexander Kuhn-Régnier, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Peer Nowack, Matthias Forkel, I. Colin Prentice, and Sandy P. Harrison
Biogeosciences, 18, 3861–3879,Short summary
Along with current climate, vegetation, and human influences, long-term accumulation of biomass affects fires. Here, we find that including the influence of antecedent vegetation and moisture improves our ability to predict global burnt area. Additionally, the length of the preceding period which needs to be considered for accurate predictions varies across regions.
Jessie M. Creamean, Julio E. Ceniceros, Lilyanna Newman, Allyson D. Pace, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Matthew E. Rhodes
Biogeosciences, 18, 3751–3762,Short summary
Microorganisms have the unique ability to form ice in clouds at relatively warm temperatures, especially specific types of plant bacteria. However, to date, members of the domain Archaea have not been evaluated for their cloud-forming capabilities. Here, we show the first results of Haloarchaea that have the ability to form cloud ice at moderate supercooled temperatures that are found in hypersaline environments on Earth.
Kamel Soudani, Nicolas Delpierre, Daniel Berveiller, Gabriel Hmimina, Jean-Yves Pontailler, Lou Seureau, Gaëlle Vincent, and Éric Dufrêne
Biogeosciences, 18, 3391–3408,Short summary
We present an exhaustive comparative survey of eight proximal methods to estimate forest phenology. We focused on methodological aspects and thoroughly assessed deviations between predicted and observed phenological dates and pointed out their main causes. We show that proximal methods provide robust phenological metrics. They can be used to retrieve long-term phenological series at flux measurement sites and help interpret the interannual variability and trends of mass and energy exchanges.
Iuliia Shevtsova, Ulrike Herzschuh, Birgit Heim, Luise Schulte, Simone Stünzi, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, Evgeniy S. Zakharov, and Stefan Kruse
Biogeosciences, 18, 3343–3366,Short summary
In the light of climate changes in subarctic regions, notable general increase in above-ground biomass for the past 15 years (2000 to 2017) was estimated along a tundra–taiga gradient of central Chukotka (Russian Far East). The greatest increase occurred in the northern taiga in the areas of larch closed-canopy forest expansion with Cajander larch as a main contributor. For the estimations, we used field data (taxa-separated plant biomass, 2018) and upscaled it based on Landsat satellite data.
Dushyant Kumar, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Camille Gaillard, Liam Langan, and Simon Scheiter
Biogeosciences, 18, 2957–2979,Short summary
In this paper, we investigated the impact of climate change and rising CO2 on biomes using a vegetation model in South Asia, an often neglected region in global modeling studies. Understanding these impacts guides ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. Our results indicate that savanna regions are at high risk of woody encroachment and transitioning into the forest, and the bioclimatic envelopes of biomes need adjustments to account for shifts caused by climate change and CO2.
Christopher Krich, Mirco Migliavacca, Diego G. Miralles, Guido Kraemer, Tarek S. El-Madany, Markus Reichstein, Jakob Runge, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 18, 2379–2404,Short summary
Ecosystems and the atmosphere interact with each other. These interactions determine e.g. the water and carbon fluxes and thus are crucial to understand climate change effects. We analysed the interactions for many ecosystems across the globe, showing that very different ecosystems can have similar interactions with the atmosphere. Meteorological conditions seem to be the strongest interaction-shaping factor. This means that common principles can be identified to describe ecosystem behaviour.
Shawn D. Taylor and Dawn M. Browning
Biogeosciences, 18, 2213–2220,Short summary
Grasslands in North America provide multiple ecosystem services and drive the production of a lot of grain, beef, and other staples. We evaluated a grassland productivity model using nearly 500 years of grassland camera data and found the areas where the model worked well and locations where it did not. Long-term productivity projections for the suitable locations can be made immediately with the current model, while other areas, such as the southwest, will need further model development.
Kathryn I. Wheeler and Michael C. Dietze
Biogeosciences, 18, 1971–1985,Short summary
Monitoring leaf phenology (i.e., seasonality) allows for tracking the progression of climate change and seasonal variations in a variety of organismal and ecosystem processes. Recent versions of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites allow for the monitoring of a phenological-sensitive index at a high temporal frequency (5–10 min) throughout most of the western hemisphere. Here we show the high potential of these new data to measure the phenology of deciduous forests.
Jürgen Homeier and Christoph Leuschner
Biogeosciences, 18, 1525–1541,Short summary
We studied aboveground productivity in humid tropical montane old-growth forests in two highly diverse Andean regions with large geological and topographic heterogeneity and related productivity to tree diversity and climatic, edaphic and stand structural factors. From our results we conclude that the productivity of highly diverse Neotropical montane forests is primarily controlled by thermal and edaphic factors and stand structural properties, while tree diversity is of minor importance.
Florian Beyer, Florian Jansen, Gerald Jurasinski, Marian Koch, Birgit Schröder, and Franziska Koebsch
Biogeosciences, 18, 917–935,Short summary
Increasing drought frequency can jeopardize the restoration of the CO2 sink function in degraded peatlands. We explored the effect of the summer drought in 2018 on vegetation development and CO2 exchange in a rewetted fen. Drought triggered a rapid spread of new vegetation whose CO2 assimilation could partially outweigh the drought-related rise in respiratory CO2 loss. Our study shows important regulatory mechanisms of a rewetted fen to maintain its net CO2 sink function even in a very dry year.
Shunli Yu, Guoxun Wang, Ofir Katz, Danfeng Li, Qibing Wang, Ming Yue, and Canran Liu
Biogeosciences, 18, 655–667,Short summary
As key traits of plants, the mechanisms of diversity of fruit sizes and seed sizes have not been solved completely until now. Therefore, the research related to them will continue to be done in the future. Our research, combined with future works, will provide a profound basis for solving the origin of fleshy-fruited species and seed size diversity.
Jan Pisek, Angela Erb, Lauri Korhonen, Tobias Biermann, Arnaud Carrara, Edoardo Cremonese, Matthias Cuntz, Silvano Fares, Giacomo Gerosa, Thomas Grünwald, Niklas Hase, Michal Heliasz, Andreas Ibrom, Alexander Knohl, Johannes Kobler, Bart Kruijt, Holger Lange, Leena Leppänen, Jean-Marc Limousin, Francisco Ramon Lopez Serrano, Denis Loustau, Petr Lukeš, Lars Lundin, Riccardo Marzuoli, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Matthias Peichl, Corinna Rebmann, Eva Rubio, Margarida Santos-Reis, Crystal Schaaf, Marius Schmidt, Guillaume Simioni, Kamel Soudani, and Caroline Vincke
Biogeosciences, 18, 621–635,Short summary
Understory vegetation is the most diverse, least understood component of forests worldwide. Understory communities are important drivers of overstory succession and nutrient cycling. Multi-angle remote sensing enables us to describe surface properties by means that are not possible when using mono-angle data. Evaluated over an extensive set of forest ecosystem experimental sites in Europe, our reported method can deliver good retrievals, especially over different forest types with open canopies.
Peiqi Yang, Christiaan van der Tol, Petya K. E. Campbell, and Elizabeth M. Middleton
Biogeosciences, 18, 441–465,Short summary
Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has the potential to facilitate the monitoring of photosynthesis from space. This study presents a systematic analysis of the physical and physiological meaning of the relationship between fluorescence and photosynthesis at both leaf and canopy levels. We unravel the individual effects of incoming light, vegetation structure and leaf physiology and highlight their joint effects on the relationship between canopy fluorescence and photosynthesis.
Aurelio Guevara-Escobar, Enrique González-Sosa, Mónica Cervantes-Jiménez, Humberto Suzán-Azpiri, Mónica Elisa Queijeiro-Bolaños, Israel Carrillo-Ángeles, and Víctor Hugo Cambrón-Sandoval
Biogeosciences, 18, 367–392,Short summary
All vegetation types can sequester carbon dioxide. We compared ground measurements (eddy covariance) with remotely sensed data (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) and machine learning ensembles of primary production in a semiarid scrub in Mexico. The annual carbon sink for this vegetation type was −283.5 g C m−2 y−1; MODIS underestimated the primary productivity, and the machine learning modeling was better locally.
Simone Maria Stuenzi, Julia Boike, William Cable, Ulrike Herzschuh, Stefan Kruse, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Sebastian Westermann, Evgenii S. Zakharov, and Moritz Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 343–365,Short summary
Boreal forests in eastern Siberia are an essential component of global climate patterns. We use a physically based model and field measurements to study the interactions between forests, permanently frozen ground and the atmosphere. We find that forests exert a strong control on the thermal state of permafrost through changing snow cover dynamics and altering the surface energy balance, through absorbing most of the incoming solar radiation and suppressing below-canopy turbulent fluxes.
Milan Flach, Alexander Brenning, Fabian Gans, Markus Reichstein, Sebastian Sippel, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 18, 39–53,Short summary
Drought and heat events affect the uptake and sequestration of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. We study the impact of droughts and heatwaves on the uptake of CO2 of different vegetation types at the global scale. We find that agricultural areas are generally strongly affected. Forests instead are not particularly sensitive to the events under scrutiny. This implies different water management strategies of forests but also a lack of sensitivity to remote-sensing-derived vegetation activity.
Robinson I. Negrón-Juárez, Jennifer A. Holm, Boris Faybishenko, Daniel Magnabosco-Marra, Rosie A. Fisher, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Alessandro C. de Araujo, William J. Riley, and Jeffrey Q. Chambers
Biogeosciences, 17, 6185–6205,Short summary
The temporal variability in the Landsat satellite near-infrared (NIR) band captured the dynamics of forest regrowth after disturbances in Central Amazon. This variability was represented by the dynamics of forest regrowth after disturbances were properly represented by the ELM-FATES model (Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) in the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Land Model (ELM)).
Nina Löbs, David Walter, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, Rodrigo P. Alves, Gabriela R. Cerqueira, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Florian Ditas, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Ana Paula Pires Florentino, Stefan Wolff, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Sylvia Mota de Oliveira, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 17, 5399–5416,Short summary
Cryptogamic organisms, such as bryophytes, lichens, and algae, cover major parts of vegetation in the Amazonian rain forest, but their relevance in biosphere–atmosphere exchange, climate processes, and nutrient cycling is largely unknown. Over the duration of 2 years we measured their water content, temperature, and light conditions to get better insights into their physiological activity patterns and thus their potential impact on local, regional, and even global biogeochemical processes.
Maitane Iturrate-Garcia, Monique M. P. D. Heijmans, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Fritz H. Schweingruber, Pascal A. Niklaus, and Gabriela Schaepman-Strub
Biogeosciences, 17, 4981–4998,Short summary
Changes on plant traits associated with climate warming might alter vegetation–climate interactions. We investigated experimentally the effects of enhanced permafrost thaw and soil nutrients on a wide set of tundra shrub traits. We found a coordinated trait response to some treatments, which suggests a shift in shrub resource, growth and defence strategies. This shift might feed back into permafrost thaw – through mechanisms associated with water demand – and into carbon and energy fluxes.
Juergen Kreyling, Rhena Schumann, and Robert Weigel
Biogeosciences, 17, 4103–4117,Short summary
Temperate forest soils (sites dominated by European beech, Fagus sylvatica) from cold and snowy sites in northern Poland release more nitrogen and phosphorus after soil freeze–thaw cycles (FTCs) than soils from warmer, snow-poor conditions in northern Germany. Our data suggest that previously cold sites, which will lose their protective snow cover during climate change, are most vulnerable to increasing FTC frequency and magnitude, resulting in strong shifts in nitrogen leaching.
Eric R. Beamesderfer, M. Altaf Arain, Myroslava Khomik, Jason J. Brodeur, and Brandon M. Burns
Biogeosciences, 17, 3563–3587,Short summary
Temperate forests play a major role in the global carbon and water cycles, sequestering atmospheric CO2 on annual timescales. This research examined the annual carbon and water dynamics of two similar (age, soil, climate, etc.) eastern North American temperate forests of different species composition (i.e., broadleaf vs. needleleaf). Ultimately, fluxes of the deciduous forest were found to be less sensitive to temperature and water limitations – conditions expected with future climate warming.
Thomas Janssen, Katrin Fleischer, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Kim Naudts, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 17, 2621–2645,Short summary
The frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase in the tropics, impacting the functioning of tropical forests. Here, we synthesized observed responses to drought in Neotropical forests. We find that, during drought, trees generally close their leaf stomata, resulting in reductions in photosynthesis, growth and transpiration. However, on the ecosystem scale, these responses are not visible. This indicates that resistance to drought increases from the leaf to ecosystem scale.
Jessica Hetzer, Andreas Huth, Thorsten Wiegand, Hans Jürgen Dobner, and Rico Fischer
Biogeosciences, 17, 1673–1683,Short summary
Due to limited accessibility in tropical regions, only small parts of the forest landscape can be surveyed in forest plots. Since there is an ongoing debate about how representative estimations based on samples are at larger scales, this study analyzes how many plots are needed to quantify the biomass of the entire South American tropical forest. Through novel computational and statistical investigations we show that the spatial plot positioning is crucial for continent-wide biomass estimations.
Jameson R. Brennan, Patricia S. Johnson, and Niall P. Hanan
Biogeosciences, 17, 1281–1292,Short summary
Prairie dogs have been described as a keystone species and are important for grassland conservation, yet concerns exist over the impact of prairie dogs on livestock production. The aim of this study was to classify plant communities on and off prairie dog towns in South Dakota and determine the utility of using remote sensing to identity prairie dog colony extent. The results show that remote sensing is effective at determining prairie dog colony boundaries.
Simon Scheiter, Glenn R. Moncrieff, Mirjam Pfeiffer, and Steven I. Higgins
Biogeosciences, 17, 1147–1167,Short summary
Current rates of climate and atmospheric change are likely higher than during the last millions of years. Vegetation cannot keep pace with these changes and lags behind climate. We used a vegetation model to study how these lags are influenced by CO2 and fire in Africa. Our results indicate that vegetation is most sensitive to CO2 change under current and near-future conditions and that vegetation will be committed to further change even if CO2 emissions are reduced and the climate stabilizes.
Jonathan R. Moore, Arthur P. K. Argles, Kai Zhu, Chris Huntingford, and Peter M. Cox
Biogeosciences, 17, 1013–1032,Short summary
The distribution of tree sizes across Amazonia can be fitted very well (for both trunk diameter and tree mass) by a simple equilibrium model assuming power law growth and size-independent mortality. We find tree growth to mirror some aspects of metabolic scaling theory and that there may be a trade-off between fast-growing, short-lived and longer-lived, slow-growing ones. Our Amazon mortality-to-growth ratio is very similar to US temperate forests, hinting at a universal property for trees.
Hongying Yu, Zhenzhu Xu, Guangsheng Zhou, and Yaohui Shi
Biogeosciences, 17, 781–792,Short summary
Climate change severely impacts grassland carbon cycling, especially in arid ecosystems, such as desert steppes. The current results highlight the great dependence of soil carbon emission on warming regimes of different duration and the important role of precipitation pulse during growing season in assessing the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance and cycle.
Rafat Qubaja, Fyodor Tatarinov, Eyal Rotenberg, and Dan Yakir
Biogeosciences, 17, 699–714,Short summary
This paper presents a study of the CO2 fluxes in a pine forest plantation at the dry timberline in the Negev, combining the present time with the long-term perspective. Two key issues that limit our understanding are the need to know the sources of CO2 fluxes and the need for long-term perspectives. We provide evidence that helps explain the forest plantation productivity under stressful conditions, which can assist in predicting the response of forest to future drying climate.
Richard K. F. Nair, Kendalynn A. Morris, Martin Hertel, Yunpeng Luo, Gerardo Moreno, Markus Reichstein, Marion Schrumpf, and Mirco Migliavacca
Biogeosciences, 16, 1883–1901,Short summary
We investigated how nutrient availability affects seasonal timing of root growth and death in a Spanish savanna, adapted to a long summer drought. We found that nitrogen (N) additions led to more root biomass but number of roots was higher with N and phosphorus together. These effects were strongly affected by the time of year. In autumn root growth occurred after leaf production. This has implications for how we understand biomass production and carbon uptake in these systems.
Susanne Wiesner, Christina L. Staudhammer, Paul C. Stoy, Lindsay R. Boring, and Gregory Starr
Biogeosciences, 16, 1845–1863,Short summary
We studied entropy production in longleaf savanna sites with variations in land use legacy, plant diversity, and soil water availability which experienced drought. Sites with greater land use legacy had lower metabolic energy use efficiency, which delayed recovery from drought. Sites with more hardwood captured less solar radiation but more efficiently used absorbed energy. Future management applications could use these methods to quantify energy use efficiency across global ecosystems.
Shaun R. Levick, Anna E. Richards, Garry D. Cook, Jon Schatz, Marcus Guderle, Richard J. Williams, Parash Subedi, Susan E. Trumbore, and Alan N. Andersen
Biogeosciences, 16, 1493–1503,Short summary
We used airborne lidar to map the three-dimensional structure and model the biomass of plant canopies across a long-term fire experiment in the Northern Territory of Australia. Our results show that late season fires occurring every 2 years reduce the amount of carbon stored above-ground by 50 % relative to unburnt control plots. We also show how increased fire intensity removes the shrub layer from savannas and discuss the implications for biodiversity conservation.
Lisa Thieme, Daniel Graeber, Diana Hofmann, Sebastian Bischoff, Martin T. Schwarz, Bernhard Steffen, Ulf-Niklas Meyer, Martin Kaupenjohann, Wolfgang Wilcke, Beate Michalzik, and Jan Siemens
Biogeosciences, 16, 1411–1432,Short summary
To improve our understanding of the effects of tree species selection and management intensity on dissolved organic matter (DOM), we studied solution samples along the water flow path through forests with spectroscopic methods and biodegradation tests. There are distinct changes in DOM composition and biodegradability following the water path. Aboveground DOM was influenced by tree species selection but not by management intensity. Differences became aligned in mineral soil.
Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Cathy Kurz Besson, Maria Conceição Caldeira, Maria Manuela Chaves, and João Santos Pereira
Biogeosciences, 16, 1265–1279,Short summary
By comparing the cork oak tree vegetative phenology in two contrasting precipitation years in a Mediterranean ecosystem, we showed the critical role of water availability in extending the length of the growing season and determining tree growth. The observed higher transfer of nitrogen from senescent to green leaves in response to drought might compensate for the limited nitrogen uptake by the roots. Our results improve our understanding of the ecosystem's responses to climate change.
Pierre Laurent, Florent Mouillot, Maria Vanesa Moreno, Chao Yue, and Philippe Ciais
Biogeosciences, 16, 275–288,Short summary
Fire propagation and fire size are usually considered to be proportional to fire intensity. We used a global database of fire patch size and fire radiative power, used as a proxy of fire intensity, to test this relationship at a global scale. We showed that in some regions fire size tends to saturate when a regional fire intensity threshold is reached. We concluded that increasing landscape fragmentation limits fire propagation and this effect should be accounted for in global fire modules.
Kerry Cawse-Nicholson, Joshua B. Fisher, Caroline A. Famiglietti, Amy Braverman, Florian M. Schwandner, Jennifer L. Lewicki, Philip A. Townsend, David S. Schimel, Ryan Pavlick, Kathryn J. Bormann, Antonio Ferraz, Emily L. Kang, Pulong Ma, Robert R. Bogue, Thomas Youmans, and David C. Pieri
Biogeosciences, 15, 7403–7418,Short summary
Carbon dioxide levels are rising globally, and it is important to understand how this rise will affect plants over long time periods. Volcanoes such as Mammoth Mountain, California, have been releasing CO2 from their flanks for decades, and this provides a test environment in order to study the way plants respond to long-term CO2 exposure. We combined several airborne measurements to show that plants may have fewer, more productive leaves in areas with increasing CO2.
Tim van Emmerik, Susan Steele-Dunne, Pierre Gentine, Rafael S. Oliveira, Paulo Bittencourt, Fernanda Barros, and Nick van de Giesen
Biogeosciences, 15, 6439–6449,Short summary
Trees are very important for the water and carbon cycles. Climate and weather models often assume constant vegetation parameters because good measurements are missing. We used affordable accelerometers to measure tree sway of 19 trees in the Amazon rainforest. We show that trees respond very differently to the same weather conditions, which means that vegetation parameters are dynamic. With our measurements trees can be accounted for more realistically, improving climate and weather models.
Ricardo Dalagnol, Fabien Hubert Wagner, Lênio Soares Galvão, Bruce Walker Nelson, and Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de Aragão
Biogeosciences, 15, 6087–6104,Short summary
We used a time series of MODIS (MAIAC) satellite images from 2000 to 2017 to map the distribution of bamboo-dominated forests in the southwest Amazon and detect when the bamboo populations are suffering massive die-offs. The aim was to test if bamboo die-off is associated with higher fire probability, which could impact other plant species while promoting bamboo dominance. Our findings show 15.5 million ha of bamboo forests which are not directly associated with fire, except in drought years.
Milan Flach, Sebastian Sippel, Fabian Gans, Ana Bastos, Alexander Brenning, Markus Reichstein, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 15, 6067–6085,Short summary
Northern forests enhanced their productivity during and before the 2010 Russian mega heatwave. We scrutinize this issue with a novel type of multivariate extreme event detection approach. Forests compensate for 54 % of the carbon losses in agricultural ecosystems due to vulnerable conditions in spring and better water management in summer. The findings highlight the importance of forests in mitigating climate change, while not alleviating the consequences of extreme events for food security.
Anni Vanhatalo, Andrea Ghirardo, Eija Juurola, Jörg-Peter Schnitzler, Ina Zimmer, Heidi Hellén, Hannele Hakola, and Jaana Bäck
Biogeosciences, 15, 5047–5060,Short summary
We analysed the relationships between Scots pine needle monoterpene synthase activities, monoterpene storage pools and emissions of needles. The results showed changes in the monoterpene synthase activity of needles, linked to seasonality and needle ontogenesis, while the pool did not change considerably as a function of needle aging. Monoterpene emissions did not correlate with synthase activity or storage pool size. Additionally, we observed notably high plant-to-plant variation.
Joshua P. Heyer, Mitchell J. Power, Robert D. Field, and Margreet J. E. van Marle
Biogeosciences, 15, 4317–4331,Short summary
A variety of data were explored to better understand relationships among climate, fire, smoke emissions, and human land use in lowland Bolivia. Paleosedimentary work and modern fire records have linked drought to fire in the southern Amazon. From 2000 to 2015, our results indicate drought was the dominant control on wildfire in lowland Bolivia and in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park. Note that fire was most common in the Cerrado and seasonally inundated wetland biomes.
Karin Glaser, Karen Baumann, Peter Leinweber, Tatiana Mikhailyuk, and Ulf Karsten
Biogeosciences, 15, 4181–4192,
Jing Wang, Xuefa Wen, Xinyu Zhang, and Shenggong Li
Biogeosciences, 15, 4193–4203,Short summary
The different contributions of gs, gm, and Vcmax to A indicated that plants utilized diverse trade-offs between CO2 supply and demand to maintain relatively high A. The iWUE was relatively low, but ranged widely, indicating that plants used a "profligate/opportunistic" water use strategy to maintain their survival, growth, and the structure of the community. These findings highlight the importance of covariation of gs, gm, and Vcmax for the adaptation of plants to the harsh karst environment.
Zachary T. Aanderud, Trevor B. Smart, Nan Wu, Alexander S. Taylor, Yuanming Zhang, and Jayne Belnap
Biogeosciences, 15, 3831–3840,Short summary
Besides performing multiple ecosystem services individually and collectively, biocrust constituents may also create biological networks connecting spatially and temporally distinct processes. We found evidence of fungal loops within biocrusts but only in cyanobacteria-dominated crusts for the inorganic N form NH4+. Combined with our sequencing effort, our findings suggest that even localized, minor rainfall events may allow dark septate Pleosporales to rapidly translocate N within biocrusts.
Tommaso Jucker, Gregory P. Asner, Michele Dalponte, Philip G. Brodrick, Christopher D. Philipson, Nicholas R. Vaughn, Yit Arn Teh, Craig Brelsford, David F. R. P. Burslem, Nicolas J. Deere, Robert M. Ewers, Jakub Kvasnica, Simon L. Lewis, Yadvinder Malhi, Sol Milne, Reuben Nilus, Marion Pfeifer, Oliver L. Phillips, Lan Qie, Nathan Renneboog, Glen Reynolds, Terhi Riutta, Matthew J. Struebig, Martin Svátek, Edgar C. Turner, and David A. Coomes
Biogeosciences, 15, 3811–3830,Short summary
Efforts to protect tropical forests hinge on recognizing the ecosystem services they provide, including their ability to store carbon. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) captures information on the 3-D structure of forests, allowing carbon stocks to be mapped. By combining ALS with data from 173 field plots on the island of Borneo, we develop a simple yet general model for estimating forest carbon stocks from the air. Our model underpins ongoing efforts to restore Borneo's unique tropical forests.
Philipp A. Nauer, Eleonora Chiri, David de Souza, Lindsay B. Hutley, and Stefan K. Arndt
Biogeosciences, 15, 3731–3742,Short summary
Termites perform important biogeochemical processes in tropical ecosystems, but the complex structure of their mounds impede an accurate quantitative description. We present two novel low-cost field methods, based on photogrammetry and image analysis, to quantify the volume, surface area and porosities of termite mounds. The methods are accurate, rapid to apply and superior to traditional methods, and thus improve biogeochemical rate estimates such as greenhouse-gas fluxes from termite mounds.
Abraham, V., Kuneš, P., Petr, L., Svitavská-Svobodová, H., Kozáková, R., Jamrichová, E., Švarcová, M. G., and Pokorný, P.: A pollen-based quantitative reconstruction of the Holocene vegetation updates a perspective on the natural vegetation in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Preslia, 88, 409–434, 2016. a, b
Barnekow, L., Loader, N. J., Hicks, S., Froyd, C. A., and Goslar, T.: Strong correlation between summer temperature and pollen accumulation rates for Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula spp. in a high-resolution record from northern Sweden, J. Quaternary Sci., 22, 653–658, https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1096, 2007. a
Bennett, K. D.: Devensian Late-Glacial and Flandrian Vegetational History at Hockham Mere, Norfolk, England, New Phytol., 95, 489–504, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1983.tb03513.x, 1983. a, b, c
Carter, V. A., Chiverrell, R. C., Clear, J. L., Kuosmanen, N., Moravcová, A., Svoboda, M., Svobodová-Svitavská, H., van Leeuwen, J. F. N., van der Knaap, W. O., and Kuneš, P.: Quantitative Palynology Informing Conservation Ecology in the Bohemian/Bavarian Forests of Central Europe, Front. Plant Sci., 8, 2268, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.02268, 2018. a, b
Davis, B. A. S., Zanon, M., Collins, P., Mauri, A., Bakker, J., Barboni, D., Barthelmes, A., Beaudouin, C., Bjune, A. E., Bozilova, E., Bradshaw, R. H. W., Brayshay, B. A., Brewer, S., Brugiapaglia, E., Bunting, J., Connor, S. E., de Beaulieu, J.-L., Edwards, K., Ejarque, A., Fall, P., Florenzano, A., Fyfe, R., Galop, D., Giardini, M., Giesecke, T., Grant, M. J., Guiot, J., Jahns, S., Jankovská, V., Juggins, S., Kahrmann, M., Karpińska-Kołaczek, M., Kołaczek, P., Kühl, N., Kuneš, P., Lapteva, E. G., Leroy, S. A. G., Leydet, M., Guiot, J., Jahns, S., López Sáez, J. A., Masi, A., Matthias, I., Mazier, F., Meltsov, V., Mercuri, A. M., Miras, Y., Mitchell, F. J. G., Morris, J. L., Naughton, F., Nielsen, A. B., Novenko, E., Odgaard, B., Ortu, E., Overballe-Petersen, M. V., Pardoe, H. S., Peglar, S. M., Pidek, I. A., Sadori, L., Seppä, H., Severova, E., Shaw, H., Święta-Musznicka, J., Theuerkauf, M., Tonkov, S., Veski, S., van der Knaap, W. O., van Leeuwen, J. F. N., Woodbridge, J., Zimny, M., and Kaplan, J. O.: The European Modern Pollen Database (EMPD) project, Veg. Hist. Archaebot., 22, 521–530, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-012-0388-5, 2013. a
Davis, M. B., Moeller, R., and Ford, J.: Sediment focusing and pollen influx, in: Lake sediments and environmental history: studies in palaeolimnology and palaeoecology in honour of Winifred Tutin, edited by: Haworth, E. Y., Lund, J. W. G., and Tutin, W., Leicester University Press, Leicester, 261–293, ISBN: 978-0-7185-1220-0, 1984. a, b
EUFORGEN: http://www.euforgen.org/species, last access: 20 May 2018. a
Filipova-Marinova, M.: Palaeoecological investigations of lake Shabla-Ezeretz in NE Bulgaria, Ecologia Mediterranea, 11, 147–158, 1985. a
Gaillard, M.-J., Sugita, S., Bunting, M. J., Middleton, R., Broström, A., Caseldine, C., Giesecke, T., Hellman, S. E. V., Hicks, S., Hjelle, K., Langdon, C., Nielsen, A.-B., Poska, A., Stedingk, H., Veski, S., and members, P.: The use of modelling and simulation approach in reconstructing past landscapes from fossil pollen data: a review and results from the POLLANDCAL network, Veget Hist Archaeobot, 17, 419–443, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-008-0169-3, 2008. a
Gerasimidis, A., Panajiotidis, S., Hicks, S., and Athanasiadis, N.: An eight-year record of pollen deposition in the Pieria mountains (N. Greece) and its significance for interpreting fossil pollen assemblages, Rev. Palaeobot. Palyno., 141, 231–243, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.04.004, 2006. a
GRASS Development Team: Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS GIS) Software, Version 7.2, Open Source Geospatial Foundation, https://grass.osgeo.org/ (last access: 18 July 2021), 2018. a
Hesselman, H.: Om pollenregn på hafvet och fjärrtransport af barrträdspollen, Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 41, 89–99, 1919. a
Hicks, S.: A method of using modern pollen rain values to provide a timescale for pollen diagrams from peat deposits, Memoranda Societas Fauna Flora Fennica, 49, 21–33, 1974. a
Hicks, S., Ammann, B., Latałowa, M., Pardoe, H. S., and Tinsley, H.: European Pollen Monitoring Programme: Project Description and Guidelines, Oulu University Press, Oulu, 1996. a
Hicks, S., Tinsley, H., Pardoe, H. S., and Cundill, P. R.: European Pollen Monitoring Programme: Supplement to the Guidelines, Oulu University Press, Oulu, 1999. a
Hicks, S., Tinsley, H., Huusko, A., Jensen, C., Hättestrand, M., Gerasimides, A., and Kvavadze, E.: Some comments on spatial variation in arboreal pollen deposition: first records from the Pollen Monitoring Programme (PMP), Rev. Palaeobot. Palyno., 117, 183–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-6667(01)00086-0, 2001. a, b, c
Jackson, S. T. and Williams, J. W.: Modern analogs in Quaternary paleoecology: Here Today, Gone Yesterday, Gone Tomorrow?, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 32, 495–537, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.32.101802.120435, 2004. a
Jantz, N., Homeier, J., León-Yánez, S., Moscoso, A., and Behling, H.: Trapping pollen in the tropics – Comparing modern pollen rain spectra of different pollen traps and surface samples across Andean vegetation zones, Rev. Palaeobot. Palyno., 193, 57–69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2013.01.011, 2013. a
Jensen, C., Vorren, K.-D., and Mørkved, B.: Annual pollen accumulation rate (PAR) at the boreal and alpine forest-line of north-western Norway, with special emphasis on Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens, Rev. Palaeobot. Palyno., 144, 337–361, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.08.006, 2007. a, b
Kozáková, R., Šamonil, P., Kuneš, P., Novák, J., Kočár, P., and Kočárová, R.: Contrasting local and regional Holocene histories of Abies alba in the Czech Republic in relation to human impact: Evidence from forestry, pollen and anthracological data, Holocene, 21, 431–444, https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683610385721, 2011. a
Kubitz, B.: Die holozäne Vegetations- und Siedlungsgeschichte in der Westeifel am Beispiel eines hochauflösenden Pollendiagrammes aus dem Meerfelder Maar [History of Holocene vegetation and settlement of the Western Eifel region (Germany) using a high resolution pollenprofile from the Meerfeld Maar], Dissertationes Botanicae, Band 339, ISBN: 978-3-443-64251-8, 2000 (in German). a
Kvavadze, E.: Annual modern pollen deposition in the foothills of the Lagodekhi Reservation (Caucasus, East Georgia), related to vegetation and climate, Acta Palaeobotanica, 41, 355–364, 2001. a
Malmström, C.: Degerö Stormyr–en botanisk, hydrologisk och utvecklingshistorisk undersökning över ett nordsvenskt myrkomplex, Meddelanden från Statens Skogsförsöksanstalt, 20, 1–2, 1923. a
Nielsen, A. B., Möller, P. F., Giesecke, T., Stavngaard, B., Fontana, S. L., and Bradshaw, R. H. W.: The effect of climate conditions on inter-annual flowering variability monitored by pollen traps below the canopy in Draved Forest, Denmark, Veg. Hist. Archaebot., 19, 309–323, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-010-0253-3, 2010. a, b
Nosova, M. B., Novenko, E. Y., Severova, E. E., and Volkova, O. A.: Vegetation and climate changes within and around the Polistovo-Lovatskaya mire system (Pskov Oblast, north-western Russia) during the past 10,500 years, Veg. Hist. Archaebot., 28, 123–140, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-018-0693-8, 2019. a
Pardoe, H. S., Giesecke, T., Knaap, W. O., Svitavská-Svobodová, H., Kvavadze, E. V., Panajiotidis, S., Gerasimidis, A., Pidek, I. A., Zimny, M., Święta-Musznicka, J., Latałowa, M., Noryśkiewicz, A. M., Bozilova, E., Tonkov, S., Filipova-Marinova, M. V., Leeuwen, J. F. N., and Kalniṇa, L.: Comparing pollen spectra from modified Tauber traps and moss samples: examples from a selection of woodlands across Europe, Veg. Hist. Archaebot., 19, 271–283, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-010-0258-y, 2010. a, b
Pennington, W.: The Origin of Pollen in Lake Sediments: An Enclosed Lake Compared with One Receiving Inflow Streams, New Phytol., 83, 189–213, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1979.tb00741.x, 1979. a
Pers-Kamczyc, E., Tyrała-Wierucka, Ż., Rabska, M., Wrońska-Pilarek, D., and Kamczyc, J.: The higher availability of nutrients increases the production but decreases the quality of pollen grains in Juniperus communis L., J. Plant Physiol., 248, 153156, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2020.153156, 2020. a
Pidek, I. A.: Nine-year record of Alnus pollen deposition in the Roztocze region (SE Poland) with relation to vegetation data, Acta Agrobot., 60, 57–64, 2007. a
Pidek, I. A., Svitavská-Svobodová, H., van der Knaap, W. O., Noryśkiewicz, A. M., Filbrandt-Czaja, A., Noryśkiewicz, B., Latałowa, M., Zimny, M., Święta-Musznicka, J., Bozilova, E., Tonkov, S., Filipova-Marinova, M., Poska, A., Giesecke, T., and Gikov, A.: Variation in annual pollen accumulation rates of Fagus along a N–S transect in Europe based on pollen traps, Veg. Hist. Archaebot., 19, 259–270, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-010-0248-0, 2010. a
Pędziszewska, A., Tylmann, W., Witak, M., Piotrowska, N., Maciejewska, E., and Latałowa, M.: Holocene environmental changes reflected by pollen, diatoms, and geochemistry of annually laminated sediments of Lake Suminko in the Kashubian Lake District (N Poland), Rev. Palaeobot. Palyno., 216, 55–75, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2015.01.008, 2015. a
R Core Team: R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2019. a
Stockmarr, J.: Tablets with spores used in absolute pollen analysis, Pollen et Spores, 13, 615–621, 1971. a
Tauber, H.: A Static Non-overload Pollen Collector, New Phytol., 73, 359–369, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1974.tb04770.x, 1974. a
Tinner, W., Colombaroli, D., Heiri, O., Henne, P. D., Steinacher, M., Untenecker, J., Vescovi, E., Allen, J. R. M., Carraro, G., Conedera, M., Joos, F., Lotter, A. F., Luterbacher, J., Samartin, S., and Valsecchi, V.: The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming, Ecol. Monogr., 83, 419–439, https://doi.org/10.1890/12-2231.1, 2013. a
Tonkov, S., Hicks, S., Bozilova, E., and Atanassova, J.: Pollen monitoring in the central Rila Mountains, Southwestern Bulgaria: comparisons between pollen traps and surface samples for the period 1993–1999, Rev. Palaeobot. Palyno., 117, 167–182, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-6667(01)00085-9, 2001. a
van der Knaap, W. O., van Leeuwen, J. F. N., Fankhauser, A., and Ammann, B.: Palynostratigraphy of the last centuries in Switzerland based on 23 lake and mire deposits: chronostratigraphic pollen markers, regional patterns, and local histories, Rev. Palaeobot. Palyno., 108, 85–142, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-6667(99)00035-4, 2000. a, b
van der Knaap, W. O., van Leeuwen, J. F. N., Svitavská-Svobodová, H., Pidek, I. A., Kvavadze, E., Chichinadze, M., Giesecke, T., Kaszewski, B. M., Oberli, F., Kalniṇa, L., Pardoe, H. S., Tinner, W., and Ammann, B.: Annual pollen traps reveal the complexity of climatic control on pollen productivity in Europe and the Caucasus, Veg. Hist. Archaebot., 19, 285–307, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-010-0250-6, 2010. a, b, c, d
Veski, S., Amon, L., Heinsalu, A., Reitalu, T., Saarse, L., Stivrins, N., and Vassiljev, J.: Lateglacial vegetation dynamics in the eastern Baltic region between 14,500 and 11,400 cal yr BP: A complete record since the Bølling (GI-1e) to the Holocene, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 40, 39–53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.02.013, 2012. a
Welten, M.: Pollenanalytische, stratigraphische und geochronologische Untersuchungen aus dem Faulenseemoos bei Spiez, in: Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Instituts Rübel in Zürich, H. Huber, Bern, vol. 21, 1944 (in German). a
Williams, J. W., Grimm, E. C., Blois, J. L., Charles, D. F., Davis, E. B., Goring, S. J., Graham, R. W., Smith, A. J., Anderson, M., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., Ashworth, A. C., Betancourt, J. L., Bills, B. W., Booth, R. K., Buckland, P. I., Curry, B. B., Giesecke, T., Jackson, S. T., Latorre, C., Nichols, J., Purdum, T., Roth, R. E., Stryker, M., and Takahara, H.: The Neotoma Paleoecology Database, a multiproxy, international, community-curated data resource, Quaternary Res., 89, 156–177, https://doi.org/10.1017/qua.2017.105, 2018. a
WorldClim: available at: http://worldclim.org/version2, last access: 20 January 2019. a
We present a continental dataset of pollen accumulation rates (PARs) collected by pollen traps. This absolute measure of pollen rain (grains cm−2 yr−1) has a positive relationship to current vegetation and latitude. Trap and fossil PARs have similar values within one region, so it opens up possibilities for using fossil PARs to reconstruct past changes in plant biomass and primary productivity. The dataset is available in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database.
We present a continental dataset of pollen accumulation rates (PARs) collected by pollen traps....