Articles | Volume 12, issue 6
17 Mar 2015
Research article | 17 Mar 2015
Oxygen and carbon isotope composition of modern planktic foraminifera and near-surface waters in the Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) – a case study
T. Pados et al.
B. Riedel, T. Pados, K. Pretterebner, L. Schiemer, A. Steckbauer, A. Haselmair, M. Zuschin, and M. Stachowitsch
Biogeosciences, 11, 1491–1518,
Stefan Mulitza, Torsten Bickert, Helen C. Bostock, Cristiano M. Chiessi, Barbara Donner, Aline Govin, Naomi Harada, Enqing Huang, Heather Johnstone, Henning Kuhnert, Michael Langner, Frank Lamy, Lester Lembke-Jene, Lorraine Lisiecki, Jean Lynch-Stieglitz, Lars Max, Mahyar Mohtadi, Gesine Mollenhauer, Juan Muglia, Dirk Nürnberg, André Paul, Carsten Rühlemann, Janne Repschläger, Rajeev Saraswat, Andreas Schmittner, Elisabeth L. Sikes, Robert F. Spielhagen, and Ralf Tiedemann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2553–2611,Short summary
Stable isotope ratios of foraminiferal shells from deep-sea sediments preserve key information on the variability of ocean circulation and ice volume. We present the first global atlas of harmonized raw downcore oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of various planktonic and benthic foraminiferal species. The atlas is a foundation for the analyses of the history of Earth system components, for finding future coring sites, and for teaching marine stratigraphy and paleoceanography.
Loeka Laura Jongejans, Kai Mangelsdorf, Cornelia Karger, Thomas Opel, Sebastian Wetterich, Jérémy Courtin, Hanno Meyer, Alexander I. Kizyakov, Guido Grosse, Andrei G. Shepelev, Igor I. Syromyatnikov, Alexander N. Fedorov, and Jens Strauss
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Large parts of Arctic Siberia are underlain by permafrost. Climate warming leads to permafrost thaw. At the Batagay megaslump, permafrost sediments up to ~650 ka old are exposed. We took sediment samples and analyzed the organic matter (e.g., plant remains). We found distinct differences in the biomarker distributions between the glacial and interglacial deposits with generally stronger microbial activity during interglacial periods. Further permafrost thaw enhances greenhouse gas emissions.
Michael Fritz, Sebastian Wetterich, Joel McAlister, and Hanno Meyer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 57–63,Short summary
From 2015 to 2018 we collected rain and snow samples in Inuvik, Canada. We measured the stable water isotope composition of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) with a mass spectrometer. This data will be of interest for other scientists who work in the Arctic. They will be able to compare our modern data with their own isotope data in old ice, for example in glaciers, and in permafrost. This will help to correctly interpret the climate signals of the environmental history of the Earth.
Stefanie Arndt, Christian Haas, Hanno Meyer, Ilka Peeken, and Thomas Krumpen
The Cryosphere, 15, 4165–4178,Short summary
We present here snow and ice core data from the northwestern Weddell Sea in late austral summer 2019, which allow insights into possible reasons for the recent low summer sea ice extent in the Weddell Sea. We suggest that the fraction of superimposed ice and snow ice can be used here as a sensitive indicator. However, snow and ice properties were not exceptional, suggesting that the summer surface energy balance and related seasonal transition of snow properties have changed little in the past.
Jens A. Hölemann, Bennet Juhls, Dorothea Bauch, Markus Janout, Boris P. Koch, and Birgit Heim
Biogeosciences, 18, 3637–3655,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean receives large amounts of river water rich in terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM), which is an important component of the Arctic carbon cycle. Our analysis shows that mixing of three major freshwater sources is the main factor that regulates the distribution of tDOM concentrations in the Siberian shelf seas. In this context, the formation and melting of the land-fast ice in the Laptev Sea and the peak spring discharge of the Lena River are of particular importance.
Ines Spangenberg, Pier Paul Overduin, Ellen Damm, Ingeborg Bussmann, Hanno Meyer, Susanne Liebner, Michael Angelopoulos, Boris K. Biskaborn, Mikhail N. Grigoriev, and Guido Grosse
The Cryosphere, 15, 1607–1625,Short summary
Thermokarst lakes are common on ice-rich permafrost. Many studies have shown that they are sources of methane to the atmosphere. Although they are usually covered by ice, little is known about what happens to methane in winter. We studied how much methane is contained in the ice of a thermokarst lake, a thermokarst lagoon and offshore. Methane concentrations differed strongly, depending on water body type. Microbes can also oxidize methane in ice and lower the concentrations during winter.
Sebastian Wetterich, Alexander Kizyakov, Michael Fritz, Juliane Wolter, Gesine Mollenhauer, Hanno Meyer, Matthias Fuchs, Aleksei Aksenov, Heidrun Matthes, Lutz Schirrmeister, and Thomas Opel
The Cryosphere, 14, 4525–4551,Short summary
In the present study, we analysed geochemical and sedimentological properties of relict permafrost and ground ice exposed at the Sobo-Sise Yedoma cliff in the eastern Lena delta in NE Siberia. We obtained insight into permafrost aggradation and degradation over the last approximately 52 000 years and the climatic and morphodynamic controls on regional-scale permafrost dynamics of the central Laptev Sea coastal region.
Jean-Louis Bonne, Hanno Meyer, Melanie Behrens, Julia Boike, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Benjamin Rabe, Toni Schmidt, Lutz Schönicke, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, and Martin Werner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10493–10511,Short summary
This study introduces 2 years of continuous near-surface in situ observations of the stable isotopic composition of water vapour in parallel with precipitation in north-eastern Siberia. We evaluate the atmospheric transport of moisture towards the region of our observations with simulations constrained by meteorological reanalyses and use this information to interpret the temporal variations of the vapour isotopic composition from seasonal to synoptic timescales.
Kirstin Hoffmann, Francisco Fernandoy, Hanno Meyer, Elizabeth R. Thomas, Marcelo Aliaga, Dieter Tetzner, Johannes Freitag, Thomas Opel, Jorge Arigony-Neto, Christian Florian Göbel, Ricardo Jaña, Delia Rodríguez Oroz, Rebecca Tuckwell, Emily Ludlow, Joseph R. McConnell, and Christoph Schneider
The Cryosphere, 14, 881–904,
Nikita Demidov, Sebastian Wetterich, Sergey Verkulich, Aleksey Ekaykin, Hanno Meyer, Mikhail Anisimov, Lutz Schirrmeister, Vasily Demidov, and Andrew J. Hodson
The Cryosphere, 13, 3155–3169,Short summary
As Norwegian geologist Liestøl (1996) recognised,
in connection with formation of pingos there are a great many unsolved questions. Drillings and temperature measurements through the pingo mound and also through the surrounding permafrost are needed before the problems can be better understood. To shed light on pingo formation here we present the results of first drilling of pingo on Spitsbergen together with results of detailed hydrochemical and stable-isotope studies of massive-ice samples.
Boris K. Biskaborn, Larisa Nazarova, Lyudmila A. Pestryakova, Liudmila Syrykh, Kim Funck, Hanno Meyer, Bernhard Chapligin, Stuart Vyse, Ruslan Gorodnichev, Evgenii Zakharov, Rong Wang, Georg Schwamborn, Hannah L. Bailey, and Bernhard Diekmann
Biogeosciences, 16, 4023–4049,Short summary
To better understand time-series data in lake sediment cores in times of rapidly changing climate, we study within-lake spatial variabilities of environmental indicator data in 38 sediment surface samples along spatial habitat gradients in the boreal deep Lake Bolshoe Toko (Russia). Our methods comprise physicochemical as well as diatom and chironomid analyses. Species diversities vary according to benthic niches, while abiotic proxies depend on river input, water depth, and catchment lithology.
Thomas Opel, Julian B. Murton, Sebastian Wetterich, Hanno Meyer, Kseniia Ashastina, Frank Günther, Hendrik Grotheer, Gesine Mollenhauer, Petr P. Danilov, Vasily Boeskorov, Grigoriy N. Savvinov, and Lutz Schirrmeister
Clim. Past, 15, 1443–1461,Short summary
To reconstruct past winter climate, we studied ice wedges at two sites in the Yana Highlands, interior Yakutia (Russia), the most continental region of the Northern Hemisphere. Our ice wedges of the upper ice complex unit of the Batagay megaslump and a river terrace show much more depleted stable-isotope compositions than other study sites in coastal and central Yakutia, reflecting lower winter temperatures and a higher continentality of the study region during Marine Isotope Stages 3 and 1.
Francisco Fernandoy, Dieter Tetzner, Hanno Meyer, Guisella Gacitúa, Kirstin Hoffmann, Ulrike Falk, Fabrice Lambert, and Shelley MacDonell
The Cryosphere, 12, 1069–1090,Short summary
Through the geochemical analysis of the surface snow of a glacier at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, we aimed to investigate how atmosphere and ocean conditions of the surrounding region are varying under the present climate scenario. We found that meteorological conditions strongly depend on the extension of sea ice. Our results show a slight cooling of the surface air during the last decade at this site. However, the general warming tendency for the region is still on-going.
Nguyen Le Duy, Ingo Heidbüchel, Hanno Meyer, Bruno Merz, and Heiko Apel
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1239–1262,Short summary
This study analyzes the influence of local and regional meteorological factors on the isotopic composition of precipitation. The impact of the different factors on the isotopic condition was quantified by multiple linear regression of all factor combinations combined with relative importance analysis. The proposed approach might open a pathway for the improved reconstruction of paleoclimates based on isotopic records.
Thomas Münch, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Johannes Freitag, Hanno Meyer, and Thomas Laepple
The Cryosphere, 11, 2175–2188,Short summary
The importance of post-depositional changes for the temperature interpretation of water isotopes is poorly constrained by observations. Here, for the first time, temporal isotope changes in the open-porous firn are directly analysed using a large array of shallow isotope profiles. By this, we can reject the possibility of post-depositional change beyond diffusion and densification as the cause of the discrepancy between isotope and local temperature variations at Kohnen Station, East Antarctica.
Thomas Opel, Sebastian Wetterich, Hanno Meyer, Alexander Y. Dereviagin, Margret C. Fuchs, and Lutz Schirrmeister
Clim. Past, 13, 587–611,Short summary
We studied late Quaternary permafrost at the Oyogos Yar coast (Dmitry Laptev Strait) to reconstruct palaeoclimate and palaeonvironmental conditions in the Northeast Siberian Arctic. Our ice-wedge stable isotope record, combined with data from Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island, indicates coldest winter temperatures during MIS5 and MIS2, warmest conditions during the Holocene, i.e. today, and non-stable winter climate during MIS3. New IRSL ages reveal high climate variability during MIS5.
G. van der Wel, H. Fischer, H. Oerter, H. Meyer, and H. A. J. Meijer
The Cryosphere, 9, 1601–1616,Short summary
The diffusion of the stable water isotope signal during firnification of snow is a temperature-dependent process. Therefore, past local temperatures can be derived from the differential diffusion length. In this paper we develop a new method for determining this quantity and compare it with the existing method. Both methods are applied to a large number of synthetic data sets to assess the precision and accuracy of the reconstruction and to a section of the Antarctic EDML ice core record.
M. Fritz, T. Opel, G. Tanski, U. Herzschuh, H. Meyer, A. Eulenburg, and H. Lantuit
The Cryosphere, 9, 737–752,Short summary
Ground ice in permafrost has not, until now, been considered to be a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other elements that are important for ecosystems and carbon cycling. Ice wedges in the Arctic Yedoma region hold 45.2 Tg DOC (Tg = 10^12g), 33.6 Tg DIC and a freshwater reservoir of 4200 km³. Leaching of terrestrial organic matter is the most relevant process of DOC sequestration into ground ice.
G. Schwamborn, H. Meyer, L. Schirrmeister, and G. Fedorov
Clim. Past, 10, 1109–1123,
B. Riedel, T. Pados, K. Pretterebner, L. Schiemer, A. Steckbauer, A. Haselmair, M. Zuschin, and M. Stachowitsch
Biogeosciences, 11, 1491–1518,
D. Bauch, S. Torres-Valdes, I. Polyakov, A. Novikhin, I. Dmitrenko, J. McKay, and A. Mix
Ocean Sci., 10, 141–154,
M. M. Telesiński, R. F. Spielhagen, and H. A. Bauch
Clim. Past, 10, 123–136,
T. Opel, D. Fritzsche, and H. Meyer
Clim. Past, 9, 2379–2389,
C. Wegner, D. Bauch, J. A. Hölemann, M. A. Janout, B. Heim, A. Novikhin, H. Kassens, and L. Timokhov
Biogeosciences, 10, 1117–1129,
Related subject area
Paleobiogeoscience: Proxy use, Development & ValidationA modern snapshot of the isotopic composition of lacustrine biogenic carbonates – records of seasonal water temperature variabilityPerformance of temperature and productivity proxies based on long-chain alkane-1, mid-chain diols at test: a 5-year sediment trap record from the Mauritanian upwellingValidation of a coupled δ2Hn-alkane–δ18Osugar paleohygrometer approach based on a climate chamber experimentExperimental production of charcoal morphologies to discriminate fuel source and fire type: an example from Siberian taigaToward a global calibration for quantifying past oxygenation in oxygen minimum zones using benthic ForaminiferaCalibration of Mg ∕ Ca and Sr ∕ Ca in coastal marine ostracods as a proxy for temperatureTechnical note: Accelerate coccolith size separation via repeated centrifugationMg∕Ca, Sr∕Ca and stable isotopes from the planktonic foraminifera T. sacculifer: testing a multi-proxy approach for inferring paleotemperature and paleosalinityChemical destaining and the delta correction for blue intensity measurements of stained lake subfossil treesModern calibration of Poa flabellata (tussac grass) as a new paleoclimate proxy in the South AtlanticSeawater pH reconstruction using boron isotopes in multiple planktonic foraminifera species with different depth habitats and their potential to constrain pH and pCO2 gradientsBottom-water deoxygenation at the Peruvian margin during the last deglaciation recorded by benthic foraminiferaThe pH dependency of the boron isotopic composition of diatom opal (Thalassiosira weissflogii)Benthic foraminifera as tracers of brine production in the Storfjorden “sea ice factory”Evaluation of bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether and 2H–18O biomarker proxies along a central European topsoil transectLeaf wax n-alkane patterns and compound-specific δ13C of plants and topsoils from semi-arid and arid MongoliaOrganic-carbon-rich sediments: benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators of depositional environmentsStrong correspondence between nitrogen isotope composition of foliage and chlorin across a rainfall gradient: implications for paleo-reconstruction of the nitrogen cycleEnvironmental and biological controls on Na∕Ca ratios in scleractinian cold-water coralsDepth habitat of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma in the northern high latitudes explained by sea-ice and chlorophyll concentrationsTemporal variability in foraminiferal morphology and geochemistry at the West Antarctic Peninsula: a sediment trap studySeasonality of archaeal lipid flux and GDGT-based thermometry in sinking particles of high-latitude oceans: Fram Strait (79° N) and Antarctic Polar Front (50° S)Long-chain diols in settling particles in tropical oceans: insights into sources, seasonality and proxiesMulti-trace-element sea surface temperature coral reconstruction for the southern Mozambique Channel reveals teleconnections with the tropical AtlanticOxygen isotope composition of the final chamber of planktic foraminifera provides evidence of vertical migration and depth-integrated growthMg ∕ Ca and δ18O in living planktic foraminifers from the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Florida StraitsManganese incorporation in living (stained) benthic foraminiferal shells: a bathymetric and in-sediment study in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean)Effects of light and temperature on Mg uptake, growth, and calcification in the proxy climate archive Clathromorphum compactumA systematic look at chromium isotopes in modern shells – implications for paleo-environmental reconstructionsReviews and syntheses: Revisiting the boron systematics of aragonite and their application to coral calcificationPhysico-chemical and biological factors influencing dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco BasinEffects of alkalinity and salinity at low and high light intensity on hydrogen isotope fractionation of long-chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyiInterplay of community dynamics, temperature, and productivity on the hydrogen isotope signatures of lipid biomarkersBenthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferencesThe effects of environment on Arctica islandica shell formation and architectureDiatoms as a paleoproductivity proxy in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system (NE Atlantic)Factors controlling the depth habitat of planktonic foraminifera in the subtropical eastern North AtlanticThe effect of shell secretion rate on Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios in biogenic calcite as observed in a belemnite rostrumCarbonate “clumped” isotope signatures in aragonitic scleractinian and calcitic gorgonian deep-sea coralsExamining the provenance of branched GDGTs in the Tagus River drainage basin and its outflow into the Atlantic Ocean over the Holocene to determine their usefulness for paleoclimate applicationsMussel shells of Mytilus edulis as bioarchives of the distribution of rare earth elements and yttrium in seawater and the potential impact of pH and temperature on their partitioning behaviorFossil invertebrates records in cave sediments and paleoenvironmental assessments – a study of four cave sites from Romanian CarpathiansTesting the D / H ratio of alkenones and palmitic acid as salinity proxies in the Amazon PlumeTechnical Note: Towards resolving in situ, centimeter-scale location and timing of biomineralization in calcareous meiobenthos – the calcein–osmotic pump methodA comparison of benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca and sedimentary Mn / Al as proxies of relative bottom-water oxygenation in the low-latitude NE Atlantic upwelling systemThe stable isotopic composition of Daphnia ephippia reflects changes in δ13C and δ18O values of food and waterThe contribution of tephra constituents during biogenic silica determination: implications for soil and palaeoecological studiesSeasonal lake surface water temperature trends reflected by heterocyst glycolipid-based molecular thermometersTechnical Note: Silica stable isotopes and silicification in a carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma sp.Environmental controls on the boron and strontium isotopic composition of aragonite shell material of cultured Arctica islandica
Inga Labuhn, Franziska Tell, Ulrich von Grafenstein, Dan Hammarlund, Henning Kuhnert, and Bénédicte Minster
Biogeosciences, 19, 2759–2777,Short summary
This study presents the isotopic composition of recent biogenic carbonates from several lacustrine species which calcify during different times of the year. The authors demonstrate that when biological offsets are corrected, the dominant cause of differences between species is the seasonal variation in temperature-dependent fractionation of oxygen isotopes. Consequently, such carbonates from lake sediments can provide proxy records of seasonal water temperature changes in the past.
Gerard J. M. Versteegh, Karin A. F. Zonneveld, Jens Hefter, Oscar E. Romero, Gerhard Fischer, and Gesine Mollenhauer
Biogeosciences, 19, 1587–1610,Short summary
A 5-year record of long-chain mid-chain diol export flux and composition is presented with a 1- to 3-week resolution sediment trap CBeu (in the NW African upwelling). All environmental parameters as well as the diol composition are dominated by the seasonal cycle, albeit with different phase relations for temperature and upwelling. Most diol-based proxies are dominated by upwelling. The long-chain diol index reflects temperatures of the oligotrophic summer sea surface.
Johannes Hepp, Christoph Mayr, Kazimierz Rozanski, Imke Kathrin Schäfer, Mario Tuthorn, Bruno Glaser, Dieter Juchelka, Willibald Stichler, Roland Zech, and Michael Zech
Biogeosciences, 18, 5363–5380,Short summary
Deriving more quantitative climate information like relative air humidity is one of the key challenges in paleostudies. Often only qualitative reconstructions can be done when single-biomarker-isotope data are derived from a climate archive. However, the coupling of hemicellulose-derived sugar with leaf-wax-derived n-alkane isotope results has the potential to overcome this limitation and allow a quantitative relative air humidity reconstruction.
Biogeosciences, 18, 3805–3821,Short summary
This study characterized the diversity of laboratory-produced charcoal morphological features of various fuel types from Siberia at different temperatures. The results obtained improve the attribution of charcoal particles to fuel types and fire characteristics. This work also provides recommendations for the application of this information to refine the past wildfire history.
Martin Tetard, Laetitia Licari, Ekaterina Ovsepyan, Kazuyo Tachikawa, and Luc Beaufort
Biogeosciences, 18, 2827–2841,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones are oceanic regions almost devoid of dissolved oxygen and are currently expanding due to global warming. Investigation of their past behaviour will allow better understanding of these areas and better prediction of their future evolution. A new method to estimate past [O2] was developed based on morphometric measurements of benthic foraminifera. This method and two other approaches based on foraminifera assemblages and porosity were calibrated using 45 core tops worldwide.
Maximiliano Rodríguez and Christelle Not
Biogeosciences, 18, 1987–2001,Short summary
Mg/Ca in calcium carbonate shells of marine organisms such as foraminifera and ostracods has been used as a proxy to reconstruct water temperature. Here we provide new Mg/Ca–temperature calibrations for two shallow marine species of ostracods. We show that the water temperature in spring produces the best calibrations, which suggests the potential use of ostracod shells to reconstruct this parameter at a seasonal scale.
Hongrui Zhang, Chuanlian Liu, Luz María Mejía, and Heather Stoll
Biogeosciences, 18, 1909–1916,
Delphine Dissard, Gert Jan Reichart, Christophe Menkes, Morgan Mangeas, Stephan Frickenhaus, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 18, 423–439,Short summary
Results from a data set acquired from living foraminifera T. sacculifer collected from surface waters are presented, allowing us to establish a new Mg/Ca–Sr/Ca–temperature equation improving temperature reconstructions. When combining equations, δ18Ow can be reconstructed with a precision of ± 0.5 ‰, while successive reconstructions involving Mg/Ca and δ18Oc preclude salinity reconstruction with a precision better than ± 1.69. A new direct linear fit to reconstruct salinity could be established.
Feng Wang, Dominique Arseneault, Étienne Boucher, Shulong Yu, Steeven Ouellet, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Ann Delwaide, and Lily Wang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4559–4570,Short summary
Wood stain is challenging the use of the blue intensity technique for dendroclimatic reconstructions. Using stained subfossil trees from eastern Canadian lakes, we compared chemical destaining approaches with the
delta bluemathematical correction of blue intensity data. Although no chemical treatment was completely efficient, the delta blue method is unaffected by the staining problem and thus is promising for climate reconstructions based on lake subfossil material.
Dulcinea V. Groff, David G. Williams, and Jacquelyn L. Gill
Biogeosciences, 17, 4545–4557,Short summary
Tussock grasses that grow along coastlines of the Falkland Islands are slow to decay and build up thick peat layers over thousands of years. Grass fragments found in ancient peat can be used to reconstruct past climate because grasses can preserve a record of growing conditions in their leaves. We found that modern living tussock grasses in the Falkland Islands reliably record temperature and humidity in their leaves, and the peat they form can be used to understand past climate change.
Maxence Guillermic, Sambuddha Misra, Robert Eagle, Alexandra Villa, Fengming Chang, and Aradhna Tripati
Biogeosciences, 17, 3487–3510,Short summary
Boron isotope ratios (δ11B) of foraminifera are a promising proxy for seawater pH and can be used to constrain pCO2. In this study, we derived calibrations for new foraminiferal taxa which extend the application of the boron isotope proxy. We discuss the origin of different δ11B signatures in species and also discuss the potential of using multispecies δ11B analyses to constrain vertical pH and pCO2 gradients in ancient water columns to shed light on biogeochemical carbon cycling in the past.
Zeynep Erdem, Joachim Schönfeld, Anthony E. Rathburn, Maria-Elena Pérez, Jorge Cardich, and Nicolaas Glock
Biogeosciences, 17, 3165–3182,Short summary
Recent observations from today’s oceans revealed that oxygen concentrations are decreasing, and oxygen minimum zones are expanding together with current climate change. With the aim of understanding past climatic events and their relationship with oxygen content, we looked at the fossils, called benthic foraminifera, preserved in the sediment archives from the Peruvian margin and quantified the bottom-water oxygen content for the last 22 000 years.
Hannah K. Donald, Gavin L. Foster, Nico Fröhberg, George E. A. Swann, Alex J. Poulton, C. Mark Moore, and Matthew P. Humphreys
Biogeosciences, 17, 2825–2837,Short summary
The boron isotope pH proxy is increasingly being used to reconstruct ocean pH in the past. Here we detail a novel analytical methodology for measuring the boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of diatom opal and apply this to the study of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii grown in culture over a range of pH. To our knowledge this is the first study of its kind and provides unique insights into the way in which diatoms incorporate boron and their potential as archives of palaeoclimate records.
Eleonora Fossile, Maria Pia Nardelli, Arbia Jouini, Bruno Lansard, Antonio Pusceddu, Davide Moccia, Elisabeth Michel, Olivier Péron, Hélène Howa, and Meryem Mojtahid
Biogeosciences, 17, 1933–1953,Short summary
This study focuses on benthic foraminiferal distribution in an Arctic fjord characterised by continuous sea ice production during winter and the consequent cascading of salty and corrosive waters (brine) to the seabed. The inner fjord is dominated by calcareous species (C). In the central deep basins, where brines are persistent, calcareous foraminifera are dissolved and agglutinated (A) dominate. The high A/C ratio is suggested as a proxy for brine persistence and sea ice production.
Johannes Hepp, Imke Kathrin Schäfer, Verena Lanny, Jörg Franke, Marcel Bliedtner, Kazimierz Rozanski, Bruno Glaser, Michael Zech, Timothy Ian Eglinton, and Roland Zech
Biogeosciences, 17, 741–756,
Julian Struck, Marcel Bliedtner, Paul Strobel, Jens Schumacher, Enkhtuya Bazarradnaa, and Roland Zech
Biogeosciences, 17, 567–580,Short summary
We present leaf wax n-alkanes and their compound-specific (CS) δ13C isotopes from semi-arid and/or arid Mongolia to test their potential for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Plants and topsoils were analysed and checked for climatic control. Chain-length variations are distinct between grasses and Caragana, which are not biased by climate. However CS δ13C is strongly correlated to climate, so n-alkanes and their CS δ13C show great potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction in Mongolia.
Elena Lo Giudice Cappelli, Jessica Louise Clarke, Craig Smeaton, Keith Davidson, and William Edward Newns Austin
Biogeosciences, 16, 4183–4199,Short summary
Fjords are known sinks of organic carbon (OC); however, little is known about the long-term fate of the OC stored in these sediments. The reason for this knowledge gap is the post-depositional degradation of OC. This study uses benthic foraminifera (microorganisms with calcite shells) to discriminate between post-depositional OC degradation and actual OC burial and accumulation in fjordic sediments, as foraminifera would only preserve the latter information in their assemblage composition.
Sara K. E. Goulden, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Katherine H. Freeman, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Nanako O. Ogawa, Hisami Suga, Oliver Chadwick, and Benjamin Z. Houlton
Biogeosciences, 16, 3869–3882,Short summary
We investigate whether soil organic compounds preserve information about nitrogen availability to plants. We isolate chlorophyll degradation products in leaves, litter, and soil and explore possible species and climate effects on preservation and interpretation. We find that compound-specific nitrogen isotope measurements in soil have potential as a new tool to reconstruct changes in nitrogen cycling on a landscape over time, avoiding issues that have limited other proxies.
Nicolai Schleinkofer, Jacek Raddatz, André Freiwald, David Evans, Lydia Beuck, Andres Rüggeberg, and Volker Liebetrau
Biogeosciences, 16, 3565–3582,Short summary
In this study we tried to correlate Na / Ca ratios from cold-water corals with environmental parameters such as salinity, temperature and pH. We do not observe a correlation between Na / Ca ratios and seawater salinity, but we do observe a strong correlation with temperature. Na / Ca data from warm-water corals (Porites spp.) and bivalves (Mytilus edulis) support this correlation, indicating that similar controls on the incorporation of sodium exist in these aragonitic organisms.
Mattia Greco, Lukas Jonkers, Kerstin Kretschmer, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 16, 3425–3437,Short summary
To be able to interpret the paleoecological signal contained in N. pachyderma's shells, its habitat depth must be known. Our investigation on 104 density profiles of this species from the Arctic and North Atlantic shows that specimens reside closer to the surface when sea-ice and/or surface chlorophyll concentrations are high. This is in contrast with previous investigations that pointed at the position of the deep chlorophyll maximum as the main driver of N. pachyderma vertical distribution.
Anna Mikis, Katharine R. Hendry, Jennifer Pike, Daniela N. Schmidt, Kirsty M. Edgar, Victoria Peck, Frank J. C. Peeters, Melanie J. Leng, Michael P. Meredith, Chloe L. Todd, Sharon Stammerjohn, and Hugh Ducklow
Biogeosciences, 16, 3267–3282,Short summary
Antarctic marine calcifying organisms are threatened by regional climate change and ocean acidification. Future projections of regional carbonate production are challenging due to the lack of historical data combined with complex climate variability. We present a 6-year record of flux, morphology and geochemistry of an Antarctic planktonic foraminifera, which shows that their growth is most sensitive to sea ice dynamics and is linked with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation.
Eunmi Park, Jens Hefter, Gerhard Fischer, Morten Hvitfeldt Iversen, Simon Ramondenc, Eva-Maria Nöthig, and Gesine Mollenhauer
Biogeosciences, 16, 2247–2268,Short summary
We analyzed GDGT-based proxy temperatures in the polar oceans. In the eastern Fram Strait (79° N), the nutrient distribution may determine the depth habit of Thaumarchaeota and thus the proxy temperature. In the Antarctic Polar Front (50° S), the contribution of Euryarchaeota or the nonlinear correlation between the proxy values and temperatures may cause the warm biases of the proxy temperatures relative to SSTs.
Marijke W. de Bar, Jenny E. Ullgren, Robert C. Thunnell, Stuart G. Wakeham, Geert-Jan A. Brummer, Jan-Berend W. Stuut, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 16, 1705–1727,Short summary
We analyzed sediment traps from the Cariaco Basin, the tropical Atlantic and the Mozambique Channel to evaluate seasonal imprints in the concentrations and fluxes of long-chain diols (LDIs), in addition to the long-chain diol index proxy (sea surface temperature proxy) and the diol index (upwelling indicator). Despite significant degradation, LDI-derived temperatures were very similar for the sediment traps and seafloor sediments, and corresponded to annual mean sea surface temperatures.
Jens Zinke, Juan P. D'Olivo, Christoph J. Gey, Malcolm T. McCulloch, J. Henrich Bruggemann, Janice M. Lough, and Mireille M. M. Guillaume
Biogeosciences, 16, 695–712,Short summary
Here we report seasonally resolved sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions for the southern Mozambique Channel in the SW Indian Ocean, a region located along the thermohaline ocean surface circulation route, based on multi-trace-element temperature proxy records preserved in two Porites sp. coral cores for the past 42 years. Particularly, we show the suitability of both separate and combined Sr / Ca and Li / Mg proxies for improved multielement SST reconstructions.
Hilde Pracht, Brett Metcalfe, and Frank J. C. Peeters
Biogeosciences, 16, 643–661,Short summary
In palaeoceanography the shells of single-celled foraminifera are routinely used as proxies to reconstruct the temperature, salinity and circulation of the ocean in the past. Traditionally a number of specimens were pooled for a single stable isotope measurement; however, technical advances now mean that a single shell or chamber of a shell can be measured individually. Three different hypotheses regarding foraminiferal biology and ecology were tested using this approach.
Anna Jentzen, Dirk Nürnberg, Ed C. Hathorne, and Joachim Schönfeld
Biogeosciences, 15, 7077–7095,
Shauna Ní Fhlaithearta, Christophe Fontanier, Frans Jorissen, Aurélia Mouret, Adriana Dueñas-Bohórquez, Pierre Anschutz, Mattias B. Fricker, Detlef Günther, Gert J. de Lange, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 15, 6315–6328,Short summary
This study looks at how foraminifera interact with their geochemical environment in the seabed. We focus on the incorporation of the trace metal manganese (Mn), with the aim of developing a tool to reconstruct past pore water profiles. Manganese concentrations in foraminifera are investigated relative to their ecological preferences and geochemical environment. This study demonstrates that Mn in foraminiferal tests is a promising tool to reconstruct oxygen conditions in the seabed.
Siobhan Williams, Walter Adey, Jochen Halfar, Andreas Kronz, Patrick Gagnon, David Bélanger, and Merinda Nash
Biogeosciences, 15, 5745–5759,
Robert Frei, Cora Paulukat, Sylvie Bruggmann, and Robert M. Klaebe
Biogeosciences, 15, 4905–4922,Short summary
The reconstruction of paleo-redox conditions of seawater has the potential to link to climatic changes on land and therefore to contribute to our understanding of past climate change. The redox-sensitive chromium isotope system is applied to marine calcifiers in order to characterize isotope offsets that result from vital processes during calcification processes and which can be eventually used in fossil equivalents to reconstruct past seawater compositions.
Thomas M. DeCarlo, Michael Holcomb, and Malcolm T. McCulloch
Biogeosciences, 15, 2819–2834,Short summary
Understanding the mechanisms of coral calcification is limited by the isolation of the calcifying environment. The boron systematics (B / Ca and δ11B) of aragonite have recently been developed as a proxy for the carbonate chemistry of the calcifying fluid, but a variety of approaches have been utilized. We assess the available experimental B / Ca partitioning data and present a computer code for deriving calcifying fluid carbonate chemistry from the boron systematics of coral skeletons.
Manuel Bringué, Robert C. Thunell, Vera Pospelova, James L. Pinckney, Oscar E. Romero, and Eric J. Tappa
Biogeosciences, 15, 2325–2348,Short summary
We document 2.5 yr of dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco Basin using a sediment trap record. Each species' production pattern is interpreted in the context of the physico-chemical (e.g., temperature, nutrients) and biological (other planktonic groups) environment. Most species respond positively to upwelling, but seem to be negatively impacted by an El Niño event with a 1-year lag. This work helps understanding dinoflagellate ecology and interpreting fossil assemblages in sediments.
Gabriella M. Weiss, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stefan Schouten, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Marcel T. J. van der Meer
Biogeosciences, 14, 5693–5704,Short summary
Algal-derived compounds allow us to make assumptions about environmental conditions in the past. In order to better understand how organisms record environmental conditions, we grew microscopic marine algae at different light intensities, salinities, and alkalinities in a temperature-controlled environment. We determined how these environmental parameters affected specific algal-derived compounds, especially their relative deuterium content, which seems to be mainly affected by salinity.
S. Nemiah Ladd, Nathalie Dubois, and Carsten J. Schubert
Biogeosciences, 14, 3979–3994,Short summary
Hydrogen isotopes of lipids provide valuable information about microbial activity, climate, and environmental stress. We show that heavy hydrogen in fatty acids declines from spring to summer in a nutrient-rich and a nutrient-poor lake and that the effect is nearly 3 times as big in the former. This effect is likely a combination of increased biomass from algae, warmer temperatures, and higher algal growth rates.
Karoliina A. Koho, Lennart J. de Nooijer, Christophe Fontanier, Takashi Toyofuku, Kazumasa Oguri, Hiroshi Kitazato, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 14, 3067–3082,Short summary
Here we report Mn / Ca ratios in living benthic foraminifera from the NE Japan margin. The results show that the Mn incorporation directly reflects the environment where the foraminifera calcify. Foraminifera that live deeper in sediment, under greater redox stress, generally incorporate more Mn into their carbonate skeletons. As such, foraminifera living close to the Mn reduction zone in sediment appear promising tools for paleoceanographic reconstructions of sedimentary redox conditions.
Stefania Milano, Gernot Nehrke, Alan D. Wanamaker Jr., Irene Ballesta-Artero, Thomas Brey, and Bernd R. Schöne
Biogeosciences, 14, 1577–1591,
Diana Zúñiga, Celia Santos, María Froján, Emilia Salgueiro, Marta M. Rufino, Francisco De la Granda, Francisco G. Figueiras, Carmen G. Castro, and Fátima Abrantes
Biogeosciences, 14, 1165–1179,Short summary
Diatoms are one of the most important primary producers in highly productive coastal regions. Their silicified valves are susceptible to escape from the upper water column and be preserved in the sediment record, and thus are frequently used to reconstruct environmental conditions in the past from sediment cores. Here, we assess how water column diatom’s community in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system is seasonally transferred from the surface to the seafloor sediments.
Andreia Rebotim, Antje H. L. Voelker, Lukas Jonkers, Joanna J. Waniek, Helge Meggers, Ralf Schiebel, Igaratza Fraile, Michael Schulz, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 14, 827–859,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera species depth habitat remains poorly constrained and the existing conceptual models are not sufficiently tested by observational data. Here we present a synthesis of living planktonic foraminifera abundance data in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic from vertical plankton tows. We also test potential environmental factors influencing the species depth habitat and investigate yearly or lunar migration cycles. These findings may impact paleoceanographic studies.
Clemens Vinzenz Ullmann and Philip A. E. Pogge von Strandmann
Biogeosciences, 14, 89–97,Short summary
This study documents how much control growth rate has on the chemical composition of fossil shell material. Using a series of chemical analyses of the fossil hard part of a belemnite, an extinct marine predator, a clear connection between the rate of calcite formation and its magnesium and strontium contents was found. These findings provide further insight into biomineralization processes and help better understand chemical signatures of fossils as proxies for palaeoenvironmental conditions.
Justine Kimball, Robert Eagle, and Robert Dunbar
Biogeosciences, 13, 6487–6505,Short summary
Deep-sea corals are a potentially valuable archive of temperature and ocean chemistry. We analyzed clumped isotope signatures (Δ47) in live-collected aragonitic scleractinian and high-Mg calcitic gorgonian deep-sea corals and compared results to published data and found offsets between taxa. The observed patterns in deep-sea corals may record distinct mineral equilibrium signatures due to very slow growth rates, kinetic isotope effects, and/or variable acid digestion fractionation factors.
Lisa Warden, Jung-Hyun Kim, Claudia Zell, Geert-Jan Vis, Henko de Stigter, Jérôme Bonnin, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 13, 5719–5738,Short summary
Enhanced analytical techniques were applied to characterize fossilized microbial cell membrane lipids from samples in the Tagus River basin spanning the last 6000 years. Using the novel methods and calibration, the pH estimates were improved upon, and this study reveals new factors that should be considered when using this proxy as well as affirms the importance of examining the provenance of these lipids before applying them for paleoclimate reconstructions.
A. Ponnurangam, M. Bau, M. Brenner, and A. Koschinsky
Biogeosciences, 13, 751–760,Short summary
Our study demonstrates that rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) accumulating in mussel shells emerge as potential proxies for environmental changes. Focusing on pH and temperature variation effects on the distribution of REY in seawater, we show that shells incorporate the free REY3+ species and that decreasing pH leads to increased REY concentrations, while rising temperatures impact the REY distribution pattern with minor effects on the absolute REY concentrations in shells.
O. T. Moldovan, S. Constantin, C. Panaiotu, R. D. Roban, P. Frenzel, and L. Miko
Biogeosciences, 13, 483–497,Short summary
The paper presents the results of a fossil invertebrates study in four caves of the Romanian Carpathians, to complement paleoenvironmental data previously reported. Oribatid mites and ostracods are the most common invertebrates in the studied cave sediments. By corroborating the fossil invertebrates' record with the information given by magnetic properties and sediment structures, complementary data on past vegetation, temperatures, and hydraulic regimes could be gathered.
C. Häggi, C. M. Chiessi, and E. Schefuß
Biogeosciences, 12, 7239–7249,
J. M. Bernhard, W. G. Phalen, A. McIntyre-Wressnig, F. Mezzo, J. C. Wit, M. Jeglinski, and H. L. Filipsson
Biogeosciences, 12, 5515–5522,Short summary
We present an innovative method using osmotic pumps and the fluorescent marker calcein to help identify where and when calcareous bottom-dwelling organisms mineralize in sediments. These organisms, and their geochemical signatures in their carbonate, are the ocean’s storytellers helping us understand past marine conditions. For many species, the timing and location of their calcite growth is not known. Knowing this will enable us to reconstruct past marine environments with greater accuracy.
C. L. McKay, J. Groeneveld, H. L. Filipsson, D. Gallego-Torres, M. J. Whitehouse, T. Toyofuku, and O.E. Romero
Biogeosciences, 12, 5415–5428,Short summary
We highlight the proxy potential of foraminiferal Mn/Ca determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and flow-through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy for recording changes in bottom-water oxygen conditions. Comparisons with Mn sediment bulk measurements from the same sediment core largely agree with the results. High foraminiferal Mn/Ca occurs in samples from times of high productivity export and corresponds with the benthic foraminiferal faunal composition.
J. Schilder, C. Tellenbach, M. Möst, P. Spaak, M. van Hardenbroek, M. J. Wooller, and O. Heiri
Biogeosciences, 12, 3819–3830,Short summary
We show that the stable (C, N, O) isotopic composition of the water flea Daphnia pulicaria is strongly related to that of its diet (C, N) and the water they live in (O). We also show that the stable isotopic composition of the sheaths of Daphnia resting eggs (ephippia) is indicative of the isotopic composition of Daphnia that produced them. This implies that stable isotope ratios of fossil Daphnia ephippia can provide information on past ecological and climatic developments in and around lakes.
W. Clymans, L. Barão, N. Van der Putten, S. Wastegård, G. Gísladóttir, S. Björck, B. Moine, E. Struyf, and D. J. Conley
Biogeosciences, 12, 3789–3804,Short summary
Biogenic silica (BSi) is used as a proxy by soil scientists to identify biological effects on the Si cycle and by palaeoecologists to study environmental changes. We show the presence of tephra constituents can make measurements erroneous at low BSi concentrations, with repercussions for soil and palaeoecological studies. However, we also show that glass shards do not produce an identical dissolution signal to that of BSi, meaning they can be distinguished with appropriate experimental setups.
T. Bauersachs, J. Rochelmeier, and L. Schwark
Biogeosciences, 12, 3741–3751,
K. R. Hendry, G. E. A. Swann, M. J. Leng, H. J. Sloane, C. Goodwin, J. Berman, and M. Maldonado
Biogeosciences, 12, 3489–3498,Short summary
The stable isotope composition of benthic sponge silica skeletons (spicules) has been shown to be a source of useful palaeoceanographic information about past deep seawater chemistry. Here, we investigate the biological vital effects on silica stable isotope composition in a Southern Ocean carnivorous sponge, Asbestopluma sp. We find significant variations in isotopic composition within the specimen – in both silicon and oxygen isotopes – that appear to be related to unusual spicule growth.
Y.-W. Liu, S. M. Aciego, and A. D. Wanamaker Jr.
Biogeosciences, 12, 3351–3368,Short summary
We report the first high-resolution strontium (87Sr/86Sr and δ88/86Sr) and boron (δ11B) isotopic values in the aragonite shell of cultured Arctica islandica. These results suggest that well-preserved subfossil specimens may be used to determine the past Sr isotopic composition of seawater. The δ11B in this experiment suggests that the boron uptake of the shell changes at a temperature threshold of 13°C and a species-specific fractionation factor may be required for seawater pH reconstructions.
Alexander, V.: Interrelationships between the seasonal sea ice and biological regimes, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 2, 157–178, 1980.
Bauch, D., Carsens, J., and Wefer, G.: Oxygen isotope composition of living Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) in the Arctic Ocean, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 146, 47–58, 1997.
Bauch, D., Carstens, J., Wefer, G., and Thiede, J.: The imprint of anthropogenic CO2 in the Arctic Ocean: evidence from planktic δ13C data from water column and sediment surfaces, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II., 47, 1791–1808, 2000.
Bauch, D., Erlenkeuser, H., Winckler, G., Pavlova, G., and Thiede, J.: Carbon isotopes and habitat of polar planktic foraminifera in the Okhotsk Sea: the 'carbonate ion effect' under natural conditions, Mar. Micropaleontol., 45, 83–99, 2002.
Bemis, B. E., Spero, H. J., Bijma, J., and Lea, D. W.: Reevaluation of the oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera: Experimental results and revised paleotemperature equations, Paleoceanography, 13, 150–160, 1998.
Bemis, B. E., Spero, H. J., Lea, D. W., and Bijma, J.: Temperature influence on the carbon isotopic composition of Globigerina bulloides and Orbulina universa (planktonic foraminifera), Mar. Micropaleontol., 38, 213–228, 2000.
Berberich, D.: Die planktische Foraminifere Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg) im Weddellmeer, Antarktis [The planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg) in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica], Berichte zur Polarforschung (Reports on Polar Research), 195, 1–193, 1996.
Berger, W. H.: Planktonic foraminifera: selective solution and the lysocline, Mar. Geol., 8, 111–138, 1970.
Beszczynska-Möller, A. and Wisotzki, A.: Physical oceanography during POLARSTERN cruise ARKXXVI/1, Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGEA.774196, 2012.
Beszczynska-Möller, A., Woodgate, R. A., Lee, C., Melling, H., and Karcher, M.: A synthesis of exchanges through the main oceanic gateways to the Arctic Ocean. In: The Changing Arctic Ocean: Special Issue on the International Polar Year (2007–2009), Oceanography, 24, 82–99, 2011.
Bijma, J., Erez, J., and Hemleben, C.: Lunar and semi-lunar reproductive cycles in some spinose planktonic foraminifers, J. Foramin. Res., 20, 117–127, 1990.
CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/CARINA/, last access: 12 January 2015.
Carstens, J., Hebbeln, D., and Wefer, G.: Distribution of planktic foraminifera at the ice margin in the Arctic (Fram Strait), Mar. Micropaleontol., 29, 257–269, 1997.
Chierici, M. and Fransson, A.: Calcium carbonate saturation in the surface water of the Arctic Ocean: undersaturation in freshwater influenced shelves, Biogeosciences, 6, 2421–2431, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-2421-2009, 2009.
Darling, K. F., Kucera, M., Kroon, D. and Wade, C. M.: A resolution for the coiling direction paradox in Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, Paleoceanography, 21, PA2011, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001189, 2006.
Dickson, R. R., Osborn, T. J., Hurrell, J. W., Meincke, J., Blindheim, J., Adlandsvik, B., Vinje, T., Alekseev, G. and Maslowski, W.: The Arctic Ocean response to the North Atlantic Oscillation, J. Climate, 13, 2671–2696, 2000.
Duplessy, J. C.: Isotope studies, Climatic Change, 3, 47–67, 1978.
Duplessy, J. C., Bé, A. W. H., and Blanc, P. L.: Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition and biogeographic distribution of planktonic foraminifera in the Indian Ocean, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 33, 9–46, 1981.
Duplessy, J. C., Labeyrie, L., Arnold, M., Paterne, M., Duprat, J., and van Weering, T. C.: Changes in surface salinity of the North Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation, Nature, 358, 485–488, 1992.
Ehrenberg, C. G.: Über die Tiefgrund-Verhältnisse des Oceans am Eingange der Davisstrasse und bei Island (About sea bottom conditions at the mouth of Davis Strait and near Iceland), Monatsbericht der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1861, 275–315, 1861.
Erez, J. and Luz, B.: Experimental paleotemperature equation for planktonic foraminifera, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 47, 1025–1031, 1983.
Fairbanks, R. G., Wiebe, P. H., and Be, A. W. H.: Vertical distribution and isotopic composition of living planktonic foraminifera in the western North Atlantic, Science, 207, 61–63, 1980.
Fogel, M. L. and Cifuentes, L. A.: Isotope fractionation during primary production, in: Organic geochemistry, Springer US, 73–98, 1993.
Francey, R. J., Allison, C. E., Etheridge, D. M., Trudinger, C. M., Enting, I. G., Leuenberger, M., Langenfelds, R. L., Michel, E., and Steele, L. P.: A 1000-year high precision record of δ13C in atmospheric CO2, Tellus B, 51, 170–193, 1999.
Friedli, H., Lötscher, H., Oeschger, H., Siegenthaler, U., and Stauffer, B.: Ice core record of the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2 in the past two centuries, Nature, 324, 237–238, 1986.
Gillooly, J. F., Brown, J. H., West, G. B., Savage, V. M., and Charnov, E. L.: Effects of size and temperature on metabolic rate, Science, 293, 2248–2251, 2001.
Hecht, A. D.: An ecologic model for test size variation in recent planktonic foraminifera; applications to the fossil record, J. Foramin. Res., 6, 295–311, 1976.
Hemleben, C., Spindler, M., and Anderson, O. R.: Modern planktonic foraminifera, Springer, New York, 1989.
Hemmingsen, A. M.: Energy metabolism as related to body size and respiratory surfaces, and its evolution. Rep. Steno Mem. Hosp. Nord. Insulinlab., 9, 1–110, 1960.
Jakobsson, M., Mayer, L., Coakley, B., Dowdeswell, J. A., Forbes, S., Fridman, B., Hodnesdal, H., Noormets, R., Pedersen, R., Rebesco, M., Schenke, H. W., Zarayskaya, Y., Accettella, D., Armstrong, A., Anderson, R. M., Bienhoff, P., Camerlenghi, A., Church, I., Edwards, M., Gardner, J. V., Hall, J. K., Hell, B., Hestvik, O., Kristoffersen, Y., Marcussen, C., Mohammad, R., Mosher, D., Nghiem, S. V., Pedrosa, M. T., Travaglini, P. G., and Weatherall, P.: The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) version 3.0., Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L12609, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052219, 2012.
Johanessen, O. M.: Brief overview of the physical oceanography, in: The Nordic Seas, edited by: Hurdle, B. G., Springer, New York, 103–128, 1986.
Jones, E. P.: Circulation in the Arctic Ocean, Polar Res., 20, 139–146, 2001.
Jonkers, L., Brummer, G.-J. A., Peeters, F. J. C., van Aken, H. M., and De Jong, M. F.: Seasonal stratification, shell flux, and oxygen isotope dynamics of left-coiling N. pachyderma (sin.) and T. quinqueloba in the western subpolar North Atlantic, Paleoceanography, 25, PA2204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009PA001849, 2010.
Jonkers, L., Heuven, S., Zahn, R., and Peeters, F. J.: Seasonal patterns of shell flux, δ18O and δ13C of small and large N. pachyderma (s) and G. bulloides in the subpolar North Atlantic, Paleoceanography, 28, 164–174, 2013.
Kahn, M. I.: Non-equilibrium oxygen and carbon isotopic fractionation in tests of living planktonic-foraminifera, Oceanol. Acta, 2, 195–208, 1979.
Kellogg, T., Duplessy, J. C. and Shackleton, N.: Planktonic foraminiferal and oxygen isotopic stratigraphy and paleoclimatology of Norwegian Sea deep-sea cores, Boreas, 7, 61–73, 1978.
Kohfeld, K. E., Fairbanks, R. G., Smith, S. L., and Walsh, I. D.: Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral coiling) as paleoceanographic tracers in polar oceans: Evidence from Northeast Water Polynya plankton tows, sediment traps, and surface sediments, Paleoceanography, 11, 679–699, 1996.
Lončari\.c, N., Peeters, F. J. C., Kroon, D. and Brummer, G.-J. A.: Oxygen isotope ecology of recent planktic foraminifera at the central Walvis Ridge (SE Atlantic), Paleoceanography, 21, PA3009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001207, 2006.
McConnaughey, T.: 13C and 18O isotopic disequilibrium in biological carbonates: I. Patterns, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 151–162, 1989.
Meyer, H., Schoenicke, L., Wand, U., Hubberten, H.-W., and Friedrichsen, H.: Isotope studies of hydrogen and oxygen in ground ice – Experiences with the equilibration technique, Isot. Environ. Healt. S., 36, 133–149, 2000.
Morison, J., Kwok, R., Peralta-Ferriz, C., Alkire, M., Rigor, I., Andersen R., and Steele, M.: Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways, Nature, 481, 66–70, 2012.
Natland, M. L.: New species of foraminifera from off the west coast of North America and from the later Tertiary of the Los Angeles Basin, Scripp. Instit. Oceanogr. Bull. Techn. Ser., 4, 137–164, 1938.
O'Neil, J. R., Clayton, R. N., and Mayeda, T. K.: Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates, J. Chem. Phys., 51, 5547–58, 1969.
Pados, T. and Spielhagen, R.F.: Species distribution and depth habitat of recent planktic foraminifera in the Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean), Pol. Res., 33, 22483, https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v33.22483, 2014.
Peterson, B. J., Holmes, R. M., McClelland, J. W., Vörösmarty, C. J., Lammers, R. B., Shiklomanov, A. I., and Rahmstorf, S.: Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean, Science, 298, 2171–2173, 2002.
Romanek, C. S., Grossman, E. L., and Morse, J. W.: Carbon isotopic fractionation in synthetic aragonite and calcite: effects of temperature and precipitation rate, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 419–430, 1992.
Rudels, B., Friedrich, H. J., and Quadfasel, D.: The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 46, 1023–1062, 1999.
Rudels, B., Meyer, R., Fahrbach, E., Ivanov, V. V., Østerhus, S., Quadfasel, D., Schauer, U., Tverberg, V., and Woodgate, R. A.: Water mass distribution in Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997, Ann. Geophys., 18, 687–705, 2000.
Schiebel, R. and Hemleben, C.: Modern planktic foraminifera. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 79, 135–148, 2005.
Schmidt, G. A. and Mulitza, S.: Global calibration of ecological models for planktic foraminifera from coretop carbonate oxygen-18, Mar. Micropaleontol., 44, 125–140, 2002.
Serreze, M. C., Walsh, J. E., Chapin, III. F. S., Osterkamp, T., Dyurgerov, M., Romanovsky, V., Oechel, W. C., Morison, J., Zhang, T., and Barry, R. G.: Observational evidence of recent change in the northern high latitude environment, Clim. Chang., 46, 159–207, 2000.
Shackleton, N. J., Wiseman, J. D. H., and Buckley, H. A.: Non-equilibrium isotopic fractionation between seawater and planktonic foraminiferal tests, Nature, 242, 177–179, 1973.
Simstich, J., Sarnthein, M., and Erlenkeuser, H.: Paired δ18O signals of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s) and Turborotalita quinqueloba show thermal stratification structure in the Nordic Seas, Mar. Micropaleontol., 48, 107–125, 2003.
Spero, H. J.: Do planktic foraminifera accurately record shifts in the carbon isotopic composition of seawater ΣCO2?, Mar. Micropaleontol., 19, 275–285, 1992.
Spero, H. J. and Deniro, M. J.: The influence of symbiont photosynthesis on the δ18O and δ13C values of planktonic foraminiferal shell calcite, Symbiosis, 4, 213–228, 1987.
Spero, H. J., Bijma, J., Lea, D. W., and Bemis, B. E.: Effect of seawater carbonate concentration on foraminiferal carbon and oxygen isotopes, Nature, 390, 497–500, 1997.
Spielhagen, R. F., Werner, K., Sorensen, S. A., Zamelczyk, K., Kandiano, E., Budeus, G., Husum, K., Marchitto, T. M., and Hald, M.: Enhanced modern heat transfer to the Arctic by warm Atlantic water, Science, 331, 450–453, 2011.
Stangeew, E.: Distribution and isotopic composition of living planktonic foraminifera N. pachyderma (sinistral) and T. quinqueloba in the high latitude North Atlantic, Doctoral dissertation, 2001.
Vergnaud Grazzini, C.: Non-equilibrium isotopic compositions of shells of planktonic foraminifera in the Mediterranean Sea, Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol., 20, 263–276, 1976.
Volkmann, R.: Planktic foraminifers in the outer Laptev Sea and the Fram Strait – Modern distribution and ecology, J. Foramin. Res., 30, 157–176, 2000.
Volkmann, R. and Mensch, M.: Stable isotope composition (δ18O, δ13C) of living planktic foraminifers in the outer Laptev Sea and the Fram Strait, Mar. Micropaleontol., 42, 163–188, 2001.
von Gyldenfeldt, A.-B., Carstens, J., and Meincke, J.: Estimation of the catchment area of a sediment trap by means of current meters and foraminiferal tests, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 47, 1701–1717, 2000.
Zhang, J., Rothrock, D. A., and Steele, M.: Warming of the Arctic Ocean by a strengthened Atlantic inflow: Model results, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1745–1748, 1998.
Fossil planktic foraminifera and their geochemical composition are commonly used proxies in palaeoceanography. Our study with living specimens revealed that in the Fram Strait both Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Turborotalita quinqueloba from the water column have lower δ18O and δ13C values than inorganically precipitated calcite/fossil tests from the sediment surface. These offsets indicate biological influence during calcification and a change of water column properties in the recent past.
Fossil planktic foraminifera and their geochemical composition are commonly used proxies in...