Articles | Volume 12, issue 11
Biogeosciences, 12, 3171–3195, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: KEOPS2: Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau Study 2
Research article 02 Jun 2015
Research article | 02 Jun 2015
Export fluxes in a naturally iron-fertilized area of the Southern Ocean – Part 2: Importance of diatom resting spores and faecal pellets for export
M. Rembauville et al.
No articles found.
Mathieu Rembauville, Stéphane Blain, Clara Manno, Geraint Tarling, Anu Thompson, George Wolff, and Ian Salter
Biogeosciences, 15, 3071–3084,Short summary
Sinking phytoplankton from the surface ocean provide the principal energy source to deep-ocean ecosystems. Our aim was to understand how different phytoplankton communities impact the chemical nature of this sinking material. We show certain types of phytoplankton can preferentially export energy-rich storage compounds to the seafloor. Any climate-driven effects on phytoplankton community structure could thus impact remote deep-ocean ecosystems thousands of kilometres beneath the surface.
Ivia Closset, Damien Cardinal, Mathieu Rembauville, François Thil, and Stéphane Blain
Biogeosciences, 13, 6049–6066,Short summary
Isotopic measurements were used to investigate the seasonal evolution of the silicon (Si) biogeochemical cycle in a naturally iron-fertilized area of the Southern Ocean. When comparing data from early spring and summer periods, the relationship between Si depletion, biogenic silica production, and their isotopic composition appears decoupled in this region. Considering these results, we refined the seasonal net Si production that was mainly sustained by surface phytoplankton populations.
A. J. Cavagna, F. Fripiat, M. Elskens, P. Mangion, L. Chirurgien, I. Closset, M. Lasbleiz, L. Florez-Leiva, D. Cardinal, K. Leblanc, C. Fernandez, D. Lefèvre, L. Oriol, S. Blain, B. Quéguiner, and F. Dehairs
Biogeosciences, 12, 6515–6528,Short summary
Primary production, NO3- and NH4+ uptake, and nitrification rates were measured during the KEOPS 2 cruise (austral spring 2011) in the Kerguelen Plateau area. Natural iron fertilization stimulated primary production which is much higher in the fertilized areas compared to the HNLC site. We report high rates of nitrification in the mixed layer below the euphotic zone. We conclude that high productivity in deep mixing system stimulates the N cycle by increasing both assimilation and regeneration.
F. d'Ovidio, A. Della Penna, T. W. Trull, F. Nencioli, M.-I. Pujol, M.-H. Rio, Y.-H. Park, C. Cotté, M. Zhou, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 5567–5581,Short summary
Field campaigns are instrumental in providing ground truth for understanding and modeling global ocean biogeochemical budgets. A survey however can only inspect a fraction of the global oceans, typically a region hundreds of kilometers wide for a temporal window of the order of (at most) several weeks. In this spatiotemporal domain, mesoscale variability can mask climatological contrasts. Here we propose the use of multisatellite-based Lagrangian diagnostics to solve this issue.
A. S. Rigual-Hernández, T. W. Trull, S. G. Bray, A. Cortina, and L. K. Armand
Biogeosciences, 12, 5309–5337,Short summary
Diatom and major components of the flux collected by two sediment traps in subantarctic and polar frontal zones were studied. Despite significant differences in the composition and magnitude of the flux, POC flux was similar between sites. The development of a group of bloom-forming diatoms during summer led to the formation of aggregates and enhanced POC export. Our results suggest that high biogenic silica accumulation rates should be interpreted as a proxy for iron-limited diatom assemblages.
A. R. Bowie, P. van der Merwe, F. Quéroué, T. Trull, M. Fourquez, F. Planchon, G. Sarthou, F. Chever, A. T. Townsend, I. Obernosterer, J.-B. Sallée, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 4421–4445,Short summary
Iron biogeochemical budgets during the natural ocean fertilisation experiment KEOPS-2 showed that complex circulation and transport pathways were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply, with vertical supply dominant on the plateau and lateral supply dominant in the plume. The exchange of iron between dissolved, biogenic and lithogenic pools was highly dynamic, resulting in a decoupling of iron supply and carbon export and controlling the efficiency of fertilization.
F. Quéroué, G. Sarthou, H. F. Planquette, E. Bucciarelli, F. Chever, P. van der Merwe, D. Lannuzel, A. T. Townsend, M. Cheize, S. Blain, F. d'Ovidio, and A. R. Bowie
Biogeosciences, 12, 3869–3883,Short summary
Dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations were measured in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands. Direct island runoff, glacial melting, and resuspended sediments were identified as important inputs of dFe that could potentially fertilise the northern part of the plateau. Overall, heterogeneous sources of Fe over and off the plateau, in addition to strong variability in Fe supply by vertical or horizontal transport, may explain the high variability in dFe concentrations observed during this study.
M. Rembauville, I. Salter, N. Leblond, A. Gueneugues, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 3153–3170,
I. Obernosterer, M. Fourquez, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1983–1992,
M. Fourquez, I. Obernosterer, D. M. Davies, T. W. Trull, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1893–1906,Short summary
In this manuscript, we present the results of iron uptake measured in the naturally iron-fertilized area during the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study 2 cruise (KEOPS2). Iron uptake by bulk community and several size fractions (microplankton, pico-nanoplankton and bacteria) are presented, compared and discussed in the present paper. This work also presents first investigations on the potential competition between bacteria and phytoplankton for access to iron.
V. Sanial, P. van Beek, B. Lansard, M. Souhaut, E. Kestenare, F. d'Ovidio, M. Zhou, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1415–1430,Short summary
We investigated the origin and mechanisms of the natural iron fertilization that sustains a phytoplankton bloom downstream of the Kerguelen Islands. We used radium isotopes to trace the fate of shelf waters that may transport iron and other micronutrients towards offshore waters. We show that shelf waters are rapidly transferred offshore and may be transported across the polar front (PF). The PF may thus not be a strong physical barrier for chemical elements released by the shelf sediments.
T. W. Trull, D. M. Davies, F. Dehairs, A.-J. Cavagna, M. Lasbleiz, E. C. Laurenceau-Cornec, F. d'Ovidio, F. Planchon, K. Leblanc, B. Quéguiner, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1029–1056,Short summary
The KEOPS2 oceanographic study surveyed more than 30 sites downstream from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean to examine the degree of variation in phytoplankton community responses to natural iron inputs. Our observations of community structure based on the chemical compositions of six microbial size fractions suggest that early spring trophodynamic and export responses differed between regions with persistently low levels versus punctually high levels of iron fertilisation.
E. C. Laurenceau-Cornec, T. W. Trull, D. M. Davies, S. G. Bray, J. Doran, F. Planchon, F. Carlotti, M.-P. Jouandet, A.-J. Cavagna, A. M. Waite, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 12, 1007–1027,
P. van der Merwe, A. R. Bowie, F. Quéroué, L. Armand, S. Blain, F. Chever, D. Davies, F. Dehairs, F. Planchon, G. Sarthou, A. T. Townsend, and T. W. Trull
Biogeosciences, 12, 739–755,Short summary
Trace metal analysis of suspended and settling particles and underlying sediment was undertaken to elucidate the source to sink progression of the particulate trace metal pool near Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean). Findings indicate that the Kerguelen Plateau is a source of trace metals via resuspended shelf sediments, especially below the mixed layer. However, glacial/fluvial runoff into shallow coastal waters is an important mode of fertilisation to areas downstream of Kerguelen Island.
S. Blain, J. Capparos, A. Guéneuguès, I. Obernosterer, and L. Oriol
Biogeosciences, 12, 623–635,
U. Christaki, D. Lefèvre, C. Georges, J. Colombet, P. Catala, C. Courties, T. Sime-Ngando, S. Blain, and I. Obernosterer
Biogeosciences, 11, 6739–6753,Short summary
The concurrent investigation of several parameters has provided insight into two key roles of heterotrophic bacteria, and the microbial food web functioning, at the onset and late phase of the spring phytoplankton bloom induced by natural iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean.
M. Lasbleiz, K. Leblanc, S. Blain, J. Ras, V. Cornet-Barthaux, S. Hélias Nunige, and B. Quéguiner
Biogeosciences, 11, 5931–5955,
O. Sackett, L. Armand, J. Beardall, R. Hill, M. Doblin, C. Connelly, J. Howes, B. Stuart, P. Ralph, and P. Heraud
Biogeosciences, 11, 5795–5808,
M.-P. Jouandet, G. A. Jackson, F. Carlotti, M. Picheral, L. Stemmann, and S. Blain
Biogeosciences, 11, 4393–4406,
M. Zhou, Y. Zhu, F. d'Ovidio, Y.-H. Park, I. Durand, E. Kestenare, V. Sanial, P. Van-Beek, B. Queguiner, F. Carlotti, and S. Blain
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
C. Guinet, X. Xing, E. Walker, P. Monestiez, S. Marchand, B. Picard, T. Jaud, M. Authier, C. Cotté, A. C. Dragon, E. Diamond, D. Antoine, P. Lovell, S. Blain, F. D'Ortenzio, and H. Claustre
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 15–29,
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Hannah L. Bourne, James K. B. Bishop, Elizabeth J. Connors, and Todd J. Wood
Biogeosciences, 18, 3053–3086,Short summary
To learn how the biological carbon pump works in productive coastal upwelling systems, four autonomous carbon flux explorers measured carbon flux through the twilight zone beneath an offshore-flowing filament of biologically productive water. Strikingly different particle classes dominated the carbon fluxes during successive stages of the filament evolution over 30 d. Both flux and transfer efficiency were far greater than expected, suggesting an outsized filament impact in California waters.
Matthieu Roy-Barman, Lorna Foliot, Eric Douville, Nathalie Leblond, Fréderic Gazeau, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Céline Ridame, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 2663–2678,Short summary
The release of insoluble elements such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th) and protactinium (Pa) when Saharan dust falls over the Mediterranean Sea was studied during tank experiments under present and future climate conditions. Each element exhibited different dissolution kinetics and dissolution fractions (always lower than a few percent). Changes in temperature and/or pH under greenhouse conditions lead to a lower Th release and a higher light REE release.
Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, Dominique Lefèvre, Christian Tamburini, Marc Garel, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Nagib Bhairy, and Sophie Guasco
Biogeosciences, 18, 2205–2212,Short summary
We present new data concerning the relation between biogenic barium (Baxs, a tracer of carbon remineralization at mesopelagic depths), O2 consumption and prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of the relation between Baxs, PHP and O2 and to test the validity of the Dehairs transfer function in the Mediterranean Sea. This relation has never been tested in the Mediterranean Sea.
Natacha Le Grix, Jakob Zscheischler, Charlotte Laufkötter, Cecile S. Rousseaux, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 18, 2119–2137,Short summary
Marine ecosystems could suffer severe damage from the co-occurrence of a marine heat wave with extremely low chlorophyll concentration. Here, we provide a first assessment of compound marine heat wave and low-chlorophyll events in the global ocean from 1998 to 2018. We reveal hotspots of these compound events in the equatorial Pacific and in the Arabian Sea and show that they mostly occur in summer at high latitudes and their frequency is modulated by large-scale modes of climate variability.
Christopher Holder and Anand Gnanadesikan
Biogeosciences, 18, 1941–1970,Short summary
A challenge for marine ecologists in studying phytoplankton is linking small-scale relationships found in a lab to broader relationships observed on large scales in the environment. We investigated whether machine learning (ML) could help connect these small- and large-scale relationships. ML was able to provide qualitative information about the small-scale processes from large-scale information. This method could help identify important relationships from observations in future research.
Paul J. Tréguer, Jill N. Sutton, Mark Brzezinski, Matthew A. Charette, Timothy Devries, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Claudia Ehlert, Jon Hawkings, Aude Leynaert, Su Mei Liu, Natalia Llopis Monferrer, María López-Acosta, Manuel Maldonado, Shaily Rahman, Lihua Ran, and Olivier Rouxel
Biogeosciences, 18, 1269–1289,Short summary
Silicon is the second most abundant element of the Earth's crust. In this review, we show that silicon inputs and outputs, to and from the world ocean, are 57 % and 37 % higher, respectively, than previous estimates. These changes are significant, modifying factors such as the geochemical residence time of silicon, which is now about 8000 years and 2 times faster than previously assumed. We also update the total biogenic silica pelagic production and provide an estimate for sponge production.
Bo Liu, Katharina D. Six, and Tatiana Ilyina
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
We incorporate a new representation of the stable carbon isotope 13C in a global ocean biogeochemistry model. The model well reproduces the present-day 13C observations. We find a recent observation-based estimate of the oceanic 13C Suess effect (the decrease of 13C / 12C ratio due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2; 13CSE) possibly underestimates 13CSE by 0.1–0.26 ‰. The new model will aid better understanding the past ocean state via comparison to 13C / 12C measurements from sediment cores.
Caroline Ulses, Claude Estournel, Marine Fourrier, Laurent Coppola, Fayçal Kessouri, Dominique Lefèvre, and Patrick Marsaleix
Biogeosciences, 18, 937–960,Short summary
We analyse the seasonal cycle of O2 and estimate an annual O2 budget in the north-western Mediterranean deep-convection region, using a numerical model. We show that this region acts as a large sink of atmospheric O2 and as a major source of O2 for the western Mediterranean Sea. The decrease in the deep convection intensity predicted in recent projections may have important consequences on the overall uptake of O2 in the Mediterranean Sea and on the O2 exchanges with the Atlantic Ocean.
Fuminori Hashihama, Hiroaki Saito, Taketoshi Kodama, Saori Yasui-Tamura, Jota Kanda, Iwao Tanita, Hiroshi Ogawa, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Philip W. Boyd, and Ken Furuya
Biogeosciences, 18, 897–915,Short summary
We investigated the nutrient assimilation characteristics of deep-water-induced phytoplankton blooms across the subtropical North and South Pacific Ocean. Nutrient drawdown ratios of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate were anomalously low in the western North Pacific, likely due to the high phosphate uptake capability of low-phosphate-adapted phytoplankton. The anomalous phosphate uptake might influence the maintenance of chronic phosphate depletion in the western North Pacific.
Florian Ricour, Arthur Capet, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Bruno Delille, and Marilaure Grégoire
Biogeosciences, 18, 755–774,Short summary
This paper addresses the phenology of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) in the Black Sea (BS). We show that the DCM forms in March at a density level set by the winter mixed layer. It maintains this location until June, suggesting an influence of the DCM on light and nutrient profiles rather than mere adaptation to external factors. In summer, the DCM concentrates ~55 % of the chlorophyll in a 10 m layer at ~35 m depth and should be considered a major feature of the BS phytoplankton dynamics.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Joanne Hopkins, Raja S. Ganeshram, Louisa Norman, Camille de la Vega, Rachel Jeffreys, and Claire Mahaffey
Biogeosciences, 18, 637–653,Short summary
The Barents Sea is a rapidly changing shallow sea within the Arctic. Here, nitrate, an essential nutrient, is fully consumed by algae in surface waters during summer months. Nitrate is efficiently regenerated in the Barents Sea, and there is no evidence for nitrogen loss from the sediments by denitrification, which is prevalent on other Arctic shelves. This suggests that nitrogen availability in the Barents Sea is largely determined by the supply of nutrients in water masses from the Atlantic.
Biogeosciences, 18, 509–534,Short summary
Biogeochemical-Argo floats are starting to routinely measure ocean chlorophyll, nutrients, oxygen, and pH. This study generated synthetic observations representing two potential Biogeochemical-Argo observing system designs and created a data assimilation scheme to combine them with an ocean model. The proposed system of 1000 floats brought clear benefits to model results, with additional floats giving further benefit. Existing satellite ocean colour observations gave complementary information.
Mark Hague and Marcello Vichi
Biogeosciences, 18, 25–38,Short summary
This paper examines the question of what causes the rapid spring growth of microscopic marine algae (phytoplankton) in the ice-covered ocean surrounding Antarctica. One prominent hypothesis proposes that the melting of sea ice is the primary cause, while our results suggest that this is only part of the explanation. In particular, we show that phytoplankton are able to start growing before the sea ice melts appreciably, much earlier than previously thought.
Arthur Capet, Luc Vandenbulcke, and Marilaure Grégoire
Biogeosciences, 17, 6507–6525,Short summary
The Black Sea is 2000 m deep, but, due to limited ventilation, only about the upper 100 m contains enough oxygen to support marine life such as fish. This oxygenation depth has been shown to be decreasing (1955–2019). Here, we evidence that atmospheric warming induced a clear shift in an important ventilation mechanism. We highlight the impact of this shift on oxygenation. There are important implications for marine life and carbon and nutrient cycling if this new ventilation regime persists.
Tim Rixen, Greg Cowie, Birgit Gaye, Joaquim Goes, Helga do Rosário Gomes, Raleigh R. Hood, Zouhair Lachkar, Henrike Schmidt, Joachim Segschneider, and Arvind Singh
Biogeosciences, 17, 6051–6080,Short summary
The northern Indian Ocean hosts an extensive oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which intensified due to human-induced global changes. This includes the occurrence of anoxic events on the Indian shelf and affects benthic ecosystems and the pelagic ecosystem structure in the Arabian Sea. Consequences for biogeochemical cycles are unknown, which, in addition to the poor representation of mesoscale features, reduces the reliability of predictions of the future OMZ development in the northern Indian Ocean.
Marion Lagarde, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Hélène Planquette, Mélanie Grenier, Moustafa Belhadj, Pascale Lherminier, and Catherine Jeandel
Biogeosciences, 17, 5539–5561,
Randelle M. Bundy, Alessandro Tagliabue, Nicholas J. Hawco, Peter L. Morton, Benjamin S. Twining, Mariko Hatta, Abigail E. Noble, Mattias R. Cape, Seth G. John, Jay T. Cullen, and Mak A. Saito
Biogeosciences, 17, 4745–4767,Short summary
Cobalt (Co) is an essential nutrient for ocean microbes and is scarce in most areas of the ocean. This study measured Co concentrations in the Arctic Ocean for the first time and found that Co levels are extremely high in the surface waters of the Canadian Arctic. Although the Co primarily originates from the shelf, the high concentrations persist throughout the central Arctic. Co in the Arctic appears to be increasing over time and might be a source of Co to the North Atlantic.
Friedrich A. Burger, Jasmin G. John, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4633–4662,Short summary
Ensemble simulations of an Earth system model reveal that ocean acidity extremes have increased in the past few decades and are projected to increase further in terms of frequency, intensity, duration, and volume extent. The increase is not only caused by the long-term ocean acidification due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2, but also due to changes in short-term variability. The increase in ocean acidity extremes may enhance the risk of detrimental impacts on marine organisms.
Frédéric Gazeau, Céline Ridame, France Van Wambeke, Samir Alliouane, Christian Stolpe, Jean-Olivier Irisson, Sophie Marro, Jean-Michel Grisoni, Guillaume De Liège, Sandra Nunige, Kahina Djaoudi, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, Philippe Catala, and Cécile Guieu
Preprint under review for BG
Christopher Gordon, Katja Fennel, Clark Richards, Lynn K. Shay, and Jodi K. Brewster
Biogeosciences, 17, 4119–4134,Short summary
We describe a method for correcting errors in oxygen optode measurements on autonomous platforms in the ocean. The errors result from the relatively slow response time of the sensor. The correction method includes an in situ determination of the effective response time and requires the time stamps of the individual measurements. It is highly relevant for the BGC-Argo program and also applicable to gliders. We also explore if diurnal changes in oxygen can be obtained from profiling floats.
Bin Wang, Katja Fennel, Liuqian Yu, and Christopher Gordon
Biogeosciences, 17, 4059–4074,Short summary
We assess trade-offs between different types of biological observations, specifically satellite ocean color and BGC-Argo profiles and the benefits of combining both for optimizing a biogeochemical model of the Gulf of Mexico. Using all available observations leads to significant improvements in observed and unobserved variables (including primary production and C export). Our results highlight the significant benefits of BGC-Argo measurements for biogeochemical model optimization and validation.
Bruce L. Greaves, Andrew T. Davidson, Alexander D. Fraser, John P. McKinlay, Andrew Martin, Andrew McMinn, and Simon W. Wright
Biogeosciences, 17, 3815–3835,Short summary
We observed that variation in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) over 11 years showed a relationship with the species composition of hard-shelled phytoplankton in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) of the Southern Ocean. Phytoplankton in the SIZ are productive during the southern spring and summer when the area is ice-free, with production feeding most Antarctic life. The SAM is known to be increasing with climate change, and changes in phytoplankton in the SIZ may have implications for higher life forms.
Vincent Taillandier, Louis Prieur, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà, and Elvira Pulido-Villena
Biogeosciences, 17, 3343–3366,Short summary
This study addresses the role played by vertical diffusion in the nutrient enrichment of the Levantine intermediate waters, a process particularly relevant inside thermohaline staircases. Thanks to a high profiling frequency over a 4-year period, BGC-Argo float observations reveal the temporal continuity of the layering patterns encountered during the cruise PEACETIME and their impact on vertical and lateral transfers of nitrate between the deep reservoir and the surface productive zone.
Coraline Leseurre, Claire Lo Monaco, Gilles Reverdin, Nicolas Metzl, Jonathan Fin, Solveig Olafsdottir, and Virginie Racapé
Biogeosciences, 17, 2553–2577,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the evolution of CO2 uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Subpolar surface water. Our results show an important reduction in the capacity of the ocean to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere (1993–2007), due to a rapid increase in the fCO2 and associated with a rapid decrease in pH. Conversely, data obtained during the last decade (2008–2017) show a stagnation of fCO2 (increasing the ocean sink for CO2) and pH.
Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodríguez-Romero, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Franck Fu, Emilio Marañón, María Pérez-Lorenzo, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Sylvain Triquet, Guillaume Siour, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2349–2364,Short summary
Residence times of particulate metals derived from aerosol deposition in the Sea Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea ranged from a couple of minutes (e.g., for Fe) to a few hours (e.g., for Cu). Microbial activity seems to play an important role in in this process and in the concentration and distribution of metals between diferent water layers.
Pieter Demuynck, Toby Tyrrell, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Mark Christopher Moore, and Adrian Peter Martin
Biogeosciences, 17, 2289–2314,Short summary
The availability of macronutrients N and Si is of key importance to sustain life in the Southern Ocean. N and Si are available in abundance at the southern boundary of the Southern Ocean due to constant supply from the deep ocean. In the more northern regions of the Southern Ocean, a decline in macronutrient concentration is noticed, especially strong for Si rather than N. This paper uses a simplified biogeochemical model to investigate processes responsible for this decline in concentration.
Martine Lizotte, Maurice Levasseur, Virginie Galindo, Margaux Gourdal, Michel Gosselin, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Marjolaine Blais, Joannie Charette, and Rachel Hussherr
Biogeosciences, 17, 1557–1581,Short summary
This study brings further support to the premise that the prevalence of younger and thinner icescapes over older and thicker ones in the Canadian High Arctic favors the early development of under-ice microorganisms as well as their production of the climate-relevant gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). Given the rapid rate of climate-driven changes in Arctic sea ice, our results suggest implications for the timing and magnitude of DMS pulses in the Arctic, with ramifications for climate forecasting.
Mark J. Hopwood, Nicolas Sanchez, Despo Polyviou, Øystein Leiknes, Julián Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Eric P. Achterberg, Murat V. Ardelan, Javier Aristegui, Lennart Bach, Sengul Besiktepe, Yohann Heriot, Ioanna Kalantzi, Tuba Terbıyık Kurt, Ioulia Santi, Tatiana M. Tsagaraki, and David Turner
Biogeosciences, 17, 1309–1326,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is formed naturally in sunlight-exposed water by photochemistry. At high concentrations it is undesirable to biological cells because it is a stressor. Here, across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments (Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard), we determine that two factors consistently affect the H2O2 concentrations irrespective of geographical location: bacteria abundance and experiment design.
Neil J. Wyatt, Angela Milne, Eric P. Achterberg, Thomas J. Browning, Heather A. Bouman, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, and Maeve C. Lohan
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Using data collected during two expeditions to the South Atlantic ocean, we investigated how the interaction between external sources and biological activity influenced the availability of the trace metals zinc and cobalt. This is important as both metals play essential roles in the metabolism and growth of phytoplankton and thus influence primary productivity of the oceans. We found seasonal changes in both processes that helped explain upper ocean trace metal cycling.
Manon Tonnard, Hélène Planquette, Andrew R. Bowie, Pier van der Merwe, Morgane Gallinari, Floriane Desprez de Gésincourt, Yoan Germain, Arthur Gourain, Marion Benetti, Gilles Reverdin, Paul Tréguer, Julia Boutorh, Marie Cheize, François Lacan, Jan-Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Leonardo Pereira-Contreira, Rachel Shelley, Pascale Lherminier, and Géraldine Sarthou
Biogeosciences, 17, 917–943,Short summary
We investigated the spatial distribution of dissolved Fe during spring 2014, in order to understand the processes influencing the biogeochemical cycle in the North Atlantic. Our results highlighted elevated Fe close to riverine inputs at the Iberian Margin and glacial inputs at the Newfoundland and Greenland margins. Atmospheric deposition appeared to be a minor source of Fe. Convection was an important source of Fe in the Irminger Sea, which was depleted in Fe relative to nitrate.
Carolin R. Löscher, Wiebke Mohr, Hermann W. Bange, and Donald E. Canfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 851–864,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are ocean areas severely depleted in oxygen as a result of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Biologically, organic material is produced in the sea surface and exported to deeper waters, where it respires. In the Bay of Bengal (BoB), an OMZ is present, but there are traces of oxygen left. Our study now suggests that this is because one key process, nitrogen fixation, is absent in the BoB, thus preventing primary production and consecutive respiration.
Lothar Stramma, Sunke Schmidtko, Steven J. Bograd, Tsuneo Ono, Tetjana Ross, Daisuke Sasano, and Frank A. Whitney
Biogeosciences, 17, 813–831,Short summary
The influence of climate signals in the Pacific, especially the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, as well as El Niño–La Niña and an 18.6-year nodal tidal cycle on oxygen and nutrient trends is investigated. At different locations in the Pacific Ocean different climate signals dominate. Hence, not only trends related to warming but also the influence of climate signals need to be investigated to understand oxygen and nutrient changes in the ocean.
Marie-Hélène Radenac, Julien Jouanno, Christine Carine Tchamabi, Mesmin Awo, Bernard Bourlès, Sabine Arnault, and Olivier Aumont
Biogeosciences, 17, 529–545,Short summary
Satellite data and a remarkable set of in situ measurements show a main bloom of microscopic seaweed, the phytoplankton, in summer and a secondary bloom in December in the central equatorial Atlantic. They are driven by a strong vertical supply of nitrate in May–July and a shorter and moderate supply in November. In between, transport of low-nitrate water from the west explains most nitrate losses in the sunlit layer. Horizontal eddy-induced processes also contribute to seasonal nitrate removal.
Andrés S. Rigual Hernández, Thomas W. Trull, Scott D. Nodder, José A. Flores, Helen Bostock, Fátima Abrantes, Ruth S. Eriksen, Francisco J. Sierro, Diana M. Davies, Anne-Marie Ballegeer, Miguel A. Fuertes, and Lisa C. Northcote
Biogeosciences, 17, 245–263,Short summary
Coccolithophores account for a major fraction of the carbonate produced in the world's oceans. However, their contribution in the subantarctic Southern Ocean remains undocumented. We quantitatively partition calcium carbonate fluxes amongst coccolithophore species in the Australian–New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean. We provide new insights into the importance of species other than Emiliania huxleyi in the carbon cycle and assess their possible response to projected environmental change.
Susana Agustí, Jeffrey W. Krause, Israel A. Marquez, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 35–45,Short summary
We found that 24 % of the total diatoms community in the Arctic water column (450 m depth) was located below the photic layer. Healthy diatom communities in active spring–bloom stages remained in the photic layer. Dying diatom communities exported a large fraction of the biomass to the aphotic zone, fuelling carbon sequestration and benthic ecosystems in the Arctic. The results of the study conform to a conceptual model where diatoms grow during the bloom until silicic acid stocks are depleted.
Xinwei Wang, Feixue Fu, Pingping Qu, Joshua D. Kling, Haibo Jiang, Yahui Gao, and David A. Hutchins
Biogeosciences, 16, 4393–4409,Short summary
In this study, we examine the responses of E. huxleyi to a future warmer and more thermally variable ocean. Elevated temperatures and thermal variation have negative effects on growth rate and physiology that are especially pronounced at high temperatures, but high-frequency thermal variation may reduce the risk of extreme high-temperature events. These findings have potentially large implications for ocean productivity and marine biogeochemical cycles under a future changing climate.
Federico Baltar and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 16, 3793–3799,Short summary
Around half of the global primary production (PP) is produced in the ocean. Here we quantified how much oceanic PP estimates would increase if we included the dark DIC fixation rates (which are usually excluded in the carbon-14 method) into the PP estimation. We found that the inclusion of dark DIC fixation would increase PP estimates by 5–22 %. This represents ca. 1.2 to 11 Pg C yr−1 of newly synthesized organic carbon available for the marine food web.
Renaud Person, Olivier Aumont, Gurvan Madec, Martin Vancoppenolle, Laurent Bopp, and Nacho Merino
Biogeosciences, 16, 3583–3603,Short summary
The Antarctic Ice Sheet is considered a possibly important but largely overlooked source of iron (Fe). Here we explore its fertilization capacity by evaluating the response of marine biogeochemistry to Fe release from icebergs and ice shelves in a global ocean model. Large regional impacts are simulated, leading to only modest primary production and carbon export increases at the scale of the Southern Ocean. Large uncertainties are due to low observational constraints on modeling choices.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Raja S. Ganeshram, Matthew P. Humphreys, Thomas J. Browning, Heather Bouman, and Alexander P. Piotrowski
Biogeosciences, 16, 3621–3635,Short summary
The carbon isotopes in algae can be used to predict food sources and environmental change. We explore how dissolved carbon is taken up by algae in the South Atlantic Ocean and how this affects their carbon isotope signature. We find that cell size controls isotope fractionation. We use our results to investigate how climate change may impact the carbon isotopes in algae. We suggest a shift to smaller algae in this region would decrease the carbon isotope ratio at the base of the food web.
Daniela Niemeyer, Iris Kriest, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 16, 3095–3111,Short summary
Recent studies suggest spatial variations of the marine particle flux length scale. Using a global biogeochemical ocean model, we investigate whether changes in particle size and size-dependent sinking can explain this variation. We address uncertainties by varying aggregate properties and circulation. Both aspects have an impact on the representation of nutrients, oxygen and oxygen minimum zones. The formation and sinking of large aggregates in productive areas lead to deeper flux penetration.
Jamie D. Wilson, Stephen Barker, Neil R. Edwards, Philip B. Holden, and Andy Ridgwell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2923–2936,Short summary
The remains of plankton rain down from the surface ocean to the deep ocean, acting to store CO2 in the deep ocean. We used a model of biology and ocean circulation to explore the importance of this process in different regions of the ocean. The amount of CO2 stored in the deep ocean is most sensitive to changes in the Southern Ocean. As plankton in the Southern Ocean are likely those most impacted by future climate change, the amount of CO2 they store in the deep ocean could also be affected.
Natalie C. Harms, Niko Lahajnar, Birgit Gaye, Tim Rixen, Kirstin Dähnke, Markus Ankele, Ulrich Schwarz-Schampera, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 16, 2715–2732,Short summary
The Indian Ocean subtropical gyre is a large oligotrophic area that is likely to adjust to continued warming by increasing stratification, reduced nutrient supply and decreasing biological production. In this study, we investigated concentrations of nutrients and stable isotopes of nitrate. We determine the lateral influence of water masses entering the gyre from the northern Indian Ocean and from the Southern Ocean and quantify the input of nitrogen by N2 fixation into the surface layer.
Yingxu Wu, Mathis P. Hain, Matthew P. Humphreys, Sue Hartman, and Toby Tyrrell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2661–2681,Short summary
This study takes advantage of the GLODAPv2 database to investigate the processes driving the surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon distribution, with the focus on its latitudinal gradient between the polar oceans and the low-latitude oceans. Based on our quantitative study, we find that temperature-driven CO2 gas exchange and high-latitude upwelling of DIC- and TA-rich deep waters are the two major drivers, with the importance of the latter not having been previously realized.
Qixing Ji, Mark A. Altabet, Hermann W. Bange, Michelle I. Graco, Xiao Ma, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, and Damian S. Grundle
Biogeosciences, 16, 2079–2093,Short summary
A strong El Niño event occurred in the Peruvian coastal region in 2015–2016, during which higher sea surface temperatures co-occurred with significantly lower sea-to-air fluxes of nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse gas and ozone depletion agent. Stratified water column during El Niño retained a larger amount of nitrous oxide that was produced via multiple microbial pathways; and intense nitrous oxide effluxes could occur when normal upwelling is resumed after El Niño.
Ulrike Löptien and Heiner Dietze
Biogeosciences, 16, 1865–1881,Short summary
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions trigger complex climate feedbacks. Output form Earth system models provides a basis for related political decision-making. One challenge is to arrive at reliable model parameter estimates for the ocean biogeochemistry module. We illustrate pitfalls through which flaws in the ocean module are masked by wrongly tuning the biogeochemistry and discuss ensuing uncertainties in climate projections.
Arthur Gourain, Hélène Planquette, Marie Cheize, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Jan-Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Rachel Shelley, Pascale Lherminier, and Géraldine Sarthou
Biogeosciences, 16, 1563–1582,Short summary
The GEOVIDE cruise (May–June 2014, R/V Pourquoi Pas?) aimed to provide a better understanding of trace metal biogeochemical cycles in the North Atlantic. As particles play a key role in the global biogeochemical cycle of trace elements in the ocean, we discuss the distribution of particulate iron (PFe). Lithogenic sources appear to dominate the PFe cycle through margin and benthic inputs.
Jan-Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Jessica K. Klar, Martha Gledhill, Christian Schlosser, Rachel Shelley, Hélène F. Planquette, Bernhard Wenzel, Geraldine Sarthou, and Eric P. Achterberg
Biogeosciences, 16, 1525–1542,Short summary
We used surface water dissolved aluminium concentrations collected in four different GEOTRACES cruises to determine atmospheric deposition fluxes to the ocean. We calculate atmospheric deposition fluxes for largely under-sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean and thus provide new constraints for models of atmospheric deposition. The use of the MADCOW model is of major importance as dissolved aluminium is analysed within the GEOTRACES project at high spatial resolution.
Karin F. Kvale, Katherine E. Turner, Angela Landolfi, and Katrin J. Meissner
Biogeosciences, 16, 1019–1034,Short summary
Drivers motivating the evolution of calcifying phytoplankton are poorly understood. We explore differences in global ocean chemistry with and without calcifiers during rapid climate changes. We find the presence of phytoplankton calcifiers stabilizes the volume of low oxygen regions and consequently stabilizes the concentration of nitrate, which is an important nutrient required for photosynthesis. By stabilizing nitrate concentrations, calcifiers improve their growth conditions.
Debany Fonseca-Batista, Xuefeng Li, Virginie Riou, Valérie Michotey, Florian Deman, François Fripiat, Sophie Guasco, Natacha Brion, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Manon Tonnard, Morgane Gallinari, Hélène Planquette, Frédéric Planchon, Géraldine Sarthou, Marc Elskens, Julie LaRoche, Lei Chou, and Frank Dehairs
Biogeosciences, 16, 999–1017,Short summary
Dinitrogen fixation and primary production were investigated using stable isotope incubation experiments along two transects off the Western Iberian Margin in May 2014 close to the end of the phytoplankton spring bloom. We observed substantial N2 fixation activities (up to 1533 µmol N m-2 d-1) associated with a predominance of unicellular cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs, which seemed to be promoted by the presence of bloom-derived organic matter and excess phosphorus.
Ludivine Conte, Sophie Szopa, Roland Séférian, and Laurent Bopp
Biogeosciences, 16, 881–902,Short summary
The ocean is a source of atmospheric carbon monoxide, a key component for the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. We use a global ocean biogeochemistry model to dynamically assess the oceanic CO budget and its emission to the atmosphere at the global scale. The total emissions of CO to the atmosphere are 4.0 Tg C yr−1. The oceanic CO emission maps produced are relevant for use by atmospheric chemical models, especially to study the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere above the remote ocean.
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