Articles | Volume 12, issue 21
Research article 06 Nov 2015
Research article | 06 Nov 2015
Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest
A. M. Womack et al.
No articles found.
Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Samara Carbone, Patrick Schlag, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), with very extensive biofuel use, has unique atmospheric chemistry among world megacities. In this study, we examine the complex relationships between aerosol chemical composition and particle size distribution. Our findings provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the physicochemical properties of submicron particles and highlight the key role of secondary organic aerosol formation in the pollution levels in São Paulo.
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Bioaerosols in the atmosphere over the Amazon rain forest were analyzed by molecular biological staining and microscopy. Eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal aerosols were quantified in time series and altitude profiles exhibiting clear differences in number concentrations and vertical distributions. Our results provide insights into the sources and dispersion of different Amazonian bioaerosol types as a basis for a better understanding of biosphere-atmosphere interactions.
Guilherme F. Camarinha-Neto, Julia C. P. Cohen, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Matthias Sörgel, José Henrique Cattanio, Alessandro Araújo, Stefan Wolff, Paulo A. F. Kuhn, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 339–356,Short summary
It was observed that friagem phenomena (incursion of cold waves from the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere to the Amazon region), very common in the dry season of the Amazon region, produced significant changes in microclimate and atmospheric chemistry. Moreover, the effects of the friagem change the surface O3 and CO2 mixing ratios and therefore interfere deeply in the microclimatic conditions and the chemical composition of the atmosphere above the rainforest.
Jann Schrod, Erik S. Thomson, Daniel Weber, Jens Kossmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Paulo Artaxo, Valérie Clouard, Jean-Marie Saurel, Martin Ebert, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15983–16006,Short summary
Long-term ice-nucleating particle (INP) data are presented from four semi-pristine sites located in the Amazon, the Caribbean, Germany and the Arctic. Average INP concentrations did not differ by orders of magnitude between the sites. For all sites short-term variability dominated the time series, which lacked clear trends and seasonalities. Common drivers to explain the INP levels and their variations could not be identified, illustrating the complex nature of heterogeneous ice nucleation.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Matthias Sörgel, Mathew R. Heal, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Marta Sá, Christopher Pöhlker, Jost Lavric, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15551–15584,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest is a unique
laboratoryto study the processes which govern the exchange of gases and aerosols to and from the atmosphere. This study investigated these processes by measuring the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and particles at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. We found that the long-range transport of pollutants can affect the atmospheric composition above the Amazon rainforest and that the gases ammonia and nitrous acid can be emitted from the rainforest.
Janaína P. Nascimento, Megan M. Bela, Bruno Meller, Alessandro L. Banducci, Luciana V. Rizzo, Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Helber Gomes, Sameh A. A. Rafee, Marco A. Franco, Samara Carbone, Glauber G. Cirino, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Stuart A. McKeen, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACP
Lixia Liu, Yafang Cheng, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Paulo Artaxo, Manish Shrivastava, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13283–13301,Short summary
This modeling paper reveals how aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs) and aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs) induced by biomass burning (BB) aerosols act oppositely on radiation, cloud, and precipitation in the Amazon during the dry season. The varying relative significance of ACIs and ARIs with BB aerosol concentration leads to a nonlinear dependence of the total climate response on BB aerosol loading and features the growing importance of ARIs at high aerosol loading.
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Zhaoheng Gong, Suzane de Sá, Adam P. Bateman, Scot T. Martin, Joel F. de Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Glauber G. Cirino, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Peter R. Buseck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11923–11939,Short summary
Occurrences, size distributions, and number fractions of individual aerosol particles from the Amazon basin during the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Aerosol particles from natural sources (e.g., mineral dust, primary biological aerosols, and sea salts) during the wet season originated from the Amazon forest and long-range transports (the Saharan desert and the Atlantic Ocean). They commonly mix at an individual particle scale during transport.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site, and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by taking a
canopy resistancemodelling approach.
Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Julia Lee-Taylor, Alma Hodzic, Paulo Artaxo, Bernard Aumont, Marie Camredon, David Gurarie, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Donald H. Lenschow, Scot T. Martin, Janaina Nascimento, John J. Orlando, Brett B. Palm, John E. Shilling, Manish Shrivastava, and Sasha Madronich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5995–6014,Short summary
The GoAmazon 2014/5 field campaign took place near the city of Manaus, Brazil, isolated in the Amazon rainforest, to study the impacts of urban pollution on natural air masses. We simulated this campaign with an extremely detailed organic chemistry model to understand how the city would affect the growth and composition of natural aerosol particles. Discrepancies between the model and the measurements indicate that the chemistry of naturally emitted organic compounds is still poorly understood.
William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Stéphane Bauguitte, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, James Lee, Dantong Liu, Ben Johnson, Jim Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5309–5326,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different environments in the Amazon basin during the 2012 biomass burning season. Smoke from fires builds up and has a significant impact on weather, climate, health and natural ecosystems. Our goal was to quantify changes in the properties of the smoke emitted by fires as it is transported through the atmosphere. We found that the major control on the properties of the smoke was due to differences in the fires themselves.
Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Jeannine Ditas, Florian Ditas, Christiane Schulz, Marco Aurélio Franco, Qiaoqiao Wang, Tobias Donth, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Joel Brito, Yafang Cheng, Maximilian Dollner, Johannes W. Kaiser, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Ovid O. Krüger, Daniel Fütterer, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jing Ming, Fernando G. Morais, Hauke Paulsen, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Johannes Schneider, Hang Su, Bernadett Weinzierl, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4757–4785,Short summary
Biomass burning smoke from African savanna and grassland is transported across the South Atlantic Ocean in defined layers within the free troposphere. The combination of in situ aircraft and ground-based measurements aided by satellite observations showed that these layers are transported into the Amazon Basin during the early dry season. The influx of aged smoke, enriched in black carbon and cloud condensation nuclei, has important implications for the Amazonian aerosol and cloud cycling.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jennifer M. Comstock, Ralf Weigel, Martina Krämer, Christoph Mahnke, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Charles N. Long, Manfred Wendisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, Beat Schmid, Trismono Krisna, Mikhail Pekour, John Hubbe, Andreas Giez, Bernadett Weinzierl, Martin Zoeger, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hans Schlager, Micael A. Cecchini, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Suzane S. de Sá, Jiwen Fan, Jason Tomlinson, Stephen Springston, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, Christopher Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Andreas Minikin, Armin Afchine, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 661–684,Short summary
In 2014, the US DOE G1 aircraft and the German HALO aircraft overflew the Amazon basin to study how aerosols influence cloud cycles under a clean condition and around a tropical megacity. This paper describes how to meaningfully compare similar measurements from two research aircraft and identify the potential measurement issue. We also discuss the uncertainty range for each measurement for further usage in model evaluation and satellite data validation.
Nina Löbs, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, David Walter, Florian Ditas, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Stefan Wolff, Meike Piepenbring, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 153–164,Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are also sparse. Here, we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore-producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Hayley S. Glicker, Michael J. Lawler, John Ortega, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Rodrigo de Souza, Julio Tota, Annmarie Carlton, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13053–13066,Short summary
An understanding of the chemical composition of the smallest particles in the air over the Amazon Basin provides insights into the natural and human-caused influences on particle production in this sensitive region. We present measurements of the composition of sub-100 nm diameter particles performed during the wet season and identify unique constituents that point to both natural and human-caused sources and processes.
Carly L. Reddington, William T. Morgan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, Catherine E. Scott, John Marsham, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9125–9152,Short summary
We use an aerosol model and observations to explore model representation of aerosol emissions from fires in the Amazon. We find that observed aerosol concentrations are captured by the model over deforestation fires in the western Amazon but underestimated over savanna fires in the Cerrado environment. The model underestimates observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) even when the observed aerosol vertical profile is reproduced. We suggest this may be due to uncertainties in the AOD calculation.
Christopher Pöhlker, David Walter, Hauke Paulsen, Tobias Könemann, Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Céline Degrendele, Viviane R. Després, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gerhard Lammel, Jošt V. Lavrič, Jing Ming, Daniel Pickersgill, Mira L. Pöhlker, Maria Praß, Nina Löbs, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Qiaoqiao Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8425–8470,Short summary
The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been established to monitor the rain forest's biosphere–atmosphere exchange, which experiences the combined pressures from human-made deforestation and progressing climate change. This work is meant to be a reference study, which characterizes various geospatial properties of the ATTO footprint region and shows how the human-made transformation of Amazonia may impact future atmospheric observations at ATTO.
Suzane S. de Sá, Luciana V. Rizzo, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yingjun J. Liu, Arthur Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Allen H. Goldstein, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7973–8001,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of urban and fire emissions on the concentration, composition, and optical properties of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in central Amazonia during the dry season. Biomass-burning and urban emissions appeared to contribute at least 80 % of brown carbon absorption while accounting for 30 % to 40 % of the organic PM1 mass concentration. Only a fraction of the 9-fold increase in mass concentration relative to the wet season was due to biomass burning.
Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, James D. Allan, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, James R. Dorsey, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Douglas Lowe, Kate Szpek, Franco Marenco, Ben T. Johnson, Stephane Bauguitte, Jim M. Haywood, Joel F. Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5771–5790,Short summary
A novel analysis of aerosol and gas-phase vertical profiles shows a marked regional pollution contrast: composition is driven by the fire regime and vertical distribution is driven by thermodynamics. These drivers ought to be well represented in simulations to ensure realistic prediction of climate and air quality impacts. The BC : CO ratio in haze and plumes increases with altitude – long-range transport or fire stage coupled to plume dynamics may be responsible. Further enquiry is advocated.
Florent F. Malavelle, Jim M. Haywood, Lina M. Mercado, Gerd A. Folberth, Nicolas Bellouin, Stephen Sitch, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1301–1326,Short summary
Diffuse light can increase the efficiency of vegetation photosynthesis. Diffuse light results from scattering by either clouds or aerosols in the atmosphere. During the dry season biomass burning (BB) on the edges of the Amazon rainforest contributes significantly to the aerosol burden over the entire region. We show that despite a modest effect of change in light conditions, the overall impact of BB aerosols on the vegetation is still important when indirect climate feedbacks are considered.
Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Oliver Appel, Anja Costa, Suzane S. de Sá, Volker Dreiling, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Scot T. Martin, Stephan Mertes, Mira L. Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Bernadett Weinzierl, Helmut Ziereis, Martin Zöger, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Ulrich Pöschl, Manfred Wendisch, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14979–15001,Short summary
Aerosol chemical composition measurements in the tropical upper troposphere over the Amazon region show that 78 % of the aerosol in the upper troposphere consists of organic matter. Up to 20 % of the organic aerosol can be attributed to isoprene epoxydiol secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA). Furthermore, organic nitrates were identified, suggesting a connection to the IEPOX-SOA formation.
Daniela Wimmer, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Hanna Elina Manninen, Juha Kangasluoma, Alessandro Franchin, Tuomo Nieminen, John Backman, Jian Wang, Chongai Kuang, Radovan Krejci, Joel Brito, Fernando Goncalves Morais, Scot Turnbull Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Markku Kulmala, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13245–13264,Short summary
This work focuses on understanding the production of very small airborne particles in the undisturbed environment of the Amazon basin. Computer models have shown that up to 70 % of these tiny particles are responsible for cloud formation on a global scale. The processes behind the production of these very small particles have been studied intensely recently. Their appearance has been observed almost all over the world. We directly measure sub-3 nm aerosols for the first time in the Amazon basin.
Jorge Saturno, Bruna A. Holanda, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Qiaoqiao Wang, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Jeannine Ditas, Thorsten Hoffmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Nan Ma, Jing Ming, Hauke Paulsen, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Patrick Schlag, Hang Su, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Yuxuan Zhang, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12817–12843,Short summary
Biomass burning emits light-absorbing aerosol particles that warm the atmosphere. One of them is the primarily emitted black carbon, which strongly absorbs radiation in the visible and UV spectral regions. Another one is the so-called brown carbon, a fraction of organic aerosol particles that are able to absorb radiation, especially in the UV spectral region. The contribution of both kinds of aerosol particles to light absorption over the Amazon rainforest is studied in this paper.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Igor O. Ribeiro, Glauber G. Cirino, Yingjun Liu, Ryan Thalman, Arthur Sedlacek, Aaron Funk, Courtney Schumacher, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Karena A. McKinney, Henrique Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12185–12206,Short summary
This study aimed at understanding and quantifying the changes in mass concentration and composition of submicron airborne particulate matter (PM) in Amazonia due to urban pollution. Downwind of Manaus, PM concentrations increased by up to 200 % under polluted compared with background conditions. The observed changes included contributions from both primary and secondary processes. The differences in organic PM composition suggested a shift in the pathways of secondary production with pollution.
Matthew N. Hayek, Marcos Longo, Jin Wu, Marielle N. Smith, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Raphael Tapajós, Rodrigo da Silva, David R. Fitzjarrald, Plinio B. Camargo, Lucy R. Hutyra, Luciana F. Alves, Bruce Daube, J. William Munger, Kenia T. Wiedemann, Scott R. Saleska, and Steven C. Wofsy
Biogeosciences, 15, 4833–4848,Short summary
We investigated the roles that weather and forest disturbances like drought play in shaping changes in ecosystem photosynthesis and carbon exchange in an Amazon forest. We discovered that weather largely influenced differences between years, but a prior drought, which occurred 3 years before measurements started, likely hampered photosynthesis in the first year. This is the first atmospheric evidence that drought can have legacy impacts on Amazon forest photosynthesis.
John E. Shilling, Mikhail S. Pekour, Edward C. Fortner, Paulo Artaxo, Suzane de Sá, John M. Hubbe, Karla M. Longo, Luiz A. T. Machado, Scot T. Martin, Stephen R. Springston, Jason Tomlinson, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10773–10797,Short summary
We report aircraft observations of the evolution of organic aerosol in the Manaus urban plume as it ages. We observe dynamic changes in the organic aerosol. The mean carbon oxidation state of the OA increases from −0.6 to −0.45. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) mass is lost and is balanced out by formation of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA). Because HOA loss is balanced by OOA formation, we observe little change in the net Δorg / ΔCO values with aging.
Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Marloes Penning de Vries, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Samara Carbone, David Walter, Nicole Bobrowski, Joel Brito, Xuguang Chi, Alexandra Gutmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Luiz A. T. Machado, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Qiaoqiao Wang, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391–10405,Short summary
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Alessandro C. Araùjo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Bruna A. Holanda, Konrad Kandler, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Ovid O. Krüger, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Diana Rose, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10289–10331,Short summary
This paper presents the aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) variability for characteristic atmospheric states – such as biomass burning, long-range transport, and pristine rain forest conditions – in the vulnerable and climate-relevant Amazon Basin. It summarizes the key properties of aerosol and CCN and, thus, provides a basis for an in-depth analysis of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Amazon region.
Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Pontus Roldin, Joel Brito, John Backman, Erik Swietlicki, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Tukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10255–10274,Short summary
Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air that can interact with sunlight and form clouds, which in turn affect the climate. They can also recycle nutrients in forest environments. Aerosols are naturally emitted at the surface in the Amazon forest, in addition to being brought down from above the boundary layer by intense air movements. In this work, we describe how the particle size number concentrations of aerosols change over hours, days and seasons in a multi-year study in Amazonia.
Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, David Walter, Jorge Saturno, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Xuguang Chi, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Holger Baars, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Birgit Heese, Bruna A. Holanda, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Jing Ming, Mira L. Pöhlker, Nina Ruckteschler, Hang Su, Yaqiang Wang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10055–10088,Short summary
This study presents multiple years of aerosol coarse mode observations at the remote ATTO site in the Amazon Basin. The results are discussed in light of the frequent and episodic long-range transport of Saharan dust plumes in the early wet season as well as the persistent background bioaerosol cycling in the rain forest ecosystem. This work provides a solid basis for future studies on the dynamic coarse mode aerosol cycling and its biogeochemical relevance in the Amazon.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Thiago Biscaro, Scott Giangrande, Maria A. F. Silva Dias, Micael A. Cecchini, Rachel Albrecht, Meinrat O. Andreae, Wagner F. Araujo, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Ramon Braga, Casey Burleyson, Cristiano W. Eichholz, Jiwen Fan, Zhe Feng, Gilberto F. Fisch, Michael P. Jensen, Scot T. Martin, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Jean-François Ribaud, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jaci M. B. Saraiva, Courtney Schumacher, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6461–6482,Short summary
This overview discuss the main precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin. It presents a review of the knowledge acquired about cloud processes and rainfall formation in Amazonas. In addition, this study provides a characterization of the seasonal variation and rainfall sensitivities to topography, surface cover, and aerosol concentration. Airplane measurements were evaluated to characterize and contrast cloud microphysical properties.
Amy K. Hodgson, William T. Morgan, Sebastian O'Shea, Stéphane Bauguitte, James D. Allan, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael J. Flynn, Dantong Liu, James Lee, Ben Johnson, Jim M. Haywood, Karla M. Longo, Paulo E. Artaxo, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5619–5638,Short summary
We flew a large atmospheric research aircraft across a number of different biomass burning environments in the Amazon Basin in September and October 2012. In this paper, we focus on smoke sampled very close to fresh fires (only 600–900 m above the fires and smoke that was 4–6 min old) to examine the chemical components that make up the smoke and their abundance. We found substantial differences in the emitted smoke that are due to the fuel type and combustion processes driving the fires.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Adriana Rocha-Lima, J. Vanderlei Martins, Lorraine A. Remer, Martin Todd, John H. Marsham, Sebastian Engelstaedter, Claire L. Ryder, Carolina Cavazos-Guerra, Paulo Artaxo, Peter Colarco, and Richard Washington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1023–1043,Short summary
We present results of ground-based measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis of Sahara dust samples collected in Algeria and Mauritania during the Fennec campaign in 2011. The results show that the sampled dust has low absorption characteristics and exhibits a distinct spectral bow-like shape. We find distinctive differences in the composition and optical characteristics of the dust from the two sites, corroborating with other studies that not all Saharan dust is the same.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel Albrecht, Bruna Amorim Holanda, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Micael A. Cecchini, Anja Costa, Maximilian Dollner, Daniel Fütterer, Emma Järvinen, Tina Jurkat, Thomas Klimach, Tobias Konemann, Christoph Knote, Martina Krämer, Trismono Krisna, Luiz A. T. Machado, Stephan Mertes, Andreas Minikin, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Daniel Sauer, Hans Schlager, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Antonio Spanu, Vinicius B. Sperling, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Jian Wang, Bernadett Weinzierl, Manfred Wendisch, and Helmut Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 921–961,Short summary
We made airborne measurements of aerosol particle concentrations and properties over the Amazon Basin. We found extremely high concentrations of very small particles in the region between 8 and 14 km altitude all across the basin, which had been recently formed by gas-to-particle conversion at these altitudes. This makes the upper troposphere a very important source region of atmospheric particles with significant implications for the Earth's climate system.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Demerval S. Moreira, Karla M. Longo, Saulo R. Freitas, Marcia A. Yamasoe, Lina M. Mercado, Nilton E. Rosário, Emauel Gloor, Rosane S. M. Viana, John B. Miller, Luciana V. Gatti, Kenia T. Wiedemann, Lucas K. G. Domingues, and Caio C. S. Correia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14785–14810,Short summary
Fire in the Amazon forest produces a large amount of smoke that is released into the atmosphere and covers a large portion of South America for about 3 months each year. The smoke affects the energy and CO2 budgets. Using a numerical atmospheric model, we demonstrated that the smoke changes the forest from a source to a sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. The smoke ultimately acts to at least partially compensate for the forest carbon lost due to fire emissions.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Manfred Wendisch, Anja Costa, Martina Krämer, Meinrat O. Andreae, Armin Afchine, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Thomas Klimach, Christoph Mahnke, Scot T. Martin, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Lianet H. Pardo, Christopher Pöhlker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14727–14746,Short summary
This study introduces and explores the concept of gamma phase space. This space is able to represent all possible variations in the cloud droplet size distributions (DSDs). The methodology was applied to recent in situ aircraft measurements over the Amazon. It is shown that the phase space is able to represent several processes occurring in the clouds in a simple manner. The consequences for cloud studies, modeling, and the representation of the transition from warm to mixed phase are discussed.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Svetlana Mironova, Gregory Mironov, Sergey Vlasenko, Alexey Panov, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Martin Heimann, Jost Lavric, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14365–14392,
Ryan Thalman, Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Mira L. Pöhlker, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Castillo, Douglas A. Day, Chongai Kuang, Antonio Manzi, Nga Lee Ng, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Rodrigo Souza, Stephen Springston, Thomas Watson, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, Scot T. Martin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11779–11801,Short summary
Particle hygroscopicity, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of organic components were characterized in central Amazonia for 1 year; their seasonal and diel variations were driven by a combination of primary emissions, photochemical oxidation, and boundary layer development. The relationship between the hygroscopicity of organic components and their oxidation level was examined, and the results help to reconcile the differences among the relationships observed in previous studies.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Scot T. Martin, Rachel I. Albrecht, Paulo Artaxo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Stephan Borrmann, Daniel Fütterer, Tina Jurkat, Christoph Mahnke, Andreas Minikin, Sergej Molleker, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Daniel Rosenfeld, Christiane Voigt, Bernadett Weinzierl, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10037–10050,Short summary
We study the effects of aerosol particles and updraft speed on the warm phase of Amazonian clouds. We expand the sensitivity analysis usually found in the literature by concomitantly considering cloud evolution and the effects on droplet size distribution (DSD) shape. The quantitative results show that particle concentration is the primary driver for the vertical profiles of effective diameter and droplet concentration in the warm phase of Amazonian convective clouds.
Jorge Saturno, Christopher Pöhlker, Dario Massabò, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Florian Ditas, Isabella Hrabě de Angelis, Daniel Morán-Zuloaga, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, David Walter, Qiaoqiao Wang, Paulo Artaxo, Paolo Prati, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2837–2850,Short summary
Different Aethalometer correction schemes were compared to a multi-wavelength absorption reference measurement. One of the correction schemes was found to artificially increase the short-wavelength absorption coefficients. It was found that accounting for aerosol scattering properties in the correction is crucial to retrieve the proper absorption Ångström exponent (AAE). We found that the raw AAE of uncompensated Aethalometer attenuation significantly correlates with a measured reference AAE.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ralf Weigel, Tina Jurkat, Meinrat O. Andreae, Manfred Wendisch, Mira L. Pöhlker, Thomas Klimach, Ulrich Pöschl, Christopher Pöhlker, Christiane Voigt, Christoph Mahnke, Stephan Borrmann, Rachel I. Albrecht, Sergej Molleker, Daniel A. Vila, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7365–7386,
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Oleg Travnikov, Hélène Angot, Paulo Artaxo, Mariantonia Bencardino, Johannes Bieser, Francesco D'Amore, Ashu Dastoor, Francesco De Simone, María del Carmen Diéguez, Aurélien Dommergue, Ralf Ebinghaus, Xin Bin Feng, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Olivier Magand, Lynwill Martin, Volker Matthias, Nikolay Mashyanov, Nicola Pirrone, Ramesh Ramachandran, Katie Alana Read, Andrei Ryjkov, Noelle E. Selin, Fabrizio Sena, Shaojie Song, Francesca Sprovieri, Dennis Wip, Ingvar Wängberg, and Xin Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5271–5295,Short summary
The study provides a complex analysis of processes governing Hg fate in the atmosphere involving both measurement data and simulation results of chemical transport models. Evaluation of the model simulations and numerical experiments against observations allows explaining spatial and temporal variations of Hg concentration in the near-surface atmospheric layer and shows possibility of multiple pathways of Hg oxidation occurring concurrently in various parts of the atmosphere.
Diego A. Gouveia, Boris Barja, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Theotonio Pauliquevis, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3619–3636,Short summary
We derive the first comprehensive statistics of cirrus clouds over a tropical rain forest. Monthly frequency of occurrence can be as high as 88 %. The diurnal cycle follows that of precipitation, and frequently cirrus is found in the tropopause layer. The mean values of cloud top, base, thickness, optical depth and lidar ratio were 14.3 km, 12.9 km, 1.4 km, 0.25, and 23 sr respectively. The high fraction (42 %) of subvisible clouds may contaminate satellite measurements to an unknown extent.
Joana A. Rizzolo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Guilherme C. Borillo, Ana F. L. Godoi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Rita V. Andreoli, Antônio O. Manzi, Marta O. Sá, Eliane G. Alves, Christopher Pöhlker, Isabella H. Angelis, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Nilton E. Rosário, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rosa M. N. Santos, Carlos I. Yamamoto, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Philip E. Taylor, and Ricardo H. M. Godoi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2673–2687,Short summary
Particles collected from the air above the Amazon Basin during the wet season were identified as Saharan dust. Soluble minerals were analysed to assess the bioavailability of iron. Dust deposited onto the canopy and topsoil can likely benefit organisms such as fungi and lichens. The ongoing deposition of Saharan dust across the Amazon rainforest provides an iron-rich source of essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves during the wet season.
Francesco De Simone, Paulo Artaxo, Mariantonia Bencardino, Sergio Cinnirella, Francesco Carbone, Francesco D'Amore, Aurélien Dommergue, Xin Bin Feng, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Matthew S. Landis, Francesca Sprovieri, Noriuki Suzuki, Ingvar Wängberg, and Nicola Pirrone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1881–1899,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) releases of Hg, usually considered to be Hg(0), are a significant global source of atmospheric Hg. However there is experimental evidence that a fraction of this Hg is bound to particulate matter, Hg(P). This modelling study shows how increasing fractions of Hg(P) reduce the availability of Hg to the global pool, raising Hg exposure for those regions characterized by high BB, with implications for the sub-Arctic and also rice-growing areas in South-East Asia.
Adam P. Bateman, Zhaoheng Gong, Tristan H. Harder, Suzane S. de Sá, Bingbing Wang, Paulo Castillo, Swarup China, Yingjun Liu, Rachel E. O'Brien, Brett B. Palm, Hung-Wei Shiu, Glauber G. Cirino, Ryan Thalman, Kouji Adachi, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Allan K. Bertram, Peter R. Buseck, Mary K. Gilles, Jose L. Jimenez, Alexander Laskin, Antonio O. Manzi, Arthur Sedlacek, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Rahul Zaveri, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1759–1773,Short summary
The occurrence of nonliquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Air masses representing background conditions, urban pollution, and regional- and continental-scale biomass were measured. Anthropogenic influences contributed to the presence of nonliquid PM in the atmospheric particle population, while liquid PM dominated during periods of biogenic influence.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Florian Ditas, Thomas Klimach, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Alessandro Araújo, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yafang Cheng, Xuguang Chi, Reiner Ditz, Sachin S. Gunthe, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Tobias Könemann, Jošt V. Lavrič, Scot T. Martin, Eugene Mikhailov, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Diana Rose, Jorge Saturno, Hang Su, Ryan Thalman, David Walter, Jian Wang, Stefan Wolff, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15709–15740,Short summary
The paper presents a systematic characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration in the central Amazonian atmosphere. Our results show that the CCN population in this globally important ecosystem follows a pollution-related seasonal cycle, in which it mainly depends on changes in total aerosol size distribution and to a minor extent in the aerosol chemical composition. Our results allow an efficient modeling and prediction of the CCN population based on a novel approach.
Qiaoqiao Wang, Jorge Saturno, Xuguang Chi, David Walter, Jost V. Lavric, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Florian Ditas, Christopher Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14775–14794,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to interpret observed aerosol concentrations and absorption over the Amazon Basin during the wet season. With daily temporal resolution for open fire emissions and modified aerosol optical properties, our model successfully captures the observed variation in aerosol concentrations and absorption over the Amazon Basin. The simulation indicates the important influence of open fire mainly from northern South America and from northern Africa in the wet season.
Ben T. Johnson, James M. Haywood, Justin M. Langridge, Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, Kate Szpek, Jennifer K. Brooke, Franco Marenco, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, Jane P. Mulcahy, Graham W. Mann, Mohit Dalvi, and Nicolas Bellouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14657–14685,Short summary
Biomass burning is a large source of carbonaceous aerosols, which scatter and absorb solar radiation, and modify cloud properties. We evaluate the simulation of biomass burning aerosol processes and properties in the HadGEM3 climate model using observations, including those from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis. We find that modelled aerosol optical depths are underestimated unless aerosol emissions (Global Fire Emission Database v3) are increased by a factor of 1.6–2.0.
Kaniska Mallick, Ivonne Trebs, Eva Boegh, Laura Giustarini, Martin Schlerf, Darren T. Drewry, Lucien Hoffmann, Celso von Randow, Bart Kruijt, Alessandro Araùjo, Scott Saleska, James R. Ehleringer, Tomas F. Domingues, Jean Pierre H. B. Ometto, Antonio D. Nobre, Osvaldo Luiz Leal de Moraes, Matthew Hayek, J. William Munger, and Steven C. Wofsy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 4237–4264,Short summary
While quantifying vegetation water use over multiple plant function types in the Amazon Basin, we found substantial biophysical control during drought as well as a water-stress period and dominant climatic control during a water surplus period. This work has direct implication in understanding the resilience of the Amazon forest in the spectre of frequent drought menace as well as the role of drought-induced plant biophysical functioning in modulating the water-carbon coupling in this ecosystem.
Xuan Wang, Colette L. Heald, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Thomas B. Watson, Allison C. Aiken, Stephen R. Springston, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12733–12752,Short summary
We describe a new approach to estimate the absorption of brown carbon (BrC) from multiple-wavelength absorption measurements. By applying this method to column and surface observations globally, we find that BrC contributes up to 40 % of the absorption measured at 440 nm. The analysis of two surface sites also suggests that BrC absorptivity decreases with photochemical aging in biomass burning plumes, but not in typical urban conditions.
Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Mariantonia Bencardino, Francesco D'Amore, Francesco Carbone, Sergio Cinnirella, Valentino Mannarino, Matthew Landis, Ralf Ebinghaus, Andreas Weigelt, Ernst-Günther Brunke, Casper Labuschagne, Lynwill Martin, John Munthe, Ingvar Wängberg, Paulo Artaxo, Fernando Morais, Henrique de Melo Jorge Barbosa, Joel Brito, Warren Cairns, Carlo Barbante, María del Carmen Diéguez, Patricia Elizabeth Garcia, Aurélien Dommergue, Helene Angot, Olivier Magand, Henrik Skov, Milena Horvat, Jože Kotnik, Katie Alana Read, Luis Mendes Neves, Bernd Manfred Gawlik, Fabrizio Sena, Nikolay Mashyanov, Vladimir Obolkin, Dennis Wip, Xin Bin Feng, Hui Zhang, Xuewu Fu, Ramesh Ramachandran, Daniel Cossa, Joël Knoery, Nicolas Marusczak, Michelle Nerentorp, and Claus Norstrom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11915–11935,Short summary
This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded within the GMOS global network analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. The over-arching beneﬁt of this coordinated Hg monitoring network would clearly be the production of high-quality measurement datasets on a global scale useful in developing and validating models on different spatial and temporal scales.
Carly L. Reddington, Dominick V. Spracklen, Paulo Artaxo, David A. Ridley, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Andrea Arana
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11083–11106,Short summary
We use a global aerosol model evaluated against long-term observations of surface aerosol and aerosol optical depth (AOD) to better understand the impacts of biomass burning on tropical aerosol. We use three satellite-derived fire emission datasets in the model, identifying regions where these datasets capture observations and where emissions are likely to be underestimated. For coincident observations of surface aerosol and AOD, model underestimation of AOD is greater than of surface aerosol.
A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, E. Bourtsoukidis, B. Derstroff, N. Zannoni, V. Gros, M. Lanza, J. Brito, S. M. Noe, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, B. Langford, E. Nemitz, T. Behrendt, J. Williams, P. Artaxo, M. O. Andreae, and J. Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10965–10984,Short summary
This paper provides a general overview of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) ambient observations in different ecosystems around the world in order to provide insights into the sources, sink and role of MEK in the atmosphere.
James D. Whitehead, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Ian Crawford, Rafael Stern, Martin W. Gallagher, Paul H. Kaye, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9727–9743,Short summary
We present measurements of aerosols during the transition from wet to dry seasons at a pristine rainforest site in central Amazonia. By excluding pollution episodes, we focus on natural biogenic aerosols. Submicron aerosols are dominated by organic material, similar to previous wet season measurements. Larger particles are dominated by biological material, mostly fungal spores, with higher concentrations at night. This study provides important data on the nature of particles above the Amazon.
Micael A. Cecchini, Luiz A. T. Machado, Jennifer M. Comstock, Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Jiwen Fan, Jason M. Tomlinson, Beat Schmid, Rachel Albrecht, Scot T. Martin, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7029–7041,Short summary
This work focuses on the analysis of anthropogenic impacts on Amazonian clouds. The experiment was conducted around Manaus (Brazil), which is a city with 2 million inhabitants and is surrounded by the Amazon forest in every direction. The clouds that form over the pristine atmosphere of the forest are understood as the background clouds and the ones that form over the city pollution are the anthropogenically impacted ones. The paper analyses microphysical characteristics of both types of clouds.
Stijn Hantson, Almut Arneth, Sandy P. Harrison, Douglas I. Kelley, I. Colin Prentice, Sam S. Rabin, Sally Archibald, Florent Mouillot, Steve R. Arnold, Paulo Artaxo, Dominique Bachelet, Philippe Ciais, Matthew Forrest, Pierre Friedlingstein, Thomas Hickler, Jed O. Kaplan, Silvia Kloster, Wolfgang Knorr, Gitta Lasslop, Fang Li, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Andrea Meyn, Stephen Sitch, Allan Spessa, Guido R. van der Werf, Apostolos Voulgarakis, and Chao Yue
Biogeosciences, 13, 3359–3375,Short summary
Our ability to predict the magnitude and geographic pattern of past and future fire impacts rests on our ability to model fire regimes. A large variety of models exist, and it is unclear which type of model or degree of complexity is required to model fire adequately at regional to global scales. In this paper we summarize the current state of the art in fire-regime modelling and model evaluation, and outline what lessons may be learned from the Fire Model Intercomparison Project – FireMIP.
Holger Baars, Thomas Kanitz, Ronny Engelmann, Dietrich Althausen, Birgit Heese, Mika Komppula, Jana Preißler, Matthias Tesche, Albert Ansmann, Ulla Wandinger, Jae-Hyun Lim, Joon Young Ahn, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Patric Seifert, Julian Hofer, Annett Skupin, Florian Schneider, Stephanie Bohlmann, Andreas Foth, Sebastian Bley, Anne Pfüller, Eleni Giannakaki, Heikki Lihavainen, Yrjö Viisanen, Rakesh Kumar Hooda, Sérgio Nepomuceno Pereira, Daniele Bortoli, Frank Wagner, Ina Mattis, Lucja Janicka, Krzysztof M. Markowicz, Peggy Achtert, Paulo Artaxo, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Ved Prakesh Sharma, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Johan Paul Beukes, Junying Sun, Erich G. Rohwer, Ruru Deng, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Felix Zamorano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5111–5137,Short summary
The findings from more than 10 years of global aerosol lidar measurements with Polly systems are summarized, and a data set of optical properties for specific aerosol types is given. An automated data retrieval algorithm for continuous Polly lidar observations is presented and discussed by means of a Saharan dust advection event in Leipzig, Germany. Finally, a statistic on the vertical aerosol distribution including the seasonal variability at PollyNET locations around the globe is presented.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Eliane G. Alves, Kolby Jardine, Julio Tota, Angela Jardine, Ana Maria Yãnez-Serrano, Thomas Karl, Julia Tavares, Bruce Nelson, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Scot Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Antonio Manzi, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3903–3925,Short summary
For a long time, it was thought that tropical rainforests are evergreen forests and the processes involved in these ecosystems do not change all year long. However, some satellite retrievals have suggested that ecophysiological processes may present seasonal variations mainly due to variation in light and leaf phenology in Amazonia. These in situ measurements are the first showing of a seasonal trend of volatile organic compound emissions, correlating with light and leaf phenology in Amazonia.
Franco Marenco, Ben Johnson, Justin M. Langridge, Jane Mulcahy, Angela Benedetti, Samuel Remy, Luke Jones, Kate Szpek, Jim Haywood, Karla Longo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2155–2174,Short summary
A widespread and persistent smoke layer was observed in the Amazon region during the biomass burning season, spanning a distance of 2200 km and a period of 14 days. The larger smoke content was typically found in elevated layers, from 1–1.5 km to 4–6 km. Measurements have been compared to model predictions, and the latter were able to reproduce the general features of the smoke layer, but with some differences which are analysed and described in the paper.
C. E. Scott, D. V. Spracklen, J. R. Pierce, I. Riipinen, S. D. D'Andrea, A. Rap, K. S. Carslaw, P. M. Forster, P. Artaxo, M. Kulmala, L. V. Rizzo, E. Swietlicki, G. W. Mann, and K. J. Pringle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12989–13001,Short summary
To understand the radiative effects of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) it is necessary to consider the manner in which it is distributed across the existing aerosol size distribution. We explore the importance of the approach taken by global-scale models to do this, when calculating the direct radiative effect (DRE) & first aerosol indirect effect (AIE) due to biogenic SOA. This choice has little effect on the DRE, but a substantial impact on the magnitude and even sign of the first AIE
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
M. O. Andreae, O. C. Acevedo, A. Araùjo, P. Artaxo, C. G. G. Barbosa, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Brito, S. Carbone, X. Chi, B. B. L. Cintra, N. F. da Silva, N. L. Dias, C. Q. Dias-Júnior, F. Ditas, R. Ditz, A. F. L. Godoi, R. H. M. Godoi, M. Heimann, T. Hoffmann, J. Kesselmeier, T. Könemann, M. L. Krüger, J. V. Lavric, A. O. Manzi, A. P. Lopes, D. L. Martins, E. F. Mikhailov, D. Moran-Zuloaga, B. W. Nelson, A. C. Nölscher, D. Santos Nogueira, M. T. F. Piedade, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, C. A. Quesada, L. V. Rizzo, C.-U. Ro, N. Ruckteschler, L. D. A. Sá, M. de Oliveira Sá, C. B. Sales, R. M. N. dos Santos, J. Saturno, J. Schöngart, M. Sörgel, C. M. de Souza, R. A. F. de Souza, H. Su, N. Targhetta, J. Tóta, I. Trebs, S. Trumbore, A. van Eijck, D. Walter, Z. Wang, B. Weber, J. Williams, J. Winderlich, F. Wittmann, S. Wolff, and A. M. Yáñez-Serrano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776,Short summary
This paper describes the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a new atmosphere-biosphere observatory located in the remote Amazon Basin. It presents results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at the ATTO site during the first 3 years of operation.
J. G. Levine, A. R. MacKenzie, O. J. Squire, A. T. Archibald, P. T. Griffiths, N. L. Abraham, J. A. Pyle, D. E. Oram, G. Forster, J. F. Brito, J. D. Lee, J. R. Hopkins, A. C. Lewis, S. J. B. Bauguitte, C. F. Demarco, P. Artaxo, P. Messina, J. Lathière, D. A. Hauglustaine, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, and E. Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
This study explores our ability to simulate atmospheric chemistry stemming from isoprene emissions—a reactive gas emitted from vegetation—in pristine and polluted regions of the Amazon basin. We explore how two contrasting models fare in reproducing recent airborne measurements in the region. Their differing treatments of transport and mixing are found to: profoundly affect their performance; and yield very different pictures of the exposure of the rainforest to harmful ozone concentrations.
E. M. Veenendaal, M. Torello-Raventos, T. R. Feldpausch, T. F. Domingues, F. Gerard, F. Schrodt, G. Saiz, C. A. Quesada, G. Djagbletey, A. Ford, J. Kemp, B. S. Marimon, B. H. Marimon-Junior, E. Lenza, J. A. Ratter, L. Maracahipes, D. Sasaki, B. Sonké, L. Zapfack, D. Villarroel, M. Schwarz, F. Yoko Ishida, M. Gilpin, G. B. Nardoto, K. Affum-Baffoe, L. Arroyo, K. Bloomfield, G. Ceca, H. Compaore, K. Davies, A. Diallo, N. M. Fyllas, J. Gignoux, F. Hien, M. Johnson, E. Mougin, P. Hiernaux, T. Killeen, D. Metcalfe, H. S. Miranda, M. Steininger, K. Sykora, M. I. Bird, J. Grace, S. Lewis, O. L. Phillips, and J. Lloyd
Biogeosciences, 12, 2927–2951,Short summary
When nearby forest and savanna stands are compared, they are not as structurally different as first seems. Moreover, savanna-forest transition zones typically occur at higher rainfall for South America than for Africa but with coexistence confined to a well-defined edaphic-climate envelope. With interacting soil cation-soil water storage–precipitations effects on canopy cover also observed we argue that both soils and climate influence the location of the two major tropical vegetation types.
E. T. Sena and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5471–5483,Short summary
A new methodology was developed for retrieving the daily direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols (24h-DARF) using satellite remote sensing. This method was used to assess the DARF at high temporal resolution and over a large area in Amazonia. We showed that our methodology considerably reduces statistical sources of uncertainties in the estimate of the DARF. DARF assessments using the new methodology agree well with ground-based measurements and radiative transfer models.
L. Rowland, A. Harper, B. O. Christoffersen, D. R. Galbraith, H. M. A. Imbuzeiro, T. L. Powell, C. Doughty, N. M. Levine, Y. Malhi, S. R. Saleska, P. R. Moorcroft, P. Meir, and M. Williams
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1097–1110,Short summary
This study evaluates the capability of five vegetation models to simulate the response of forest productivity to changes in temperature and drought, using data collected from an Amazonian forest. This study concludes that model consistencies in the responses of net canopy carbon production to temperature and precipitation change were the result of inconsistently modelled leaf-scale process responses and substantial variation in modelled leaf area responses.
Q. Chen, D. K. Farmer, L. V. Rizzo, T. Pauliquevis, M. Kuwata, T. G. Karl, A. Guenther, J. D. Allan, H. Coe, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, J. L. Jimenez, P. Artaxo, and S. T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3687–3701,Short summary
Submicron particle mass concentration in the Amazon during the wet season of 2008 was dominated by organic material. The PMF analysis finds a comparable importance of gas-phase (gas-to-particle condensation) and particle-phase (reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially of epoxydiols to acidic haze, fog, or cloud droplets) production of secondary organic material during the study period, together accounting for >70% of the organic-particle mass concentration.
A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, J. Williams, S. Wolff, E. Alves, G. A. Martins, E. Bourtsoukidis, J. Brito, K. Jardine, P. Artaxo, and J. Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3359–3378,
F. Pacifico, G. A. Folberth, S. Sitch, J. M. Haywood, L. V. Rizzo, F. F. Malavelle, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2791–2804,
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
M. M. Bela, K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, D. S. Moreira, V. Beck, S. C. Wofsy, C. Gerbig, K. Wiedemann, M. O. Andreae, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 757–782,Short summary
In the Amazon Basin, gases that lead to the formation of ozone (O3), an air pollutant and greenhouse gas, are emitted from fire, urban and biogenic sources. This study presents the first basin wide aircraft measurements of O3 during the dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons, which show extremely low values above undisturbed forest and increases from fires. This work also demonstrates the capabilities and limitations of regional atmospheric chemistry models in representing O3 in Amazonia.
J. Brito, L. V. Rizzo, W. T. Morgan, H. Coe, B. Johnson, J. Haywood, K. Longo, S. Freitas, M. O. Andreae, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12069–12083,Short summary
This paper details the physical--chemical characteristics of aerosols in a region strongly impacted by biomass burning in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon region. For such, a large suite of state-of-the-art instruments for realtime analysis was deployed at a ground site. Among the key findings, we observe the strong prevalence of organic aerosols associated to fire emissions, with important climate effects, and indications of its very fast processing in the atmosphere.
J. D. Allan, W. T. Morgan, E. Darbyshire, M. J. Flynn, P. I. Williams, D. E. Oram, P. Artaxo, J. Brito, J. D. Lee, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11393–11407,
K. Tsigaridis, N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Müller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, Ø. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895,
A. Rocha-Lima, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, N. A. Krotkov, M. H. Tabacniks, Y. Ben-Ami, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10649–10661,
A. I. Gevaert, A. J. Teuling, R. Uijlenhoet, S. B. DeLong, T. E. Huxman, L. A. Pangle, D. D. Breshears, J. Chorover, J. D. Pelletier, S. R. Saleska, X. Zeng, and P. A. Troch
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3681–3692,
G. P. Almeida, J. Brito, C. A. Morales, M. F. Andrade, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7559–7572,
G. G. Cirino, R. A. F. Souza, D. K. Adams, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6523–6543,
H. M. J. Barbosa, B. Barja, T. Pauliquevis, D. A. Gouveia, P. Artaxo, G. G. Cirino, R. M. N. Santos, and A. B. Oliveira
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1745–1762,
R. Ye, J. K. Keller, Q. Jin, B. J. M. Bohannan, and S. D. Bridgham
Revised manuscript not accepted
J. Brito, L. V. Rizzo, P. Herckes, P. C. Vasconcellos, S. E. S. Caumo, A. Fornaro, R. Y. Ynoue, P. Artaxo, and M. F. Andrade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12199–12213,
L. V. Rizzo, P. Artaxo, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, M. Paixão, G. G. Cirino, A. Arana, E. Swietlicki, P. Roldin, E. O. Fors, K. T. Wiedemann, L. S. M. Leal, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2391–2413,
J. A. Huffman, B. Sinha, R. M. Garland, A. Snee-Pollmann, S. S. Gunthe, P. Artaxo, S. T. Martin, M. O. Andreae, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11997–12019,
Related subject area
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continuumMicrobial community composition and abundance after millennia of submarine permafrost warmingCold-water corals and hydrocarbon-rich seepage in Pompeia Province (Gulf of Cádiz) – living on the edgeEcophysiological characteristics of red, green, and brown strains of the Baltic picocyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. – a laboratory studyFactors controlling the community structure of picoplankton in contrasting marine environmentsCommunity composition and seasonal changes of archaea in coarse and fine air particulate matterMicrobial community structure in the western tropical South PacificEcophysiological characterization of early successional biological soil crusts in heavily human-impacted areasSoil microbial biomass, activity and community composition along altitudinal gradients in the High Arctic (Billefjorden, Svalbard)Plant n-alkane production from litterfall altered the diversity and community structure of alkane degrading bacteria in litter layer in lowland subtropical 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Joost de Vries, Fanny Monteiro, Glen Wheeler, Alex Poulton, Jelena Godrijan, Federica Cerino, Elisa Malinverno, Gerald Langer, and Colin Brownlee
Biogeosciences, 18, 1161–1184,Short summary
Coccolithophores are important calcifying phytoplankton with an overlooked life cycle. We compile a global dataset of marine coccolithophore abundance to investigate the environmental characteristics of each life cycle phase. We find that both phases contribute to coccolithophore abundance and that their different environmental preference increases coccolithophore habitat. Accounting for the life cycle of coccolithophores is thus crucial for understanding their ecology and biogeochemical impact.
María Cristina Casero, Victoria Meslier, Jocelyne DiRuggiero, Antonio Quesada, Carmen Ascaso, Octavio Artieda, Tomasz Kowaluk, and Jacek Wierzchos
Biogeosciences, 18, 993–1007,Short summary
Endolithic microhabitats have been described as the last refuge for life in arid and hyper-arid deserts where life has to deal with harsh environmental conditions, such as those in the Atacama Desert. In this work, three different endolithic microhabitats occurring in gypcrete rocks of the Atacama Desert are characterized, using both microscopy and molecular techniques, to show if the architecture of each microhabitat has an influence on the microbial communities inhabiting each of them.
Jeffrey M. Dick, Miao Yu, and Jingqiang Tan
Biogeosciences, 17, 6145–6162,Short summary
Many natural environments differ in their range of salt concentration (salinity). We developed a metric for the number of water molecules in formation reactions of different proteins and found that it decreases between freshwater and marine systems and also in laboratory experiments with increasing salinity. These results demonstrate a new type of link between geochemical conditions and the chemical composition of microbial communities that can be useful for models of microbial adaptation.
Subhrangshu Mandal, Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Chayan Roy, Moidu Jameela Rameez, Jagannath Sarkar, Tarunendu Mapder, Svetlana Fernandes, Aditya Peketi, Aninda Mazumdar, and Wriddhiman Ghosh
Biogeosciences, 17, 4611–4631,Short summary
Potential roles of polythionates as key sulfur cycle intermediates are less appreciated, apparently because, in most of the natural environments, they do not accumulate to easily detectable levels. Our exploration of the eastern Arabian Sea sediment horizons revealed microbe-mediated production and redox transformations of tetrathionate to be important modules of the in situ sulfur cycle, even as high biotic and abiotic reactivity of this polythionate keeps it hidden from geochemical detection.
Magdalena J. Mayr, Matthias Zimmermann, Jason Dey, Bernhard Wehrli, and Helmut Bürgmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 4247–4259,
Emilio Marañón, France Van Wambeke, Julia Uitz, Emmanuel S. Boss, María Pérez-Lorenzo, Julie Dinasquet, Nils Haëntjens, Céline Dimier, and Vincent Taillandier
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
The concentration of chlorophyll is commonly used as an indicator of the abundance of photosynthetic plankton (phytoplankton) in lakes and oceans. Our study investigates why a deep chlorophyll maximum, located near the bottom of the upper, illuminated layer, develops in the Mediterranean Sea. We find that the acclimation of cells to low light is the main mechanism involved, and that this deep maximum represents also a maximum in the biomass and carbon fixation activity of phytoplankton.
Massimiliano Molari, Felix Janssen, Tobias R. Vonnahme, Frank Wenzhöfer, and Antje Boetius
Biogeosciences, 17, 3203–3222,Short summary
Industrial-scale mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules will remove nodules in large areas of the sea floor. We describe community composition of microbes associated with nodules of the Peru Basin. Our results show that nodules provide a unique ecological niche, playing an important role in shaping the diversity of the benthic deep-sea microbiome and potentially in element fluxes. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to expanding our knowledge of the impact associated with mining.
Jun Zhao, Yuanfeng Cai, and Zhongjun Jia
Biogeosciences, 17, 1451–1462,Short summary
We show that soil pH is a key factor in selecting distinct phylotypes of methanotrophs in paddy soils. Type II methanotrophs dominated the methane oxidation in low-pH soils, while type I methanotrophs were more active in high-pH soils. This pH-based niche differentiation of active methanotrophs appeared to be independent of nitrogen fertilization, but the inhibition of type II methanotrophic rate in low-pH soils by the fertilization might aggravate the emission of methane from paddy soils.
Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Zhuoyi Zhu, Jing Zhang, Wee Cheah, Shan Jiang, Faddrine Holt Jang, Aazani Mujahid, Fuh-Kwo Shiah, and Moritz Müller
Biogeosciences, 16, 4243–4260,Short summary
Microbial community composition and diversity in freshwater habitats are much less studied compared to marine and soil communities. This study presents the first assessment of microbial communities of the Rajang River, the longest river in Malaysia, expanding our knowledge of microbial ecology in tropical regions. Areas surrounded by oil palm plantations showed the lowest diversity and other signs of anthropogenic impacts included the presence of CFB groups as well as probable algal blooms.
Julia Mitzscherling, Fabian Horn, Maria Winterfeld, Linda Mahler, Jens Kallmeyer, Pier P. Overduin, Lutz Schirrmeister, Matthias Winkel, Mikhail N. Grigoriev, Dirk Wagner, and Susanne Liebner
Biogeosciences, 16, 3941–3958,Short summary
Permafrost temperatures increased substantially at a global scale, potentially altering microbial assemblages involved in carbon mobilization before permafrost thaws. We used Arctic Shelf submarine permafrost as a natural laboratory to investigate the microbial response to long-term permafrost warming. Our work shows that millennia after permafrost warming by > 10 °C, microbial community composition and population size reflect the paleoenvironment rather than a direct effect through warming.
Blanca Rincón-Tomás, Jan-Peter Duda, Luis Somoza, Francisco Javier González, Dominik Schneider, Teresa Medialdea, Esther Santofimia, Enrique López-Pamo, Pedro Madureira, Michael Hoppert, and Joachim Reitner
Biogeosciences, 16, 1607–1627,Short summary
Cold-water corals were found at active sites in Pompeia Province (Gulf of Cádiz). Since seeped fluids are harmful for the corals, we approached the environmental conditions that allow corals to colonize carbonates while seepage occurs. As a result, we propose that chemosynthetic microorganisms (i.e. sulfide-oxidizing bacteria and AOM-related microorganisms) play an important role in the colonization of the corals at these sites by feeding on the seeped fluids and avoiding coral damage.
Sylwia Śliwińska-Wilczewska, Agata Cieszyńska, Jakub Maculewicz, and Adam Latała
Biogeosciences, 15, 6257–6276,Short summary
The present study describes responses of picocyanobacteria (PCY) physiology to different environmental conditions. The cultures were grown under 64 combinations of temperature, irradiance in a photosynthetically active spectrum (PAR), and salinity. The results show that each strain of Baltic Synechococcus sp. behaves differently in respective environmental scenarios. The study develops the knowledge on bloom-forming PCY and reasons further research on the smallest size fraction of phytoplankton.
Jose Luis Otero-Ferrer, Pedro Cermeño, Antonio Bode, Bieito Fernández-Castro, Josep M. Gasol, Xosé Anxelu G. Morán, Emilio Marañon, Victor Moreira-Coello, Marta M. Varela, Marina Villamaña, and Beatriz Mouriño-Carballido
Biogeosciences, 15, 6199–6220,Short summary
The effect of inorganic nutrients on planktonic assemblages has been traditionally assessed by looking at concentrations rather than fluxes of nutrient supply. However, in near-steady-state systems such as subtropical gyres, nitrate concentrations are kept close to the detection limit due to phytoplankton uptake. Our results, based on direct measurements of nitrate diffusive fluxes, support the key role of nitrate supply in controlling the structure of marine picoplankton communities.
Jörn Wehking, Daniel A. Pickersgill, Robert M. Bowers, David Teschner, Ulrich Pöschl, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, and Viviane R. Després
Biogeosciences, 15, 4205–4214,Short summary
Archaea as a third domain of life play an important role in soils and marine environments. Although archaea have been found in air as a part of the atmospheric bioaerosol, little is known about their atmospheric dynamics due to their low number and challenging analysis. Here we present a DNA-based study of airborne archaea, show seasonal dynamics, and discuss anthropogenic influences on the diversity, composition, and abundances of airborne archaea.
Nicholas Bock, France Van Wambeke, Moïra Dion, and Solange Duhamel
Biogeosciences, 15, 3909–3925,Short summary
We report the distribution of major nano- and pico-plankton groups in the western tropical South Pacific. We found microbial community structure to be typical of highly stratified regions of the open ocean, with significant contributions to total biomass by picophytoeukaryotes, and N2 fixation playing a central role in regulating ecosystem processes. Our results also suggest a reduction in the importance of predation in regulating bacteria populations under nutrient-limited conditions.
Michelle Szyja, Burkhard Büdel, and Claudia Colesie
Biogeosciences, 15, 1919–1931,Short summary
Ongoing human impact transforms habitats into surfaces lacking higher vegetation. Here, biological soil crusts (BSCs) provide ecosystem services like soil creation and carbon uptake. To understand the functioning of these areas, we examined the physiological capability of early successional BSCs. We found features enabling BSCs to cope with varying climatic stresses. BSCs are important carbon fixers independent of the dominating organism. We provide baseline data for modeling carbon fluxes.
Petr Kotas, Hana Šantrůčková, Josef Elster, and Eva Kaštovská
Biogeosciences, 15, 1879–1894,Short summary
The soil microbial properties were investigated along altitudinal gradients in the Arctic. Systematic altitudinal shift in MCS resulting in high F / B ratios at the most elevated sites was observed. The changes in composition, size and activity of microbial communities were mainly controlled through the effect of vegetation on edaphic properties and by bedrock chemistry. The upward migration of vegetation due to global warming will likely diminish the spatial variability in microbial properties.
Tung-Yi Huang, Bing-Mu Hsu, Wei-Chun Chao, and Cheng-Wei Fan
Biogeosciences, 15, 1815–1826,Short summary
The n-alkane in litterfall and the microbial community in litter layer in different habitats of lowland subtropical rainforest were studied. We revealed that the plant vegetation of forest not only dominated the n-alkane input of habitats but also governed the diversity of microbial community of litter layer. In this study, we found that the habitat which had high n-alkane input induced a shift of relative abundance toward phylum of Actinobacteria and the growth of alkB gene contained bacteria.
Jennifer Caesar, Alexandra Tamm, Nina Ruckteschler, Anna Lena Leifke, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 15, 1415–1424,Short summary
In our study we analyzed the efficiency of different chlorophyll extraction solvents and investigated the effect of different preparatory steps to determine the optimal extraction method for biological soil crusts. Based on our results we confirm a DMSO-based chlorophyll extraction method without grinding pretreatment and suggest to insert an intermediate shaking step for complete chlorophyll extraction.
Zhiwei Xu, Guirui Yu, Xinyu Zhang, Nianpeng He, Qiufeng Wang, Shengzhong Wang, Xiaofeng Xu, Ruili Wang, and Ning Zhao
Biogeosciences, 15, 1217–1228,Short summary
Forest types with specific soil conditions supported the development of distinct soil microbial communities with variable functions. Our results indicate that the main controls on soil microbes and functions vary across forest ecosystems in different climatic zones. This information will add value to the modeling of microbial processes and will contribute to carbon cycling on a large scale.
Patrick Jung, Laura Briegel-Williams, Anika Simon, Anne Thyssen, and Burkhard Büdel
Biogeosciences, 15, 1149–1160,Short summary
Arctic, Antarctic and alpine biological soil crusts (BSCs) are formed by adhesion of soil particles to cyanobacteria. BSCs influence ecosystems services like soil erodibility and chemical cycles. In cold environments degradation rates are low and BSCs increase soil organic carbon through photosynthesis, whereby these soils are considered as CO2 sinks. This work provides a novel method to visualize BSCs with a focus on cyanobacteria and their contribution to soil organic carbon.
Rongliang Jia, Yun Zhao, Yanhong Gao, Rong Hui, Haotian Yang, Zenru Wang, and Yixuan Li
Biogeosciences, 15, 1161–1172,Short summary
Why can biocrust moss survive and flourish in these habitats when stressed simultaneously by drought and sand burial? A field experiment was conducted to assess the combined effects of the two stressors on Bryum argenteum within biocrust. The two stressors did not exacerbate the single negative effects; their mutually antagonistic effect on the physiological vigor of B. argenteum was found, and it provided an opportunity for it to overcome the two co-occurring stressors in arid sandy ecosystems.
Johanna Maltby, Lea Steinle, Carolin R. Löscher, Hermann W. Bange, Martin A. Fischer, Mark Schmidt, and Tina Treude
Biogeosciences, 15, 137–157,Short summary
The activity and environmental controls of methanogenesis (MG) within the sulfate-reducing zone (0–30 cm below the seafloor) were investigated in organic-rich sediments of the seasonally hypoxic Eckernförde Bay, SW Baltic Sea. MG activity was mostly linked to non-competitive substrates. The major controls identified were organic matter availability, C / N, temperature, and O2 in the water column, revealing higher rates in warm, stratified, hypoxic seasons compared to colder, oxygenated seasons.
Rebecca Elizabeth Cooper, Karin Eusterhues, Carl-Eric Wegner, Kai Uwe Totsche, and Kirsten Küsel
Biogeosciences, 14, 5171–5188,Short summary
In this study we show increasing organic matter (OM) content on ferrihydrite surfaces enhances Fe reduction by the model Fe reducer S. oneidensis and a microbial consortia extracted from peat. Similarities in reduction rates between S. oneidensis and the consortia suggest electron shuttling dominates in OM-rich soils. Community profile analyses showed enrichment of fermenters with pure ferrihydrite, whereas OM–mineral complexes favored enrichment of Fe-reducing Desulfobacteria and Pelosinus sp.
Yu-Te Lin, Zhongjun Jia, Dongmei Wang, and Chih-Yu Chiu
Biogeosciences, 14, 4879–4889,Short summary
We evaluated the bacterial composition and diversity of bamboo soils sampled at different elevations and incubated at different temperatures. Soil respiration was greater at higher elevation and temperature. Soil bacterial structure and diversity showed variable under different incubation times and temperatures. Increases in temperature increased soil respiration and consumption of soil soluble carbon and nitrogen, thus influencing the bacterial diversity and structure at different elevations.
Lichao Liu, Yubing Liu, Peng Zhang, Guang Song, Rong Hui, Zengru Wang, and Jin Wang
Biogeosciences, 14, 3801–3814,Short summary
We studied the development process of bacterial community structure of biological soil crusts (BSCs) along a revegetation chronosequence by Illumina MiSeq sequencing in the Tengger Desert. Our results indicated (1) a shift of bacterial composition related to their function in the crust development process; (2) bacterial diversity and richness consistent with the recovery phase of soil properties; and (3) bacteria as key contributors to the BSC succession process.
Sophie L. Nixon, Jon P. Telling, Jemma L. Wadham, and Charles S. Cockell
Biogeosciences, 14, 1445–1455,Short summary
Despite their permanently cold and dark characteristics, subglacial environments (glacier ice–sediment interface) are known to harbour active microbial communities. However, the role of microbial iron cycling in these environments is poorly understood. Here we show that subglacial sediments harbour active iron-reducing microorganisms, and they appear to be cold-adapted. These results may have important implications for global biogeochemical iron cycling and export to marine ecosystems.
Estelle Couradeau, Daniel Roush, Brandon Scott Guida, and Ferran Garcia-Pichel
Biogeosciences, 14, 311–324,Short summary
Endoliths are a prominent bioerosive component of intertidal marine habitats, traditionally thought to be formed by a few cyanobacteria, algae and fungi. Using molecular techniques, however, we found that endoliths from Mona Island, Puerto Rico, were of high diversity, well beyond that reported in traditional studies. We also found evidence for substrate specialization, in that closely related cyanobacteria seem to have diversified to specialize recurrently to excavate various mineral substrates
Yong Wang, Tie Gang Li, Meng Ying Wang, Qi Liang Lai, Jiang Tao Li, Zhao Ming Gao, Zong Ze Shao, and Pei-Yuan Qian
Biogeosciences, 13, 6405–6417,Short summary
Mild eruption of hydrothermal solutions on deep-sea benthic floor can produce anhydrite crystal layers, where microbes are trapped and preserved for a long period of time. These embedded original inhabitants will be biomarkers for the environment when the hydrothermal eruption occurred. This study discovered a thick anhydrite layer in a deep-sea brine pool in the Red Sea. Oil-degrading bacteria were revealed in the crystals with genomic and microscopic evidence.
Dina Spungin, Ulrike Pfreundt, Hugo Berthelot, Sophie Bonnet, Dina AlRoumi, Frank Natale, Wolfgang R. Hess, Kay D. Bidle, and Ilana Berman-Frank
Biogeosciences, 13, 4187–4203,Short summary
The marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. forms massive blooms important to carbon and nitrogen cycling in the oceans that often collapse abruptly. We investigated a Trichodesmium bloom in the lagoon waters of New Caledonia to specifically elucidate the cellular processes mediating the bloom decline. We demonstrate physiological, biochemical, and genetic evidence for nutrient and oxidative stress that induced a genetically controlled programmed cell death (PCD) pathway leading to bloom demise.
Lotta Purkamo, Malin Bomberg, Riikka Kietäväinen, Heikki Salavirta, Mari Nyyssönen, Maija Nuppunen-Puputti, Lasse Ahonen, Ilmo Kukkonen, and Merja Itävaara
Biogeosciences, 13, 3091–3108,Short summary
The microbial communities of up to 2.3 km depth of Precambrian crystalline bedrock fractures share features with serpenization-driven microbial communities in alkaline springs and subsurface aquifers. This study suggests that phylotypes belonging to Burkholderiales and Clostridia are possible "keystone microbial species" in Outokumpu deep biosphere. Many of the keystone species belong to the rare biosphere with low abundance but a wide range of carbon substrates and a capacity for H2 oxidation.
Thierry Jauffrais, Bruno Jesus, Edouard Metzger, Jean-Luc Mouget, Frans Jorissen, and Emmanuelle Geslin
Biogeosciences, 13, 2715–2726,Short summary
Some benthic foraminifera can incorporate chloroplasts from microalgae. We investigated chloroplast functionality of two benthic foraminifera (Haynesina germanica & Ammonia tepida) exposed to different light levels. Only H. germanica was capable of using the kleptoplasts, showing net oxygen production. Chloroplast functionality time was longer in darkness (2 weeks) than at high light (1 week). Kleptoplasts are unlikely to be completely functional, thus requiring continuous chloroplast resupply.
L. Zhou, Y. Tan, L. Huang, Z. Hu, and Z. Ke
Biogeosciences, 12, 6809–6822,Short summary
We observed that phytoplankton biomass and growth rate (μ), microzooplankton grazing rate (m), and coupling (correlation) between the μ and m significantly varied between the summer and winter, and microzooplankton selectively grazed more on the larger-sized phytoplankton, and a low grazing impact on phytoplankton (m/μ < 50%) in the SSCS. The salient seasonal variations in μ and m, and their coupling were closely related to environmental variables under the influence of the East Asian monsoon.
W. Y. Dong, X. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Liu, X. L. Fu, F. S. Chen, H. M. Wang, X. M. Sun, and X. F. Wen
Biogeosciences, 12, 5537–5546,Short summary
We examined how N and P addition influenced soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities in subtropical China. The results showed that C and N cycling enzymes were more sensitive to nutrient additions than P cycling enzymes and Gram-positive bacteria were most closely related to soil nutrient cycling enzymes. Combined additions of N and P fertilizer are recommended to promote soil fertility and microbial activity in this kind of plantation.
T. Bush, I. B. Butler, A. Free, and R. J. Allen
Biogeosciences, 12, 3713–3724,Short summary
Despite their global importance, redox reactions mediated by microorganisms are often crudely represented in biogeochemical models. We show that including the dynamics of microbial growth in such a model can cause sudden shifts between redox states in response to an environmental change. We identify the conditions required for these redox regime shifts, and predict that they are likely in the modern day sulfur and nitrogen cycles, and potentially the iron cycle in the ancient ocean.
P. K. Gao, G. Q. Li, H. M. Tian, Y. S. Wang, H. W. Sun, and T. Ma
Biogeosciences, 12, 3403–3414,Short summary
Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have a significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water-flooding petroleum reservoirs. We thereby investigated the similarities and differences in microbial communities in water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous reservoir and a heterogeneous reservoir using high-throughput sequencing.
V. Marteinsson, A. Klonowski, E. Reynisson, P. Vannier, B. D. Sigurdsson, and M. Ólafsson
Biogeosciences, 12, 1191–1203,Short summary
Colonization of life on Surtsey has been observed systematically since the formation of the island. Microbial colonization and the influence of associate vegetation and birds on viable counts of environmental bacteria at the surface of the Surtsey was explored for the first time in diverse surface soils. Also, hot subsurface samples deep in the centre of this volcanic island were collected. Both uncultivated bacteria and archaea were found in the subsurface samples collected below 145 m.
J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, C. Ruzene Nespoli, D. A. Pickersgill, P. E. Galand, I. Müller-Germann, T. Nunes, J. Gomes Cardoso, S. M. Almeida, C. Pio, M. O. Andreae, R. Conrad, U. Pöschl, and V. R. Després
Biogeosciences, 11, 6067–6079,Short summary
We have investigated the presence of archaea as well as their amoA gene diversity in aerosol particles collected over 1 year in central Europe and found that, within the 16S and amoA gene, Thaumarchaeota prevail and experience a diversity peak in fall, while only few Euryarchaeota were detected primarily in spring. We also compared the results with airborne archaea from Cape Verde and observe that the proportions of Euryarchaeota seem to be enhanced in coastal air compared to continental air.
A. L. Gagliano, W. D'Alessandro, M. Tagliavia, F. Parello, and P. Quatrini
Biogeosciences, 11, 5865–5875,
S. A. Krueger-Hadfield, C. Balestreri, J. Schroeder, A. Highfield, P. Helaouët, J. Allum, R. Moate, K. T. Lohbeck, P. I. Miller, U. Riebesell, T. B. H. Reusch, R. E. M. Rickaby, J. Young, G. Hallegraeff, C. Brownlee, and D. C. Schroeder
Biogeosciences, 11, 5215–5234,
A. C. Gerecht, L. Šupraha, B. Edvardsen, I. Probert, and J. Henderiks
Biogeosciences, 11, 3531–3545,
Y. Zheng, R. Huang, B. Z. Wang, P. L. E. Bodelier, and Z. J. Jia
Biogeosciences, 11, 3353–3368,
S. Mishra, W. A. Lee, A. Hooijer, S. Reuben, I. M. Sudiana, A. Idris, and S. Swarup
Biogeosciences, 11, 1727–1741,
K. Haynert, J. Schönfeld, R. Schiebel, B. Wilson, and J. Thomsen
Biogeosciences, 11, 1581–1597,
J. Sun, X. Y. Gu, Y. Y. Feng, S. F. Jin, W. S. Jiang, H. Y. Jin, and J. F. Chen
Biogeosciences, 11, 779–806,
M. S. Alam, G. D. Ren, L. Lu, Y. Zheng, X. H. Peng, and Z. J. Jia
Biogeosciences, 10, 5739–5753,
X. S. Tai, W. L. Mao, G. X. Liu, T. Chen, W. Zhang, X. K. Wu, H. Z. Long, B. G. Zhang, and Y. Zhang
Biogeosciences, 10, 5589–5600,
J. Esperschütz, C. Zimmermann, A. Dümig, G. Welzl, F. Buegger, M. Elmer, J. C. Munch, and M. Schloter
Biogeosciences, 10, 5115–5124,
M. G. Pachiadaki and K. A. Kormas
Biogeosciences, 10, 2821–2831,
J. DiRuggiero, J. Wierzchos, C. K. Robinson, T. Souterre, J. Ravel, O. Artieda, V. Souza-Egipsy, and C. Ascaso
Biogeosciences, 10, 2439–2450,
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Fungi in the atmosphere can affect precipitation by nucleating the formation of clouds and ice. This process is important over the Amazon rainforest where precipitation is limited by the types and amount of airborne particles. We found that the total and metabolically active fungi communities were dominated by different taxonomic groups, and the active community unexpectedly contained many lichen fungi, which are effective at nucleating ice.
Fungi in the atmosphere can affect precipitation by nucleating the formation of clouds and ice....