Articles | Volume 12, issue 4
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Steady-state solutions for subsurface chlorophyll maximum in stratified water columns with a bell-shaped vertical profile of chlorophyll
Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology (Ministry of Education of China), Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology (Ministry of Education of China), Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
X. H. Yao
Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology (Ministry of Education of China), Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
No articles found.
Jiawei Li, Zhiwei Han, Pingqing Fu, and Xiaohong Yao
Organic aerosols of marine origin are important to aerosol climatic effect, but are poorly understood at present. For the first time, an on-line coupled regional chemistry-climate model is applied to explore the characteristics of emission, distribution, direct and indirect radiative effects of marine organic aerosols for the western Pacific, which reveals an important role of marine organic aerosols in perturbing cloud and radiation and promotes understanding of global aerosol climatic impact.
Feifan Yan, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Rujin Huang, Hong Liao, Ting Yang, Yuanyuan Zhu, Shaoqing Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Wenbin Kou, Xinran Zeng, Shengnan Xiang, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, and Yang Gao
PM2.5 pollution is a major air quality issue deteriorating human health, and previous studies mostly focus on PM2.5 pollution in regions like North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta. However, the characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations between these two regions are less studied. Focusing on the transport corridor region, we identify an interesting seesaw transport phenomenon with stagnant weather conditions, conducive to PM2.5 accumulation over this region, resulting in large health effects.
Chupeng Zhang, Shangfei Hai, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Xin Huang, Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Aura Lupascu, Manish Shrivastava, Jerome D. Fast, Wenxuan Cheng, Xiuwen Guo, Ming Chu, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Qiaoqiao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10713–10730,Short summary
New particle formation is an important source of atmospheric particles, exerting critical influences on global climate. Numerical models are vital tools to understanding atmospheric particle evolution, which, however, suffer from large biases in simulating particle numbers. Here we improve the model chemical processes governing particle sizes and compositions. The improved model reveals substantial contributions of newly formed particles to climate through effects on cloud condensation nuclei.
Qi Yuan, Yuanyuan Wang, Yixin Chen, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Liang Xu, Wei Hu, Dantong Liu, Pingqing Fu, Huiwang Gao, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9385–9399,Short summary
This study for the first time found large amounts of liquid–liquid phase separation particles with soot redistributing in organic coatings instead of sulfate cores in the eastern Tibetan Plateau atmosphere. The particle size and the ratio of the organic matter coating thickness to soot size are two of the major possible factors that likely affect the soot redistribution process. The soot redistribution process promoted the morphological compaction of soot particles.
Ming Chu, Xing Wei, Shangfei Hai, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, Yujiao Zhu, Biwu Chu, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Yele Sun, and Xiaohong Yao
We used a 20-bin WRF-Chem model to simulate NPF events in the NCP during a three-week observational period in the summer of 2019. The model was able to reproduce the observations during June 29–July 6, which was characterized by a high frequency of NPF occurrence.
Xing Wei, Yanjie Shen, Xiao-Ying Yu, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, Ming Chu, Yujiao Zhu, and Xiaohong Yao
To investigate the contribution of grown new particles to Nccn at a rural mountain site in North China Plain. The total particle number concentrations (Ncn) observed on eight NPF days were higher compared to non-NPF days. The Nccn at 0.2 %SS and 0.4 %SS on the NPF days were, however, significantly lower than those observed on non-NPF days. We concluded that grown new particles generally had no detectable contribution to Nccn, but incidentally did.
Yu Lin, Leiming Zhang, Qinchu Fan, He Meng, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16073–16090,Short summary
In this study, we analyzed 7-year (from May 2014 to April 2021) concentration data of six criteria air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, CO and SO2) as well as the sum of NO2 and O3 in six cities in South China. Three different analysis methods were used to identify emission-driven interannual variations and perturbations from varying weather conditions. In addition, a self-developed method was further introduced to constrain analysis uncertainties.
Junying Zhu, Jie Shi, and Xinyu Guo
Ocean Sci., 18, 659–673,Short summary
A bottom cold water mass (BCWM) is a widespread physical oceanographic phenomenon among coastal seas. Observations reveal a prominent interannual variation in a BCWM in the Seto Inland Sea during 1994–2015. We found that air–sea heat flux change during the warming season plays an important role in its interannual variation. Comparison with other BCWMs indicates that the size is a key factor for their difference. The findings help understand the response of BCWMs to sea surface forcing change.
Yating Gao, Dihui Chen, Yanjie Shen, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1515–1528,Short summary
This study focuses on spatiotemporal heterogeneity of observed gaseous amines, NH3, their particulate counterparts in PM2.5 over different sea zones, and the disproportional release of alkaline gases and corresponding particulate counterparts from seawater in the sea zones in terms of different extents of enrichment of TMAH+ and DMAH+ in the sea surface microlayer (SML). A novel hypothesis is delivered.
Ying Zhou, Simo Hakala, Chao Yan, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Biwu Chu, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Shahzad Gani, Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Lubna Dada
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17885–17906,Short summary
We characterized the connection between new particle formation (NPF) events in terms of frequency, intensity and growth at a near-highway location in central Beijing and at a background mountain site 80 km away. Due to the substantial contribution of NPF to the global aerosol budget, identifying the conditions that promote the occurrence of regional NPF events could help understand their contribution on a large scale and would improve their implementation in global models.
Liang Xu, Xiaohuan Liu, Huiwang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Daizhou Zhang, Lei Bi, Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Qi Yuan, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17715–17726,Short summary
We quantified different types of marine aerosols and explored the Cl depletion of sea salt aerosol (SSA) in the eastern China seas and the northwestern Pacific Ocean. We found that anthropogenic acidic gases in the troposphere were transported longer distances compared to the anthropogenic aerosols and could significantly impact remote marine aerosols. Meanwhile, variations of chloride depletion in SSA can serve as a potential indicator for anthropogenic gaseous pollutants in remote marine air.
Dihui Chen, Yanjie Shen, Juntao Wang, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16413–16425,Short summary
The study provides solid evidence to demonstrate that atmospheric trimethylamine (TMAgas) and particulate trimethylaminium in PM2.5 (TMAH+) observed in marine atmospheres were uniquely derived from seawater emissions. As sea-derived TMAgas correlated significantly with DMAgas and NH3gas, sea-derived DMAgas and NH3gas can be estimated and can quantify the contribution to the observed species in the marine atmosphere. Similarly, the contributions of primary DMAH+ have also been estimated.
Yujiao Zhu, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Jianmin Chen, Hongyong Li, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Tianshu Chen, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1305–1323,Short summary
This work investigates the long-term changes in new particle formation (NPF) events under reduced SO2 emissions at the summit of Mt. Tai during seven campaigns from 2007 to 2018. We found the NPF intensity increased 2- to 3-fold in 2018 compared to 2007. In contrast, the probability of new particles growing to CCN size largely decreased. Changes to biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic emissions are proposed to explain the distinct NPF characteristics.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Jingsha Xu, Shaojie Song, Roy M. Harrison, Congbo Song, Lianfang Wei, Qiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Lu Lei, Chao Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Dihui Chen, Weijun Li, Miaomiao Wu, Hezhong Tian, Lining Luo, Shengrui Tong, Weiran Li, Junling Wang, Guoliang Shi, Yanqi Huangfu, Yingze Tian, Baozhu Ge, Shaoli Su, Chao Peng, Yang Chen, Fumo Yang, Aleksandra Mihajlidi-Zelić, Dragana Đorđević, Stefan J. Swift, Imogen Andrews, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Ye Sun, Agung Kramawijaya, Jinxiu Han, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Clarissa Baldo, Siqi Hou, Feixue Zheng, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Pingqing Fu, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6325–6341,Short summary
An interlaboratory comparison was conducted for the first time to examine differences in water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) measured by 10 labs using ion chromatography (IC) and by two online aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) methods. Major ions including SO42−, NO3− and NH4+ agreed well in 10 IC labs and correlated well with ACSM data. WSII interlab variability strongly affected aerosol acidity results based on ion balance, but aerosol pH computed by ISORROPIA II was very similar.
Jiawei Li, Zhiwei Han, Pingqing Fu, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Organic aerosols of marine origin are so far poorly understood. An on-line coupled regional chemistry-climate model is developed to firstly explore and characterize the seasonality and annual feature of emission, distribution and radiative effects of marine organic aerosols specifically for the western Pacific over East Asia. This study reveals an important role of marine organic aerosols in radiation and cloud and would be valuable for climate research at both regional and global scales.
Yang Gao, Deqiang Zhang, Juntao Wang, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9665–9677,Short summary
Through the cruise campaign conducted over marginal seas in China, we found that the concentrations of condensation nuclei (Ncn) and cloud condensation nuclei (Nccn) were 1 order of magnitude larger than those in remote clear marine atmospheres, indicating overwhelming contributions from marine traffic emissions and long-range continental transport. Moreover, we derived regression equations used to estimate Ncn and Nccn from SO2 when the direct observations of Ncn and Nccn are not available.
Tianfeng Guo, Zhigang Guo, Juntao Wang, Jialiang Feng, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5055–5070,Short summary
This study investigated tracer-based organic matter observations over two marginal seas of China and the northwest Pacific Ocean in spring, when the East Asian monsoon carries biogenic and anthropogenic aerosols over these oceanic zones. The geographical difference may be related to emissions of primary particulate organics and gaseous precursors as well as formation processing of secondary organics in various atmospheres. Furthermore, we present the tracer-based estimation of organic carbon.
Xiaohong Yao and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 721–733,Short summary
An innovative approach is developed to preprocess monitored wet deposition data of inorganic ions for generating their decadal trends. Differing from traditional approaches which directly apply annual or seasonal average data to trend analysis tools, the proposed new approach makes use of slopes of regression equations between a series of study years and a climatology (base) year in terms of monthly averaged data. The new approach yields more robust results than the traditional tools.
Mingchen Ma, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, L. Ruby Leung, Cheng Liu, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Xing Chang, Hang Su, Tianqi Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12195–12207,Short summary
Ozone pollution has become severe in China, and extremely high ozone episodes occurred in summer 2017 over the North China Plain. While meteorology impacts are clear, we find that enhanced biogenic emissions, previously ignored by the community, driven by high vapor pressure deficit, land cover change and urban landscape contribute substantially to ozone formation. This study has significant implications for ozone pollution control with more frequent heat waves and urbanization growth in future.
Juntao Wang, Yanjie Shen, Kai Li, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8845–8861,Short summary
In this paper, we studied the spatiotemporal variability of Ncn and particle number size distributions, as well as Nccn and CCN activities over the NWPO in the spring of 2014. We found that a pool of nucleation-mode atmospheric particles is aloft over the NWPO. Through comprehensive comparison with observations in the literature, we illustrate the characteristics of Ncn and Nccn over the NWPO in 2014 and reveal their changes against the results measured two decades ago.
Junxi Zhang, Yang Gao, L. Ruby Leung, Kun Luo, Huan Liu, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Jianren Fan, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, and Tatsuya Nagashima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 887–900,Short summary
ACCMIP simulations were used to study NOy deposition over East Asia in the future. Both dry and wet NOy deposition show significant decreases in the 2100s under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 due to large anthropogenic emission reduction. The changes in climate only significantly affect the wet deposition primarily linked to changes in precipitation. Over the coastal seas of China, weaker transport of NOy from land due to emission reduction infers a larger impact from shipping and lightning emissions.
Jinhui Shi, Nan Wang, Huiwang Gao, Alex R. Baker, Xiaohong Yao, and Daizhou Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 847–860,Short summary
Water-soluble phosphorus (P) in natural and anthropogenic mineral particles in Asian continent outflow is regarded as one of the key nutrients for the biological cycle in the surface seawater of the North Pacific. Our observations at a Chinese coastal site revealed that P solubility was closely relevant to the particle origins, atmospheric acidic processes and ambient relative humidity. The recent severe air pollution over East Asia has likely enhanced bioavailable P input to the North Pacific.
Ge Zhang, Yang Gao, Wenju Cai, L. Ruby Leung, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Minghuai Wang, Huayao Shan, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 565–576,Short summary
Based on observed data, this study reveals a distinct seesaw feature of abnormally high and low PM2.5 concentrations in December 2015 and January 2016 over North China. The mechanism of the seesaw pattern was found to be linked to a super El Niño and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). During the mature phase of El Niño in December 2015, the weakened East Asian winter monsoon favors strong haze formation; however, the circulation pattern was reversed in the next month due to the phase change of the AO.
Yujiao Zhu, Kai Li, Yanjie Shen, Yang Gao, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Yu, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 89–113,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate new particle formation (NPF) events during seven cruises. NPF events were observed on 25 days and were most likely associated with the long-range transport of anthropogenic air pollutants. The relationship between the net generated amount of new particles and their apparent formation rate is established and explained in terms of the roles of different vapor precursors. The survival probability of new particles to CCN size is also discussed.
Li Luo, Shuh-Ji Kao, Hongyan Bao, Huayun Xiao, Hongwei Xiao, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, Jiawei Li, and Yangyang Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6207–6222,
Chao Zhang, Huiwang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Zongbo Shi, Jinhui Shi, Yang Yu, Ling Meng, and Xinyu Guo
Biogeosciences, 15, 749–765,Short summary
This study compares the response of phytoplankton growth in the northwest Pacific to those in the Yellow Sea. In general, larger positive responses of phytoplankton induced by combined nutrients (in the subtropical gyre of the northwest Pacific) than those induced by a single nutrient (in the Kuroshio Extension and the Yellow Sea) from the dust are observed. We also emphasize the importance of an increase in bioavailable P stock for phytoplankton growth following dust addition.
Jianhua Qi, Xiaohuan Liu, Xiaohong Yao, Ruifeng Zhang, Xiaojing Chen, Xuehui Lin, Huiwang Gao, and Ruhai Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 571–586,Short summary
Inorganic nitrogen has a great impact on marine productivity when deposited to the ocean via atmospheric deposition. Do dust events always increase the atmospheric input of inorganic nitrogen to the ocean? The estimated deposition flux of NNH4++NO3- varied greatly from event to event. A simple assumption of a linear increase in inorganic nitrogen with increasing dust load could lead to a considerable overestimation of the dry deposition flux of nutrients into the oceans.
Yujiao Zhu, Caiqing Yan, Renyi Zhang, Zifa Wang, Mei Zheng, Huiwang Gao, Yang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9469–9484,Short summary
This study reports the distinct effects of street canyons on new particle formation (NPF) under warm or cold ambient temperature conditions because of on-road vehicle emissions; i.e., stronger condensation sinks are responsible for the reduced NPF in the springtime, but efficient nucleation and partitioning of gaseous species contribute to the enhanced NPF in the wintertime. The oxidization of biogenic organics is suggested to play an important role in growing new particles.
Xiang Gong, Wensheng Jiang, Linhui Wang, Huiwang Gao, Emmanuel Boss, Xiaohong Yao, Shuh-Ji Kao, and Jie Shi
Biogeosciences, 14, 2371–2386,Short summary
The subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer (SCML) forms near the nitracline. By incorporating a piecewise function for the approximate Gaussian vertical profile of chlorophyll, we derive analytical solutions of a specified nutrient–phytoplankton model. Nitracline depth is deeper than SCML depth, and a thinner SCML corresponds to a steeper nitracline. A higher light attenuation coefficient leads to a shallower but steeper nitracline. Nitracline steepness is independent of surface light intensity.
Xiaohong Yao and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11465–11475,Short summary
Atmospheric NH3 plays an important role in forming secondary aerosols and has a direct impact on sensitive ecosystems. This study aims to study its long-term variation and find that the long-term trend can be affected by climate change as well as other anthropogenic factors, depending on sites. A large percentage increase of atmospheric NH3 at remote American sites is surprising and may cause a potential threat to sensitive ecosystems in the future.
Josiane Mélançon, Maurice Levasseur, Martine Lizotte, Michael Scarratt, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Philippe Tortell, Gui-Peng Yang, Guang-Yu Shi, Huiwang Gao, David Semeniuk, Marie Robert, Michael Arychuk, Keith Johnson, Nes Sutherland, Marty Davelaar, Nina Nemcek, Angelica Peña, and Wendy Richardson
Biogeosciences, 13, 1677–1692,Short summary
Ocean acidification is likely to affect iron-limited phytoplankton fertilization by desert dust. Short incubations of northeast subarctic Pacific waters enriched with dust and set at pH 8.0 and 7.8 were conducted. Acidification led to a significant reduction (by 16–38 %) of the final concentration of chl a reached after enrichment. These results show that dust deposition events in a low-pH iron-limited ocean are likely to stimulate phytoplankton growth to a lesser extent than in today's ocean.
L. Luo, X. H. Yao, H. W. Gao, S. C. Hsu, J. W. Li, and S. J. Kao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 325–341,Short summary
Concentrations and depositions of various nitrogen species of water-soluble fraction in aerosols were observed during spring over the eastern China seas and northwestern Pacific Ocean. Results revealed nitrogen deposition associated with the sea fog weather was 6 times higher than that of spring supply from the Yangtze River to the ECS shelf. The DON emission had occurred most likely during sea spray. Weather conditions modulate the nitrogen exchange at the ocean-atmosphere boundary.
X. H. Liu, Y. J. Zhu, M. Zheng, H. W. Gao, and X. H. Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7941–7951,
X. H. Yao and L. Zhang
Biogeosciences, 10, 7913–7925,
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Biogeosciences, 20, 4711–4736,Short summary
The global ocean is losing oxygen due to warming. The Indian Ocean, however, is gaining oxygen in large parts of the basin, and its naturally occurring oxygen minimum zone is not expanding. This rather unexpected response is explained by the unique ocean circulation of the Indian Ocean, which is bounded by a continent to the north but connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Indonesian Throughflow.
Qian Leng, Xinyu Guo, Junying Zhu, and Akihiko Morimoto
Biogeosciences, 20, 4323–4338,Short summary
Using a numerical model, we revealed that a large proportion of nutrients in a semi-enclosed sea (Seto Inland Sea, Japan) comes from the Pacific Ocean and supports about half of the phytoplankton growth in the sea. Such results imply that the human-made management of nutrient load from land needs to consider the presence of oceanic nutrients, which act as a background concentration and are not controlled by human activities.
Roxane Tzortzis, Andrea M. Doglioli, Monique Messié, Stéphanie Barrillon, Anne A. Petrenko, Lloyd Izard, Yuan Zhao, Francesco d'Ovidio, Franck Dumas, and Gérald Gregori
Biogeosciences, 20, 3491–3508,Short summary
We studied a finescale frontal structure in order to highlight its influence on the dynamics and distribution of phytoplankton communities. We computed the growth rates of several phytoplankton groups identified by flow cytometry in two water masses separated by the front. We found contrasted phytoplankton dynamics on the two sides of the front, consistent with the distribution of their abundances. Our study gives new insights into the physical and biological coupling on a finescale front.
Inès Mangolte, Marina Lévy, Clément Haëck, and Mark D. Ohman
Biogeosciences, 20, 3273–3299,Short summary
Ocean fronts are ecological hotspots, associated with higher diversity and biomass for many marine organisms, from bacteria to whales. Using in situ data from the California Current Ecosystem, we show that far from being limited to the production of diatom blooms, fronts are the scene of complex biophysical couplings between biotic interactions (growth, competition, and predation) and transport by currents that generate planktonic communities with an original taxonomic and spatial structure.
Jing-Ying Wu, Siou-Yan Lin, Jung-Fu Huang, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Jia-Jang Hung, Shao-Hung Peng, and Li-Lian Liu
Biogeosciences, 20, 2693–2706,Short summary
The shallow-water hydrothermal vents off the Kueishan Island, Taiwan, have the most extreme records of pH values (1.52), temperatures (116 °C), and H2S concentrations (172.4 mmol mol−1) in the world. White and yellow vents differ in the color and physical and chemical characteristics of emitted plumes. We found that the feeding habits of the endemic vent crabs (Xenograpsus testudinatus) are adapted to their resident vent types at a distance of 100 m, and the trans-vent movement is uncommon.
Clément Haëck, Marina Lévy, Inès Mangolte, and Laurent Bopp
Biogeosciences, 20, 1741–1758,Short summary
Phytoplankton vary in abundance in the ocean over large regions and with the seasons but also because of small-scale heterogeneities in surface temperature, called fronts. Here, using satellite imagery, we found that fronts enhance phytoplankton much more where it is already growing well, but despite large local increases the enhancement for the region is modest (5 %). We also found that blooms start 1 to 2 weeks earlier over fronts. These effects may have implications for ecosystems.
Cédric Bacour, Natasha MacBean, Frédéric Chevallier, Sébastien Léonard, Ernest N. Koffi, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 20, 1089–1111,Short summary
The impact of assimilating different dataset combinations on regional to global-scale C budgets is explored with the ORCHIDEE model. Assimilating simultaneously multiple datasets is preferable to optimize the values of the model parameters and avoid model overfitting. The challenges in constraining soil C disequilibrium using atmospheric CO2 data are highlighted for an accurate prediction of the land sink distribution.
Matti Kämäräinen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Markku Kulmala, Ivan Mammarella, Juha Aalto, Henriikka Vekuri, Annalea Lohila, and Anna Lintunen
Biogeosciences, 20, 897–909,Short summary
In this study, we introduce a new method for modeling the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and a study site located in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Our method yields more accurate results than previous approaches in this context. Accurately estimating carbon exchange is crucial for gaining a better understanding of the role of forests in regulating atmospheric carbon and addressing climate change.
Stéphanie Barrillon, Robin Fuchs, Anne A. Petrenko, Caroline Comby, Anthony Bosse, Christophe Yohia, Jean-Luc Fuda, Nagib Bhairy, Frédéric Cyr, Andrea M. Doglioli, Gérald Grégori, Roxane Tzortzis, Francesco d'Ovidio, and Melilotus Thyssen
Biogeosciences, 20, 141–161,Short summary
Extreme weather events can have a major impact on ocean physics and biogeochemistry, but their study is challenging. In May 2019, an intense storm occurred in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, during which in situ multi-platform measurements were performed. The results show a strong impact on the surface phytoplankton, highlighting the need for high-resolution measurements coupling physics and biology during these violent events that may become more common in the context of global change.
Darren C. McKee, Scott C. Doney, Alice Della Penna, Emmanuel S. Boss, Peter Gaube, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and David M. Glover
Biogeosciences, 19, 5927–5952,Short summary
As phytoplankton (small, drifting photosynthetic organisms) drift with ocean currents, biomass accumulation rates should be evaluated in a Lagrangian (observer moves with a fluid parcel) as opposed to an Eulerian (observer is stationary) framework. Here, we use profiling floats and surface drifters combined with satellite data to analyse time and length scales of chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for biomass) and of velocity to quantify how phytoplankton variability is related to water motion.
Karo Michaelian and Aleksandar Simeonov
Biogeosciences, 19, 4029–4034,Short summary
We reply to Lars Björn's critique of our article concerning the importance of photon dissipation to the origin and evolution of the biosphere. Björn doubts our assertion that organic pigments, ecosystems, and the biosphere arose out of a non-equilibrium thermodynamic imperative to increase global photon dissipation. He shows that the albedo of some non-living material is less than that of living material. We point out, however, that photon dissipation involves other factors besides albedo.
Reint Fischer, Delphine Lobelle, Merel Kooi, Albert Koelmans, Victor Onink, Charlotte Laufkötter, Linda Amaral-Zettler, Andrew Yool, and Erik van Sebille
Biogeosciences, 19, 2211–2234,Short summary
Since current estimates show that only about 1 % of the all plastic that enters the ocean is floating at the surface, we look at subsurface processes that can cause vertical movement of (micro)plastic. We investigate how modelled algal attachment and the ocean's vertical movement can cause particles to sink and oscillate in the open ocean. Particles can sink to depths of > 5000 m in regions with high wind intensity and mainly remain close to the surface with low winds and biological activity.
Michelle Viswanathan, Tobias K. D. Weber, Sebastian Gayler, Juliane Mai, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 19, 2187–2209,Short summary
We analysed the evolution of model parameter uncertainty and prediction error as we updated parameters of a maize phenology model based on yearly observations, by sequentially applying Bayesian calibration. Although parameter uncertainty was reduced, prediction quality deteriorated when calibration and prediction data were from different maize ripening groups or temperature conditions. The study highlights that Bayesian methods should account for model limitations and inherent data structures.
Jessica Kolbusz, Tim Langlois, Charitha Pattiaratchi, and Simon de Lestang
Biogeosciences, 19, 517–539,Short summary
Western rock lobster larvae spend up to 11 months in offshore waters before ocean currents and their ability to swim transport them back to the coast. In 2008, there was a reduction in the number of puerulus (larvae) settling into the fishery. We use an oceanographic model to see how the environment may have contributed to the reduction. Our results show that a combination of effects from local currents and a widespread quiet period in the ocean off WA likely led to less puerulus settlement.
Rémy Asselot, Frank Lunkeit, Philip B. Holden, and Inga Hense
Biogeosciences, 19, 223–239,Short summary
Previous studies show that phytoplankton light absorption can warm the atmosphere, but how this warming occurs is still unknown. We compare the importance of air–sea heat versus CO2 flux in the phytoplankton-induced atmospheric warming and determine the main driver. To shed light on this research question, we conduct simulations with a climate model of intermediate complexity. We show that phytoplankton mainly warms the atmosphere by increasing the air–sea CO2 flux.
Roxane Tzortzis, Andrea M. Doglioli, Stéphanie Barrillon, Anne A. Petrenko, Francesco d'Ovidio, Lloyd Izard, Melilotus Thyssen, Ananda Pascual, Bàrbara Barceló-Llull, Frédéric Cyr, Marc Tedetti, Nagib Bhairy, Pierre Garreau, Franck Dumas, and Gérald Gregori
Biogeosciences, 18, 6455–6477,Short summary
This work analyzes an original high-resolution data set collected in the Mediterranean Sea. The major result is the impact of a fine-scale frontal structure on the distribution of phytoplankton groups, in an area of moderate energy with oligotrophic conditions. Our results provide an in situ confirmation of the findings obtained by previous modeling studies and remote sensing about the structuring effect of the fine-scale ocean dynamics on the structure of the phytoplankton community.
Johannes Vogel, Eva Paton, and Valentin Aich
Biogeosciences, 18, 5903–5927,Short summary
This study investigates extreme ecosystem impacts evoked by temperature and soil moisture in the Mediterranean Basin for the time span 1999–2019 with a specific focus on seasonal variations. The analysis showed that ecosystem vulnerability is caused by several varying combinations of both drivers during the yearly cycle. The approach presented here helps to provide insights on the specific phenological stage of the year in which ecosystem vulnerability to a certain climatic condition occurs.
Mara Freilich, Alexandre Mignot, Glenn Flierl, and Raffaele Ferrari
Biogeosciences, 18, 5595–5607,Short summary
Observations reveal that in some regions phytoplankton biomass increases during the wintertime when growth conditions are sub-optimal, which has been attributed to a release from grazing during mixed layer deepening. Measurements of grazer populations to support this theory are lacking. We demonstrate that a release from grazing when the winter mixed layer is deepening holds only for certain grazing models, extending the use of phytoplankton observations to make inferences about grazer dynamics.
Shuangling Chen, Mark L. Wells, Rui Xin Huang, Huijie Xue, Jingyuan Xi, and Fei Chai
Biogeosciences, 18, 5539–5554,Short summary
Subduction transports surface waters to the oceanic interior, which can supply significant amounts of carbon and oxygen to the twilight zone. Using a novel BGC-Argo dataset covering the western North Pacific, we successfully identified the imprints of episodic shallow subduction patches. These subduction patches were observed mainly in spring and summer (70.6 %), and roughly half of them extended below ~ 450 m, injecting carbon- and oxygen-enriched waters into the ocean interior.
Pierre Damien, Julio Sheinbaum, Orens Pasqueron de Fommervault, Julien Jouanno, Lorena Linacre, and Olaf Duteil
Biogeosciences, 18, 4281–4303,Short summary
The Gulf of Mexico deep waters are relatively poor in phytoplankton biomass due to low levels of nutrients in the upper layers. Using modeling techniques, we find that the long-living anticyclonic Loop Current eddies that are shed episodically from the Yucatan Channel strongly shape the distribution of phytoplankton and, more importantly, stimulate their growth. This results from the contribution of multiple mechanisms of physical–biogeochemical interactions discussed in this study.
Sergey V. Stanichny, Elena A. Kubryakova, and Arseny A. Kubryakov
Biogeosciences, 18, 3173–3188,Short summary
In this paper, we show that the short-term impact of tropical cyclones can trigger the intense, long-term bloom of coccolithophores, which are major marine calcifiers playing an important role in the balance and fluxes of inorganic carbon in the ocean. In our paper, we describe the evolution of and physical reasons for such an unusual bloom observed in autumn 2005 in the Black Sea on the basis of satellite data.
Fengshan Liu, Ying Chen, Nini Bai, Dengpan Xiao, Huizi Bai, Fulu Tao, and Quansheng Ge
Biogeosciences, 18, 2275–2287,Short summary
The sowing date is key to the surface biophysical processes in the winter dormancy period. The climate effect of the sowing date shift is therefore very interesting and may contribute to the mitigation of climate change. An earlier sowing date always had a higher LAI but a higher temperature in the dormancy period and a lower temperature in the growth period. The main reason was the relative contributions of the surface albedo and energy partitioning processes.
Peter Aartsma, Johan Asplund, Arvid Odland, Stefanie Reinhardt, and Hans Renssen
Biogeosciences, 18, 1577–1599,Short summary
In the literature, it is generally assumed that alpine lichen heaths keep their direct environment cool due to their relatively high albedo. However, we reveal that the soil temperature and soil heat flux are higher below lichens than below shrubs during the growing season, despite a lower net radiation for lichens. We also show that the differences in microclimatic conditions between these two vegetation types are more pronounced during warm and sunny days than during cold and cloudy days.
Oleg Sizov, Ekaterina Ezhova, Petr Tsymbarovich, Andrey Soromotin, Nikolay Prihod'ko, Tuukka Petäjä, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Kajar Köster
Biogeosciences, 18, 207–228,Short summary
In changing climate, tundra is expected to turn into shrubs and trees, diminishing reindeer pasture and increasing risks of tick-borne diseases. However, this transition may require a disturbance. Fires in Siberia are increasingly widespread. We studied wildfire dynamics and tundra–forest transition over 60 years in northwest Siberia near the Arctic Circle. Based on satellite data analysis, we found that transition occurs in 40 %–85 % of burned tundra compared to 5 %–15 % in non-disturbed areas.
Kaveh Purkiani, André Paul, Annemiek Vink, Maren Walter, Michael Schulz, and Matthias Haeckel
Biogeosciences, 17, 6527–6544,Short summary
There has been a steady increase in interest in mining of deep-sea minerals in the eastern Pacific Ocean recently. The ocean state in this region is known to be highly influenced by rotating bodies of water (eddies), some of which can travel long distances in the ocean and impact the deeper layers of the ocean. Better insight into the variability of eddy activity in this region is of great help to mitigate the impact of the benthic ecosystem from future potential deep-sea mining activity.
Jing Yan, Nathaniel A. Bogie, and Teamrat A. Ghezzehei
Biogeosciences, 17, 6377–6392,Short summary
An uneven supply of water and nutrients in soils often drives how plants behave. We observed that plants extract all their required nutrients from dry soil patches in sufficient quantity, provided adequate water is available elsewhere in the root zone. Roots in nutrient-rich dry patches facilitate the nutrient acquisition by extensive growth, water release, and modifying water retention in their immediate environment. The findings are valuable in managing nutrient losses in agricultural systems.
Onur Kerimoglu, Yoana G. Voynova, Fatemeh Chegini, Holger Brix, Ulrich Callies, Richard Hofmeister, Knut Klingbeil, Corinna Schrum, and Justus E. E. van Beusekom
Biogeosciences, 17, 5097–5127,Short summary
In this study, using extensive field observations and a numerical model, we analyzed the physical and biogeochemical structure of a coastal system following an extreme flood event. Our results suggest that a number of anomalous observations were driven by a co-occurrence of peculiar meteorological conditions and increased riverine discharges. Our results call for attention to the combined effects of hydrological and meteorological extremes that are anticipated to increase in frequency.
Amandine Erktan, Matthias C. Rillig, Andrea Carminati, Alexandre Jousset, and Stefan Scheu
Biogeosciences, 17, 4961–4980,Short summary
Soil aggregation is crucial for soil functioning. While the role of bacteria and fungi in soil aggregation is well established, how predators feeding on microbes modify soil aggregation has hardly been investigated. We showed for the first time that protists modify soil aggregation, presumably through changes in the production of bacterial mucilage, and that collembolans reduce soil aggregation, presumably by reducing the abundance of saprotrophic fungi.
Wei Hu, Kotaro Murata, Chunlan Fan, Shu Huang, Hiromi Matsusaki, Pingqing Fu, and Daizhou Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4477–4487,Short summary
This paper reports the first estimate of the status of bacteria in long-distance-transported Asian dust, demonstrating that airborne dust, which can carry viable and nonviable bacteria on particle surfaces, is an efficient medium for constantly spreading bacteria at regional and even global scales. Such data are essential to better model and understand the roles and activities of bioaerosols in environmental evolution and climate change and the potential risks of bioaerosols to human health.
Inge Grünberg, Evan J. Wilcox, Simon Zwieback, Philip Marsh, and Julia Boike
Biogeosciences, 17, 4261–4279,Short summary
Based on topsoil temperature data for different vegetation types at a low Arctic tundra site, we found large small-scale variability. Winter temperatures were strongly influenced by vegetation through its effects on snow. Summer temperatures were similar below most vegetation types and not consistently related to late summer permafrost thaw depth. Given that vegetation type defines the relationship between winter and summer soil temperature and thaw depth, it controls permafrost vulnerability.
Long Jiang, Theo Gerkema, Jacco C. Kromkamp, Daphne van der Wal, Pedro Manuel Carrasco De La Cruz, and Karline Soetaert
Biogeosciences, 17, 4135–4152,Short summary
A seaward increasing chlorophyll-a gradient is observed during the spring bloom in a Dutch tidal bay. Biophysical model runs indicate the roles of bivalve grazing and tidal import in shaping the gradient. Five common spatial phytoplankton patterns are summarized in global estuarine–coastal ecosystems: seaward increasing, seaward decreasing, concave with a chlorophyll maximum, weak spatial gradients, and irregular patterns.
Emil De Borger, Justin Tiano, Ulrike Braeckman, Tom Ysebaert, and Karline Soetaert
Biogeosciences, 17, 1701–1715,Short summary
By applying a novel technique to quantify organism-induced sediment–water column fluid exchange (bioirrigation), we show that organisms in subtidal (permanently submerged) areas have similar bioirrigation rates as those that inhabit intertidal areas (not permanently submerged), but organisms in the latter irrigate deeper burrows in this study. Our results expand on traditional methods to quantify bioirrigation rates and broaden the pool of field measurements of bioirrigation rates.
Sheila N. Estrada-Allis, Julio Sheinbaum Pardo, Joao M. Azevedo Correia de Souza, Cecilia Elizabeth Enríquez Ortiz, Ismael Mariño Tapia, and Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira
Biogeosciences, 17, 1087–1111,Short summary
Continental shelves are the most productive areas in the ocean and can have an important impact on the nutrient cycle as well as the climate system. The one in Yucatán is the largest shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. However, its nutrient budget remains unidentifiable. Here we propose not only a general nutrient budget for the Yucatán Shelf but also the physical processes responsible for its pathway modulation through a physical–biogeochemical coupled model of the whole Gulf of Mexico.
Ashley Dubnick, Martin Sharp, Brad Danielson, Alireza Saidi-Mehrabad, and Joel Barker
Biogeosciences, 17, 963–977,Short summary
We found that glaciers with basal temperatures near the melting point mobilize more solutes, nutrients, and microbes from the underlying substrate and are more likely to promote in situ biogeochemical activity than glaciers with basal temperatures well below the melting point. The temperature at the base of glaciers is therefore an important control on the biogeochemistry of ice near glacier beds, and, ultimately, the potential solutes, nutrients, and microbes exported from glaciated watersheds.
Audrey Delpech, Anna Conchon, Olivier Titaud, and Patrick Lehodey
Biogeosciences, 17, 833–850,Short summary
Micronekton is an important, yet poorly known, component of the trophic chain, which partly contributes to the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean thanks to biomass vertical migrations. In this study, we characterize the ideal sampling regions to estimate the amount of biomass that undergoes theses migrations. We find that observations made in warm, nondynamic and productive waters reduce the error of the estimation by 20 %. This result should likely serve for future in situ network deployment.
Filippos Tagklis, Takamitsu Ito, and Annalisa Bracco
Biogeosciences, 17, 231–244,Short summary
Deoxygenation of the oceans is potentially one of the most severe ecosystem stressors resulting from global warming given the high sensitivity of dissolved oxygen to ocean temperatures. Climate models suggest that despite the thermodynamic tendency of the oceans to lose oxygen, certain regions experience significant changes in the biologically driven O2 consumption, resulting in a resistance against deoxygenation. Overturning circulation changes are responsible for such a behavior.
Mohammad Abdul Halim, Han Y. H. Chen, and Sean C. Thomas
Biogeosciences, 16, 4357–4375,Short summary
Using field data collected over 4 years across a range of stand ages, we investigated how seasonal surface albedo in boreal forest varies with stand age, stand structure, and composition. Our results indicate that successional change in species composition is a key driver of age–related patterns in albedo, with hardwood species associated with higher albedo. The patterns described have important implications for both climate modeling and
climate–smartboreal forest management.
Paul A. Moore, Maxwell C. Lukenbach, Dan K. Thompson, Nick Kettridge, Gustaf Granath, and James M. Waddington
Biogeosciences, 16, 3491–3506,Short summary
Using very-high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), we assessed the basic structure and microtopographic variability of hummock–hollow plots at boreal and hemi-boreal sites primarily in North America. Using a simple model of peatland biogeochemical function, our results suggest that both surface heating and moss productivity may not be adequately resolved in models which only consider idealized hummock–hollow units.
Renee K. Gruber, Ryan J. Lowe, and James L. Falter
Biogeosciences, 16, 1921–1935,Short summary
Researchers from the University of Western Australia's Oceans Institute are studying large tides (up to 12 m range) that occur in the Kimberley region of Australia. These tides flush coral reefs with water rich in nutrients, which supports the growth of reef organisms. In this paper, we show how tidal cycles and seasons control nutrient availability on reefs. This study is among the first published accounts of reefs and water quality data in the remote and pristine Kimberley region.
Sergey A. Marakushev and Ol'ga V. Belonogova
Biogeosciences, 16, 1817–1828,Short summary
Among the existing theories of the autotrophic origin of life, CO2 is usually considered to be the carbon source for nascent autotrophic metabolism. However, ancestral carbon used in metabolism may have been derived from CH4 if the outflow of magma fluid to the surface of the Earth consisted mainly of methane. The hydrothermal system model is considered in the form of a phase diagram, which demonstrates the area of redox and P and T conditions favorable to development of primary methanotroph.
Venugopal Thushara, Puthenveettil Narayana Menon Vinayachandran, Adrian J. Matthews, Benjamin G. M. Webber, and Bastien Y. Queste
Biogeosciences, 16, 1447–1468,Short summary
Chlorophyll distribution in the ocean remains to be explored in detail, despite its climatic significance. Here, we document the vertical structure of chlorophyll in the Bay of Bengal using observations and a model. The shape of chlorophyll profiles, characterized by prominent deep chlorophyll maxima, varies in dynamically different regions, controlled by the monsoonal forcings. The present study provides new insights into the vertical distribution of chlorophyll, rarely observed by satellites.
Soeren Thomsen, Johannes Karstensen, Rainer Kiko, Gerd Krahmann, Marcus Dengler, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 16, 979–998,Short summary
Physical and biogeochemical observations from an autonomous underwater vehicle in combination with ship-based measurements are used to investigate remote and local drivers of the oxygen and nutrient variability off Mauritania. Beside the transport of oxygen and nutrients characteristics from remote areas towards Mauritania also local remineralization of organic material close to the seabed seems to be important for the distribution of oxygen and nutrients.
Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Yannis Cuypers, Andrea Doglioli, Mathieu Caffin, Christophe Yohia, Alain de Verneil, Anne Petrenko, Dominique Lefèvre, Hervé Le Goff, Gilles Rougier, Marc Picheral, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 15, 7485–7504,Short summary
The OUTPACE cruise took place between New Caledonia and French Polynesia. The main purpose was to understand how micro-organisms can survive in a very poor environment. One main source of nutrients is at depth, below the euphotic layer where micro-organisms live. The purpose of the turbulence measurements was to determine to which extent turbulence may
upliftnutrients into the euphotic layer. The origin of the turbulence that was found contrasted along the transect was also determined.
Daniel D. Richter, Sharon A. Billings, Peter M. Groffman, Eugene F. Kelly, Kathleen A. Lohse, William H. McDowell, Timothy S. White, Suzanne Anderson, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Steve Banwart, Susan Brantley, Jean J. Braun, Zachary S. Brecheisen, Charles W. Cook, Hilairy E. Hartnett, Sarah E. Hobbie, Jerome Gaillardet, Esteban Jobbagy, Hermann F. Jungkunst, Clare E. Kazanski, Jagdish Krishnaswamy, Daniel Markewitz, Katherine O'Neill, Clifford S. Riebe, Paul Schroeder, Christina Siebe, Whendee L. Silver, Aaron Thompson, Anne Verhoef, and Ganlin Zhang
Biogeosciences, 15, 4815–4832,Short summary
As knowledge in biology and geology explodes, science becomes increasingly specialized. Given the overlap of the environmental sciences, however, the explosion in knowledge inevitably creates opportunities for interconnecting the biogeosciences. Here, 30 scientists emphasize the opportunities for biogeoscience collaborations across the world’s remarkable long-term environmental research networks that can advance science and engage larger scientific and public audiences.
Ivy Frenger, Matthias Münnich, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 15, 4781–4798,Short summary
Although mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous in the Southern Ocean (SO), their regional and seasonal association with phytoplankton has not been quantified. We identify over 100 000 eddies and determine the associated phytoplankton biomass anomalies using satellite-based chlorophyll (Chl) as a proxy. The emerging Chl anomalies can be explained largely by lateral advection of Chl by eddies. This impact of eddies on phytoplankton may implicate downstream effects on SO biogeochemical properties.
Yi Sun, Xiong Z. He, Fujiang Hou, Zhaofeng Wang, and Shenghua Chang
Biogeosciences, 15, 4233–4243,Short summary
To investigate how grazing alters litter composition, quality and decomposition, we collected litter from grazing (GP) and grazing exclusion paddocks (GEP) and incubated them in situ and across sites. Grazing increased litter N and grazing exclusion increased litter mass of palatable species and promoted SOC. Litter decomposed faster in GP and N was opposite. Site environment had more impact on litter decomposition. Results may be helpful in developing strategies to restore degraded grasslands.
Louise Rousselet, Alain de Verneil, Andrea M. Doglioli, Anne A. Petrenko, Solange Duhamel, Christophe Maes, and Bruno Blanke
Biogeosciences, 15, 2411–2431,Short summary
The patterns of the large- and fine-scale surface circulation on biogeochemical and biological distributions are examined in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) in the context of the OUTPACE oceanographic cruise. The combined use of in situ and satellite data allows for the identification of water mass transport pathways and fine-scale structures, such as fronts, that drive surface distribution of tracers and microbial community structures.
Alain de Verneil, Louise Rousselet, Andrea M. Doglioli, Anne A. Petrenko, Christophe Maes, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 15, 2125–2147,Short summary
Oceanographic campaigns to measure biogeochemical processes popularly deploy drifters with onboard incubations to stay in a single body of water. Here, we aggregate physical data taken during such a cruise, OUTPACE, to independently test in a new approach whether the drifter really stayed in what can be considered a single biological or chemical environment. This study concludes that future campaigns would benefit from similar data collection and analysis to validate their sampling strategy.
Susan L. Brantley, David M. Eissenstat, Jill A. Marshall, Sarah E. Godsey, Zsuzsanna Balogh-Brunstad, Diana L. Karwan, Shirley A. Papuga, Joshua Roering, Todd E. Dawson, Jaivime Evaristo, Oliver Chadwick, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, and Kathleen C. Weathers
Biogeosciences, 14, 5115–5142,Short summary
This review represents the outcome from an invigorating workshop discussion that involved tree physiologists, geomorphologists, ecologists, geochemists, and hydrologists and developed nine hypotheses that could be tested. We argue these hypotheses point to the essence of issues we must explore if we are to understand how the natural system of the earth surface evolves, and how humans will affect its evolution. This paper will create discussion and interest both before and after publication.
Johanne H. Rydsaa, Frode Stordal, Anders Bryn, and Lena M. Tallaksen
Biogeosciences, 14, 4209–4227,Short summary
We investigate the atmospheric sensitivity to an expansion in shrub and tree cover in the northern Fennoscandia region. We applied a regional weather and climate model in evaluating biophysical effects of increased shrub cover at a fine resolution. We find that shrub cover increase causes a warming that is sensitive to the shrub and tree heights. Cooling effects include increased snow cover, cloud cover, and precipitation. We show that the net warming will likely increase in the future.
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Analytical solutions indicate that subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) occurs at or below the depth of optimal growth of phytoplankton, and the depth of SCM layer deepens logarithmically with an increase in surface light intensity; thickness and intensity of the SCM layer are mainly affected by nutrient supply, but independent of surface light intensity; intensity of the SCM strengthens as a result of this layer being shrunk by a higher light attenuation coefficient or a large sinking velocity
Analytical solutions indicate that subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) occurs at or below the...