Articles | Volume 15, issue 9
Biogeosciences, 15, 2851–2872, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Special issue: The 10th International Carbon Dioxide Conference (ICDC10)...
15 May 2018
Research article | 15 May 2018
The seasonal cycle of pCO2 and CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean: diagnosing anomalies in CMIP5 Earth system models
N. Precious Mongwe et al.
No articles found.
Wayne de Jager and Marcello Vichi
The Cryosphere, 16, 925–940,Short summary
Ice motion can be used to better understand how weather and climate change affect the ice. Antarctic sea ice extent has shown large variability over the observed period, and dynamical features may also have changed. Our method allows for the quantification of rotational motion caused by wind and how this may have changed with time. Cyclonic motion dominates the Atlantic sector, particularly from 2015 onwards, while anticyclonic motion has remained comparatively small and unchanged.
Laique Merlin Djeutchouang, Nicolette Chang, Luke Gregor, Marcello Vichi, and Pedro Manuel Scheel Monteiro
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
Based on observing system simulation experiments using a mesoscale resolving model, we found that to significantly improve uncertainties and biases in carbon dioxide (CO2) mapping in the Southern Ocean, it is essential to resolve the seasonal cycle (SC) of the meridional gradient of CO2 through high frequency (at least daily) observations that also span the meridional axis of the region. We also showed that estimated SC anomaly and mean annual CO2 are highly sensitive to seasonal sampling biases.
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
The marginal ice zone in the Antarctic is the largest in the world ocean. Antarctic sea ice has large year-to-year changes, and the marginal ice zone represents its most variable component. The use of sea ice concentration (SIC) from space is inadequate, since areas with 100 % cover can show large changes. A new method based on SIC variability around a long-term mean has shown to address previous limitations and to allow constructing probability maps to assist navigation and model assessment.
Sebastian Skatulla, Riesna R. Audh, Andrea Cook, Ehlke Hepworth, Siobhan Johnson, Doru C. Lupascu, Keith MacHutchon, Rutger Marquart, Tommy Mielke, Emmanuel Omatuku, Felix Paul, Tokoloho Rampai, Jörg Schröder, Carina Schwarz, and Marcello Vichi
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
First-year ice was sampled at the advancing outer edge of the Antarctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) along the Good Hope Line. Ice cores were extracted from five pancake ice floes and subsequently analyzed for their physical and mechanical properties. Of particular interest was to elucidate the transition of ice composition within the MIZ in terms of differences in mechanical stiffness and strength properties as linked to physical and textural characteristics at early-stage ice formation.
Felix Paul, Tommy Mielke, Carina Nisters, Jörg Schröder, Tokoloho Rampai, Sebastian Skatulla, Riesna Audh, Ehlke Hepworth, Marcello Vichi, and Doru C. Lupascu
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Frazil ice, consisting of loose disc-shaped ice crystals, is the very first sea ice that forms in the annual cycle in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the Antarctic. A sufficient number of frazil ice crystals forms the surface grease ice layer taking a fundamental role in the freezing processes in the MIZ. As soon as the ocean waves are damped, a closed ice cover can form. The viscous properties of frazil ice, which have a crucial influence on the growth of sea ice in the MIZ are investigated.
Mark Hague and Marcello Vichi
Biogeosciences, 18, 25–38,Short summary
This paper examines the question of what causes the rapid spring growth of microscopic marine algae (phytoplankton) in the ice-covered ocean surrounding Antarctica. One prominent hypothesis proposes that the melting of sea ice is the primary cause, while our results suggest that this is only part of the explanation. In particular, we show that phytoplankton are able to start growing before the sea ice melts appreciably, much earlier than previously thought.
Luke Gregor, Alice D. Lebehot, Schalk Kok, and Pedro M. Scheel Monteiro
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 5113–5136,Short summary
The ocean plays a vital role in mitigating climate change by taking up atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Historically sparse ship-based measurements of surface ocean CO2 make direct estimates of CO2 exchange changes unreliable. We introduce a machine-learning ensemble approach to fill these observational gaps. Our method performs incrementally better relative to past methods, leading to our hypothesis that we are perhaps reaching the limitation of machine-learning algorithms' capability.
Alberto Alberello, Miguel Onorato, Luke Bennetts, Marcello Vichi, Clare Eayrs, Keith MacHutchon, and Alessandro Toffoli
The Cryosphere, 13, 41–48,Short summary
Existing observations do not provide quantitative descriptions of the floe size distribution for pancake ice floes. This is important during the Antarctic winter sea ice expansion, when hundreds of kilometres of ice cover around the Antarctic continent are composed of pancake floes (D = 0.3–3 m). Here, a new set of images from the Antarctic marginal ice zone is used to measure the shape of individual pancakes for the first time and to infer their size distribution.
Luke Gregor, Schalk Kok, and Pedro M. S. Monteiro
Biogeosciences, 15, 2361–2378,Short summary
The Southern Ocean accounts for a large portion of the variability in oceanic CO2 uptake. However, the drivers of these changes are not understood due to a lack of observations. In this study, we used an ensemble of gap-filling methods to estimate surface CO2. We found that winter was a more important driver of longer-term variability driven by changes in wind stress. Summer variability of CO2 was driven primarily by increases in primary production.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Julia Pongratz, Andrew C. Manning, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Oliver D. Andrews, Vivek K. Arora, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Leticia Barbero, Meike Becker, Richard A. Betts, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Catherine E. Cosca, Jessica Cross, Kim Currie, Thomas Gasser, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Christopher W. Hunt, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Markus Kautz, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Ivan Lima, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, X. Antonio Padin, Anna Peregon, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Janet Reimer, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Steven van Heuven, Nicolas Viovy, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Watson, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Dan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 405–448,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2017 describes data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. It is the 12th annual update and the 6th published in this journal.
Luke Gregor, Schalk Kok, and Pedro M. S. Monteiro
Biogeosciences, 14, 5551–5569,Short summary
We use machine learning to extrapolate ship measurements of CO2 using satellite data. We present two ML methods new to this field. These methods perform well in the context of previous work and reproduce the decadal trends of previous estimates. To test the methods, we simulate the exact observed setup in biogeochemical ocean model output. We show that the new methods perform well in synthetic data. Lastly, we show that there is only a weak bias due to undersampling in the SOCAT v3 dataset.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Josep G. Canadell, Stephen Sitch, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Andrew C. Manning, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Richard A. Houghton, Ralph F. Keeling, Simone Alin, Oliver D. Andrews, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Kim Currie, Christine Delire, Scott C. Doney, Pierre Friedlingstein, Thanos Gkritzalis, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Mario Hoppema, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Kevin O'Brien, Are Olsen, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Christian Rödenbeck, Joe Salisbury, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Adrienne J. Sutton, Taro Takahashi, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 605–649,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2016 is the 11th annual update of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. This data synthesis brings together measurements, statistical information, and analyses of model results in order to provide an assessment of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties for years 1959 to 2015, with a projection for year 2016.
Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Benjamin Pfeil, Camilla S. Landa, Nicolas Metzl, Kevin M. O'Brien, Are Olsen, Karl Smith, Cathy Cosca, Sumiko Harasawa, Stephen D. Jones, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, Ute Schuster, Tobias Steinhoff, Colm Sweeney, Taro Takahashi, Bronte Tilbrook, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Simone R. Alin, Carlos F. Balestrini, Leticia Barbero, Nicholas R. Bates, Alejandro A. Bianchi, Frédéric Bonou, Jacqueline Boutin, Yann Bozec, Eugene F. Burger, Wei-Jun Cai, Robert D. Castle, Liqi Chen, Melissa Chierici, Kim Currie, Wiley Evans, Charles Featherstone, Richard A. Feely, Agneta Fransson, Catherine Goyet, Naomi Greenwood, Luke Gregor, Steven Hankin, Nick J. Hardman-Mountford, Jérôme Harlay, Judith Hauck, Mario Hoppema, Matthew P. Humphreys, Christopher W. Hunt, Betty Huss, J. Severino P. Ibánhez, Truls Johannessen, Ralph Keeling, Vassilis Kitidis, Arne Körtzinger, Alex Kozyr, Evangelia Krasakopoulou, Akira Kuwata, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Claire Lo Monaco, Ansley Manke, Jeremy T. Mathis, Liliane Merlivat, Frank J. Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Akihiko Murata, Timothy Newberger, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Kristina Paterson, David Pearce, Denis Pierrot, Lisa L. Robbins, Shu Saito, Joe Salisbury, Reiner Schlitzer, Bernd Schneider, Roland Schweitzer, Rainer Sieger, Ingunn Skjelvan, Kevin F. Sullivan, Stewart C. Sutherland, Adrienne J. Sutton, Kazuaki Tadokoro, Maciej Telszewski, Matthias Tuma, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Doug Vandemark, Brian Ward, Andrew J. Watson, and Suqing Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 383–413,Short summary
Version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (www.socat.info) has 14.5 million CO2 (carbon dioxide) values for the years 1957 to 2014 covering the global oceans and coastal seas. Version 3 is an update to version 2 with a longer record and 44 % more CO2 values. The CO2 measurements have been made on ships, fixed moorings and drifting buoys. SOCAT enables quantification of the ocean carbon sink and ocean acidification, as well as model evaluation, thus informing climate negotiations.
Italo Epicoco, Silvia Mocavero, Francesca Macchia, Marcello Vichi, Tomas Lovato, Simona Masina, and Giovanni Aloisio
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2115–2128,Short summary
The present work aims at evaluating the scalability performance of a high-resolution global ocean biogeochemistry model (PELAGOS025) on massive parallel architectures and the benefits in terms of the time-to-solution reduction. The outcome of the analysis demonstrated that the lack of scalability is due to several factors such as the I/O operations, the memory contention, and the load unbalancing due to the memory structure of the biogeochemistry model component.
C. Laufkötter, M. Vogt, N. Gruber, M. Aita-Noguchi, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, E. Buitenhuis, S. C. Doney, J. Dunne, T. Hashioka, J. Hauck, T. Hirata, J. John, C. Le Quéré, I. D. Lima, H. Nakano, R. Seferian, I. Totterdell, M. Vichi, and C. Völker
Biogeosciences, 12, 6955–6984,Short summary
We analyze changes in marine net primary production (NPP) and its drivers for the 21st century in 9 marine ecosystem models under the RCP8.5 scenario. NPP decreases in 5 models and increases in 1 model; 3 models show no significant trend. The main drivers include stronger nutrient limitation, but in many models warming-induced increases in phytoplankton growth outbalance the nutrient effect. Temperature-driven increases in grazing and other loss processes cause a net decrease in biomass and NPP.
A. Weeber, S. Swart, and P. M. S. Monteiro
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
As anthropogenic CO2 increases and sea ice dynamics change with climate, understanding the trend in these characteristics of variability in the seasonal drivers of ΩA will become increasingly important. We investigate the major drivers of interannual to seasonal scale variability of ΩA. We show that the critical climate (physical-biogeochemical) sensitivities for ΩA at the Antarctic ice self are the timing and rate of sea ice thaw and the resulting onset and persistence of phytoplankton blooms.
L. Visinelli, S. Masina, M. Vichi, and A. Storto
Revised manuscript not accepted
W. R. Joubert, S. Swart, A. Tagliabue, S. J. Thomalla, and P. M. S. Monteiro
Revised manuscript not accepted
L. Bopp, L. Resplandy, J. C. Orr, S. C. Doney, J. P. Dunne, M. Gehlen, P. Halloran, C. Heinze, T. Ilyina, R. Séférian, J. Tjiputra, and M. Vichi
Biogeosciences, 10, 6225–6245,
Related subject area
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Hana Jurikova, Osamu Abe, Fuh-Kwo Shiah, and Mao-Chang Liang
Biogeosciences, 19, 2043–2058,Short summary
We studied the isotopic composition of oxygen dissolved in seawater in the South China Sea. This tells us about the origin of oxygen in the water column, distinguishing between biological oxygen produced by phytoplankton communities and atmospheric oxygen entering seawater through gas exchange. We found that the East Asian Monsoon plays an important role in determining the amount of oxygen produced vs. consumed by the phytoplankton, as well as in inducing vertical water mass mixing.
Richard P. Sims, Michael Bedington, Ute Schuster, Andrew J. Watson, Vassilis Kitidis, Ricardo Torres, Helen S. Findlay, James R. Fishwick, Ian Brown, and Thomas G. Bell
Biogeosciences, 19, 1657–1674,Short summary
The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being absorbed by the ocean is relevant to the earth's climate. CO2 values in the coastal ocean and estuaries are not well known because of the instrumentation used. We used a new approach to measure CO2 across the coastal and estuarine zone. We found that CO2 and salinity were linked to the state of the tide. We used our CO2 measurements and model salinity to predict CO2. Previous studies overestimate how much CO2 the coastal ocean draws down at our site.
Thi Tuyet Trang Chau, Marion Gehlen, and Frédéric Chevallier
Biogeosciences, 19, 1087–1109,Short summary
Air–sea CO2 fluxes and associated uncertainty over the open ocean to coastal shelves are estimated with a new ensemble-based reconstruction of pCO2 trained on observation-based data. The regional distribution and seasonality of CO2 sources and sinks are consistent with those suggested in previous studies as well as mechanisms discussed therein. The ensemble-based uncertainty field allows identifying critical regions where improvements in pCO2 and air–sea CO2 flux estimates should be a priority.
Charel Wohl, Anna E. Jones, William T. Sturges, Philip D. Nightingale, Brent Else, Brian J. Butterworth, and Mingxi Yang
Biogeosciences, 19, 1021–1045,Short summary
We measured concentrations of five different organic gases in seawater in the high Arctic during summer. We found higher concentrations near the surface of the water column (top 5–10 m) and in areas of partial ice cover. This suggests that sea ice influences the concentrations of these gases. These gases indirectly exert a slight cooling effect on the climate, and it is therefore important to measure the levels accurately for future climate predictions.
Alain de Verneil, Zouhair Lachkar, Shafer Smith, and Marina Lévy
Biogeosciences, 19, 907–929,Short summary
The Arabian Sea is a natural CO2 source to the atmosphere, but previous work highlights discrepancies between data and models in estimating air–sea CO2 flux. In this study, we use a regional ocean model, achieve a flux closer to available data, and break down the seasonal cycles that impact it, with one result being the great importance of monsoon winds. As demonstrated in a meta-analysis, differences from data still remain, highlighting the great need for further regional data collection.
Jesse M. Vance, Kim Currie, John Zeldis, Peter W. Dillingham, and Cliff S. Law
Biogeosciences, 19, 241–269,Short summary
Long-term monitoring is needed to detect changes in our environment. Time series of ocean carbon have aided our understanding of seasonal cycles and provided evidence for ocean acidification. Data gaps are inevitable, yet no standard method for filling gaps exists. We present a regression approach here and compare it to seven other common methods to understand the impact of different approaches when assessing seasonal to climatic variability in ocean carbon.
Daniel J. Ford, Gavin H. Tilstone, Jamie D. Shutler, and Vassilis Kitidis
Biogeosciences, 19, 93–115,Short summary
This study identifies the most accurate biological proxy for the estimation of seawater pCO2 fields, which are key to assessing the ocean carbon sink. Our analysis shows that the net community production (NCP), the balance between photosynthesis and respiration, was more accurate than chlorophyll a within a neural network scheme. The improved pCO2 estimates, based on NCP, identified the South Atlantic Ocean as a net CO2 source, compared to a CO2 sink using chlorophyll a.
Birthe Zäncker, Michael Cunliffe, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 18, 2107–2118,Short summary
Fungi are found in numerous marine environments. Our study found an increased importance of fungi in the Ionian Sea, where bacterial and phytoplankton counts were reduced, but organic matter was still available, suggesting fungi might benefit from the reduced competition from bacteria in low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (LNLC) regions.
Jon Olafsson, Solveig R. Olafsdottir, Taro Takahashi, Magnus Danielsen, and Thorarinn S. Arnarson
Biogeosciences, 18, 1689–1701,Short summary
The Atlantic north of 50° N is an intense ocean sink area for atmospheric CO2. Observations in the vicinity of Iceland reveal a previously unrecognized Arctic contribution to the North Atlantic CO2 sink. Sustained CO2 influx to waters flowing from the Arctic Ocean is linked to their excess alkalinity derived from sources in the changing Arctic. The results relate to the following question: will the North Atlantic continue to absorb CO2 in the future as it has in the past?
Wei-Lei Wang, Guisheng Song, François Primeau, Eric S. Saltzman, Thomas G. Bell, and J. Keith Moore
Biogeosciences, 17, 5335–5354,Short summary
Dimethyl sulfide, a volatile compound produced as a byproduct of marine phytoplankton activity, can be emitted to the atmosphere via gas exchange. In the atmosphere, DMS is oxidized to cloud condensation nuclei, thus contributing to cloud formation. Therefore, oceanic DMS plays an important role in regulating the planet's climate by influencing the radiation budget. In this study, we use an artificial neural network model to update the global DMS climatology and estimate the sea-to-air flux.
Yuri Galletti, Silvia Becagli, Alcide di Sarra, Margherita Gonnelli, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Damiano M. Sferlazzo, Rita Traversi, Stefano Vestri, and Chiara Santinelli
Biogeosciences, 17, 3669–3684,Short summary
This paper reports the first data about atmospheric deposition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the island of Lampedusa. It also shows the implications for the surface marine layer by studying the impact of atmospheric organic carbon deposition in the marine ecosystem. It is a preliminary study, but it is pioneering and important for having new data that can be crucial in order to understand the impact of atmospheric deposition on the marine carbon cycle in a global climate change scenario.
Charel Wohl, Ian Brown, Vassilis Kitidis, Anna E. Jones, William T. Sturges, Philip D. Nightingale, and Mingxi Yang
Biogeosciences, 17, 2593–2619,Short summary
The oceans represent a poorly understood source of organic carbon to the atmosphere. In this paper, we present ship-based measurements of specific compounds in ambient air and seawater of the Southern Ocean. We present fluxes of these gases between air and sea at very high resolution. The data also contain evidence for day and night variations in some of these compounds. These measurements can be used to better understand the role of the Southern Ocean in the cycling of these compounds.
Rebecca L. Jackson, Albert J. Gabric, Roger Cropp, and Matthew T. Woodhouse
Biogeosciences, 17, 2181–2204,Short summary
Coral reefs are a strong source of atmospheric sulfur through stress-induced emissions of dimethylsulfide (DMS). This biogenic sulfur can influence aerosol and cloud properties and, consequently, the radiative balance over the ocean. DMS emissions may therefore help to mitigate coral physiological stress via increased low-level cloud cover and reduced sea surface temperature. The importance of DMS in coral physiology and climate is reviewed and the implications for coral bleaching are discussed.
Louise Delaigue, Helmuth Thomas, and Alfonso Mucci
Biogeosciences, 17, 547–566,Short summary
This paper reports on the first compilation and analysis of the surface water pCO2 distribution in the Saguenay Fjord, the southernmost subarctic fjord in the Northern Hemisphere, and thus fills a significant knowledge gap in current regional estimates of estuarine CO2 emissions.
Tim Fischer, Annette Kock, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Marcus Dengler, Peter Brandt, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 16, 2307–2328,Short summary
We investigated air–sea gas exchange in oceanic upwelling regions for the case of nitrous oxide off Peru. In this region, routine concentration measurements from ships at 5 m or 10 m depth prove to overestimate surface (bulk) concentration. Thus, standard estimates of gas exchange will show systematic error. This is due to very shallow stratified layers that inhibit exchange between surface water and waters below and can exist for several days. Maximum bias occurs in moderate wind conditions.
Mingxi Yang, Thomas G. Bell, Ian J. Brown, James R. Fishwick, Vassilis Kitidis, Philip D. Nightingale, Andrew P. Rees, and Timothy J. Smyth
Biogeosciences, 16, 961–978,Short summary
We quantify the emissions and uptake of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane from the coastal seas of the UK over 1 year using the state-of-the-art eddy covariance technique. Our measurements show how these air–sea fluxes vary twice a day (tidal), diurnally (circadian) and seasonally. We also estimate the air–sea gas transfer velocity, which is essential for modelling and predicting coastal air-sea exchange.
Riley X. Brady, Nicole S. Lovenduski, Michael A. Alexander, Michael Jacox, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 16, 329–346,
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Akinori Ito, Maria Kanakidou, Athanasios Nenes, Maarten C. Krol, Natalie M. Mahowald, Rachel A. Scanza, Douglas S. Hamilton, Matthew S. Johnson, Nicholas Meskhidze, Jasper F. Kok, Cecile Guieu, Alex R. Baker, Timothy D. Jickells, Manmohan M. Sarin, Srinivas Bikkina, Rachel Shelley, Andrew Bowie, Morgane M. G. Perron, and Robert A. Duce
Biogeosciences, 15, 6659–6684,Short summary
The first atmospheric iron (Fe) deposition model intercomparison is presented in this study, as a result of the deliberations of the United Nations Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP; http://www.gesamp.org/) Working Group 38. We conclude that model diversity over remote oceans reflects uncertainty in the Fe content parameterizations of dust aerosols, combustion aerosol emissions and the size distribution of transported aerosol Fe.
Liliane Merlivat, Jacqueline Boutin, David Antoine, Laurence Beaumont, Melek Golbol, and Vincenzo Vellucci
Biogeosciences, 15, 5653–5662,Short summary
The fugacity of carbon dioxide in seawater (fCO2) was measured hourly in the surface waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea during two 3-year sequences separated by 18 years. A decrease of pH of 0.0022 yr−1 was computed. About 85 % of the accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) comes from chemical equilibration with increasing atmospheric CO2; the remaining 15 % accumulation is consistent with estimates of transfer of Atlantic waters through the Gibraltar Strait.
Amanda R. Fay, Nicole S. Lovenduski, Galen A. McKinley, David R. Munro, Colm Sweeney, Alison R. Gray, Peter Landschützer, Britton B. Stephens, Taro Takahashi, and Nancy Williams
Biogeosciences, 15, 3841–3855,Short summary
The Southern Ocean is highly under-sampled and since this region dominates the ocean sink for CO2, understanding change is critical. Here we utilize available observations to evaluate how the seasonal cycle, variability, and trends in surface ocean carbon in the well-sampled Drake Passage region compare to that of the broader subpolar Southern Ocean. Results indicate that the Drake Passage is representative of the broader region; however, additional winter observations would improve comparisons.
Cui-Ci Sun, Martin Sperling, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 15, 3577–3589,Short summary
Biogenic gel particles such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and Coomassie stainable particles (CSP) are important components in the sea-surface microlayer (SML). Their potential role in air–sea gas exchange and in primary organic aerosol emission has generated considerable research interest. Our wind wave channel experiment revealed how wind speed controls the accumulation and size distribution of biogenic gel particles in the SML.
Allison R. Moreno, George I. Hagstrom, Francois W. Primeau, Simon A. Levin, and Adam C. Martiny
Biogeosciences, 15, 2761–2779,Short summary
To bridge the missing links between variable marine elemental stoichiometry, phytoplankton physiology and carbon cycling, we embed four environmentally controlled stoichiometric models into a five-box ocean model. As predicted each model varied in its influence on the biological pump. Surprisingly, we found that variation can lead to nonlinear controls on atmospheric CO2 and carbon export, suggesting the need for further studies of ocean C : P and the impact on ocean carbon cycling.
Luke Gregor, Schalk Kok, and Pedro M. S. Monteiro
Biogeosciences, 15, 2361–2378,Short summary
The Southern Ocean accounts for a large portion of the variability in oceanic CO2 uptake. However, the drivers of these changes are not understood due to a lack of observations. In this study, we used an ensemble of gap-filling methods to estimate surface CO2. We found that winter was a more important driver of longer-term variability driven by changes in wind stress. Summer variability of CO2 was driven primarily by increases in primary production.
Erik T. Buitenhuis, Parvadha Suntharalingam, and Corinne Le Quéré
Biogeosciences, 15, 2161–2175,Short summary
Thanks to decreases in CFC concentrations, N2O is now the third-most important greenhouse gas, and the dominant contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. Here we estimate the ocean–atmosphere N2O flux. We find that an estimate based on observations alone has a large uncertainty. By combining observations and a range of model simulations we find that the uncertainty is much reduced to 2.45 ± 0.8 Tg N yr−1, and better constrained and at the lower end of the estimate in the latest IPCC report.
Sayaka Yasunaka, Eko Siswanto, Are Olsen, Mario Hoppema, Eiji Watanabe, Agneta Fransson, Melissa Chierici, Akihiko Murata, Siv K. Lauvset, Rik Wanninkhof, Taro Takahashi, Naohiro Kosugi, Abdirahman M. Omar, Steven van Heuven, and Jeremy T. Mathis
Biogeosciences, 15, 1643–1661,Short summary
We estimated monthly air–sea CO2 fluxes in the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas north of 60° N from 1997 to 2014, after mapping pCO2 in the surface water using a self-organizing map technique. The addition of Chl a as a parameter enabled us to improve the estimate of pCO2 via better representation of its decline in spring. The uncertainty in the CO2 flux estimate was reduced, and a net annual Arctic Ocean CO2 uptake of 180 ± 130 Tg C y−1 was determined to be significant.
Alizée Roobaert, Goulven G. Laruelle, Peter Landschützer, and Pierre Regnier
Biogeosciences, 15, 1701–1720,
Chao Zhang, Huiwang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Zongbo Shi, Jinhui Shi, Yang Yu, Ling Meng, and Xinyu Guo
Biogeosciences, 15, 749–765,Short summary
This study compares the response of phytoplankton growth in the northwest Pacific to those in the Yellow Sea. In general, larger positive responses of phytoplankton induced by combined nutrients (in the subtropical gyre of the northwest Pacific) than those induced by a single nutrient (in the Kuroshio Extension and the Yellow Sea) from the dust are observed. We also emphasize the importance of an increase in bioavailable P stock for phytoplankton growth following dust addition.
Goulven G. Laruelle, Peter Landschützer, Nicolas Gruber, Jean-Louis Tison, Bruno Delille, and Pierre Regnier
Biogeosciences, 14, 4545–4561,
Melchor González-Dávila, J. Magdalena Santana Casiano, and Francisco Machín
Biogeosciences, 14, 3859–3871,Short summary
The Mauritanian–Cap Vert upwelling is shown to be sensitive to climate change forcing on upwelling processes, which strongly affects the CO2 surface distribution, ocean acidification rates, and air–sea CO2 exchange. We confirmed an upwelling intensification, an increase in the CO2 outgassing, and an important decrease in the pH of the surface waters. Upwelling areas are poorly studied and VOS lines are shown as one of the most significant contributors to our knowledge of the ocean's response.
Rachel Hussherr, Maurice Levasseur, Martine Lizotte, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Jacoba Mol, Helmuth Thomas, Michel Gosselin, Michel Starr, Lisa A. Miller, Tereza Jarniková, Nina Schuback, and Alfonso Mucci
Biogeosciences, 14, 2407–2427,Short summary
This study assesses the impact of ocean acidification on phytoplankton and its synthesis of the climate-active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS), as well as its modulation, by two contrasting light regimes in the Arctic. The light regimes tested had no significant impact on either the phytoplankton or DMS concentration, whereas both variables decreased linearly with the decrease in pH. Thus, a rapid decrease in surface water pH could alter the algal biomass and inhibit DMS production in the Arctic.
Hilton B. Swan, Graham B. Jones, Elisabeth S. M. Deschaseaux, and Bradley D. Eyre
Biogeosciences, 14, 229–239,Short summary
We measured the sulfur gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) in marine air at a coral cay on the Great Barrier Reef. DMS is well known to be released from the world's oceans, but environmental evidence of coral reefs releasing DMS has not been clearly demonstrated. We showed the coral reef can sometimes release DMS to the air, which was seen as spikes above the DMS released from the ocean. The DMS from the reef supplements the DMS from the ocean to assist formation of clouds that influence local climate.
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Athanasios Nenes, Alex R. Baker, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Maria Kanakidou
Biogeosciences, 13, 6519–6543,Short summary
The global atmospheric cycle of P is simulated accounting for natural and anthropogenic sources, acid dissolution of dust aerosol and changes in atmospheric acidity. Simulations show that P-containing dust dissolution flux may have increased in the last 150 years but is expected to decrease in the future, and biological particles are important carriers of bioavailable P to the ocean. These insights to the P cycle have important implications for marine ecosystem responses to climate change.
Timothée Bourgeois, James C. Orr, Laure Resplandy, Jens Terhaar, Christian Ethé, Marion Gehlen, and Laurent Bopp
Biogeosciences, 13, 4167–4185,Short summary
The global coastal ocean took up 0.1 Pg C yr−1 of anthropogenic carbon during 1993–2012 based on new biogeochemical simulations with an eddying 3-D global model. That is about half of the most recent estimate, an extrapolation based on surface areas. It should not be confused with the continental shelf pump, perhaps 10 times larger, which includes natural as well as anthropogenic carbon. Coastal uptake of anthropogenic carbon is limited by its offshore transport.
Corinne Le Quéré, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Róisín Moriarty, Séverine Alvain, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, Sophie Chollet, Clare Enright, Daniel J. Franklin, Richard J. Geider, Sandy P. Harrison, Andrew G. Hirst, Stuart Larsen, Louis Legendre, Trevor Platt, I. Colin Prentice, Richard B. Rivkin, Sévrine Sailley, Shubha Sathyendranath, Nick Stephens, Meike Vogt, and Sergio M. Vallina
Biogeosciences, 13, 4111–4133,Short summary
We present a global biogeochemical model which incorporates ecosystem dynamics based on the representation of ten plankton functional types, and use the model to assess the relative roles of iron vs. grazing in determining phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean. Our results suggest that observed low phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean during summer is primarily explained by the dynamics of the Southern Ocean zooplankton community, despite iron limitation of phytoplankton growth.
R. Pereira, K. Schneider-Zapp, and R. C. Upstill-Goddard
Biogeosciences, 13, 3981–3989,Short summary
Understanding controls of air–sea gas exchange is necessary for predicting regional- and global-scale trace gas fluxes and feedbacks. Recent studies demonstrated the importance of surfactants, which occur naturally in the uppermost layer of coastal water bodies, to suppress the gas transfer velocity (kw). Here we present data for seawater samples collected from the North Sea. Using a novel analytical approach we show a strong seasonal and spatial relationship between natural surfactants and kw.
Melissa L. Breeden and Galen A. McKinley
Biogeosciences, 13, 3387–3396,Short summary
Natural variability of the North Atlantic carbon cycle is modeled for 1948–2009. The dominant mode of surface ocean CO2 variability is associated with sea surface temperature (SST) variability composed of (a) the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and (b) a positive SST trend. In the subpolar gyre, positive AMO is associated with reduced vertical mixing that lowers pCO2. In the subtropical gyre, AMO-associated warming increases pCO2. Since 1980, the SST trend has amplified AMO impacts.
Anja Engel and Luisa Galgani
Biogeosciences, 13, 989–1007,Short summary
The sea-surface microlayer (SML) is a very thin layer at the interface between the ocean and the atmosphere. Organic compounds in the SML may influence the exchange of gases between seawater and air, as well as primary aerosol emission. Here, we report results from the SOPRAN M91 cruise, a field study to the coastal upwelling regime off Peru's coast in 2012. Our study provides novel insight to the relationship between plankton productivity, wind speed and organic matter accumulation in the SML.
H. Brenner, U. Braeckman, M. Le Guitton, and F. J. R. Meysman
Biogeosciences, 13, 841–863,Short summary
Alkalinity released from sediments of the southern North Sea can play an important role in the carbon cycle of the North Sea by lowering the pCO2 of the seawater and thus increasing the CO2 flux between the atmosphere and the water. However, not every single mole alkalinity generated in sediments leads to an additional CO2 uptake, as certain reactions in the water column can negate the respective alkalinity release.
A. R. Baker, M. Thomas, H. W. Bange, and E. Plasencia Sánchez
Biogeosciences, 13, 817–825,Short summary
Concentrations of major ions and trace metals were measured in aerosols off the coast of Peru in December 2012. A few trace metals (iron, copper, nickel, and cobalt) had anomalously high concentrations, which may be associated with industrial metal smelting activities in the region. The atmosphere appears to supply an excess of iron (relative to atmospheric nitrogen supply) to the phytoplankton community of the Peruvian upwelling system.
C. Walker Brown, J. Boutin, and L. Merlivat
Biogeosciences, 12, 7315–7329,Short summary
Using a temperature-salinity-based extrapolation of in situ surface-fCO2, in conjunction with SMOS SSS and OSTIA SST, fCO2 is mapped within the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETPO) at high spatial (0.25°) and temporal (monthly) resolution. Strong interannual and spatial variability is identified, with net outgassing of CO2 in the gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo contrasting net ingassing in the Gulf of Panama. For the period of July 2010-July 2014, the ETPO was supersaturated by ~40μatm.
C. Rödenbeck, D. C. E. Bakker, N. Gruber, Y. Iida, A. R. Jacobson, S. Jones, P. Landschützer, N. Metzl, S. Nakaoka, A. Olsen, G.-H. Park, P. Peylin, K. B. Rodgers, T. P. Sasse, U. Schuster, J. D. Shutler, V. Valsala, R. Wanninkhof, and J. Zeng
Biogeosciences, 12, 7251–7278,Short summary
This study investigates variations in the CO2 uptake of the ocean from year to year. These variations have been calculated from measurements of the surface-ocean carbon content by various different interpolation methods. The equatorial Pacific is estimated to be the region with the strongest year-to-year variations, tied to the El Nino phase. The global ocean CO2 uptake gradually increased from about the year 2000. The comparison of the interpolation methods identifies these findings as robust.
A. Varenik, S. Konovalov, and S. Stanichny
Biogeosciences, 12, 6479–6491,Short summary
Atmospheric deposition of inorganic fixed nitrogen has been evaluated and quantified for the Black Sea at different spatial and temporal scales. The effect of this deposition has appeared comparable to riverine load of nutrients. This atmospheric deposition can dramatically increase primary production with the major effects for off-shore regions. It does support the currently highly eutrophic state of the Black Sea and prevents rehabilitation of this ecosystem.
H. Hepach, B. Quack, S. Raimund, T. Fischer, E. L. Atlas, and A. Bracher
Biogeosciences, 12, 6369–6387,Short summary
This manuscript covers the first measurements of CHBr3, CH2Br2 and CH3I from the equatorial Atlantic during the Cold Tongue season, identifying this region and season as a source for these compounds. For the first time, we calculated diapycnal fluxes, and showed that the fluxes from below the mixed layer to the surface are not sufficient to balance the mixed layer budget. Hence, we conclude that mixed layer production has to take place despite a pronounced sub-mixed-layer-maximum.
L. C. Cotovicz Jr., B. A. Knoppers, N. Brandini, S. J. Costa Santos, and G. Abril
Biogeosciences, 12, 6125–6146,Short summary
Air-water CO2 fluxes were monitored in Guanabara Bay (Brazil), a tropical eutrophic coastal embayment. In contrast to other estuaries worldwide, Guanabara Bay behaves as an annual CO2 sink (-9.6 to -18.3 molC m2 yr) due to the concomitant effects of strong radiation, thermal stratification, and high availability of nutrients, which promotes huge phytoplankton development and autotrophy. Our results show that CO2 budget assertions still lack information on tropical marine-dominated estuaries.
A. Joesoef, W.-J. Huang, Y. Gao, and W.-J. Cai
Biogeosciences, 12, 6085–6101,Short summary
In this paper, we report the ﬁrst seasonal distribution of pCO2 and air–water CO2 ﬂux in the Delaware Estuary. We further assess the temperature and biological effects on pCO2 distributions as well as the overall contribution of internal versus riverine sources on CO2 inputs to the estuarine system. Finally, we present a summarized pCO2 distribution over the study area and provide a conceptual model to illustrate the control mechanisms on surface water CO2 dynamics in the Delaware Estuary.
Y. Zhang, N. Mahowald, R. A. Scanza, E. Journet, K. Desboeufs, S. Albani, J. F. Kok, G. Zhuang, Y. Chen, D. D. Cohen, A. Paytan, M. D. Patey, E. P. Achterberg, J. P. Engelbrecht, and K. W. Fomba
Biogeosciences, 12, 5771–5792,Short summary
A new technique to determine a size-fractionated global soil elemental emission inventory based on a global soil and mineralogical data set is introduced. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions (8 elements, e.g., Ca, Fe, Al) is identified on a global scale, particularly for Ca. The Ca/Al ratio ranged between 0.1 and 5.0 and is confirmed as an indicator of dust source regions by a global dust model. Total and soluble dust element fluxes into different ocean basins are estimated.
P. Marrec, T. Cariou, E. Macé, P. Morin, L. A. Salt, M. Vernet, B. Taylor, K. Paxman, and Y. Bozec
Biogeosciences, 12, 5371–5391,
L. Merlivat, J. Boutin, and F. d'Ovidio
Biogeosciences, 12, 3513–3524,Short summary
One CARIOCA buoy deployed during the KEOPS2 expedition in Oct-Nov 2011 drifted eastward in the Kerguelen plume. Surface measurements of pCO2 and O2 were collected. Close to the polar front, the surface waters are a sink for CO2 and a source for O2, with mean fluxes equal to -8mmol CO2 m-2d-1 and +38mmol O2 m-2d-1. Outside an iron-enriched filament, the fluxes are in the opposite direction. NCP values of 60-140 mmol C m-2d-1 and stoichiometric ratios, O2/C, between 1.1 and 1.4 are computed.
G. Parard, A. A. Charantonis, and A. Rutgerson
Biogeosciences, 12, 3369–3384,Short summary
In this paper, we used combines two existing methods (i.e. self-organizing maps and multiple linear regression) to estimate the ocean surface partial pressure of CO2 in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, coloured dissolved organic matter, net primary production, and mixed-layer depth. The outputs of this research have a horizontal resolution of 4km and cover the 1998–2011 period. These outputs give a monthly map of the Baltic Sea.
K. Violaki, J. Sciare, J. Williams, A. R. Baker, M. Martino, and N. Mihalopoulos
Biogeosciences, 12, 3131–3140,
Adachi, Y., Yukimoto, S., Deushi, M., Obata, A., Nakano, H., Tanaka, T. Y., Hosaka, M., Sakami, T., Yoshimura, H., Hirabara, M., Shindo, E., Tsujino, H., Mizuta, R., Yabu, S., Koshiro, T., Ose, T., and Kitoh, A.: Basic performance of a new earth system model of the Meteorological Research Institute, Pap. Meteorol. Geophys., 64, 1–19, https://doi.org/10.2467/mripapers.64.1, 2013.
Anav, A., Friedlingstein, P., Kidston, M., Bopp, L., Ciais, P., Cox, P., Jones, C., Jung, M., Myneni, R., and Zhu, Z.: Evaluating the land and ocean components of the global carbon cycle in the CMIP5 earth system models, J. Climate, 26, 6801–6843, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00417.1, 2013.
Bakker, D. C. E., Pfeil, B., Smith, K., Hankin, S., Olsen, A., Alin, S. R., Cosca, C., Harasawa, S., Kozyr, A., Nojiri, Y., O'Brien, K. M., Schuster, U., Telszewski, M., Tilbrook, B., Wada, C., Akl, J., Barbero, L., Bates, N. R., Boutin, J., Bozec, Y., Cai, W.-J., Castle, R. D., Chavez, F. P., Chen, L., Chierici, M., Currie, K., de Baar, H. J. W., Evans, W., Feely, R. A., Fransson, A., Gao, Z., Hales, B., Hardman-Mountford, N. J., Hoppema, M., Huang, W.-J., Hunt, C. W., Huss, B., Ichikawa, T., Johannessen, T., Jones, E. M., Jones, S. D., Jutterström, S., Kitidis, V., Körtzinger, A., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Manke, A. B., Mathis, J. T., Merlivat, L., Metzl, N., Murata, A., Newberger, T., Omar, A. M., Ono, T., Park, G.-H., Paterson, K., Pierrot, D., Ríos, A. F., Sabine, C. L., Saito, S., Salisbury, J., Sarma, V. V. S. S., Schlitzer, R., Sieger, R., Skjelvan, I., Steinhoff, T., Sullivan, K. F., Sun, H., Sutton, A. J., Suzuki, T., Sweeney, C., Takahashi, T., Tjiputra, J., Tsurushima, N., van Heuven, S. M. A. C., Vandemark, D., Vlahos, P., Wallace, D. W. R., Wanninkhof, R., and Watson, A. J.: An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2), Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69–90, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-6-69-2014, 2014.
Barbero, L., Boutin, J., Merlivat, L., Martin, N., Takahashi, T., Sutherland, S. C., and Wanninkhof, R.: Importance of water mass formation regions for the air-sea CO2 flux estimate in the southern ocean, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 25, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GB003818, 2011.
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Dufour, C. O., Sommer, J. Le, Gehlen, M., Orr, J. C., Molines, J. M., Simeon, J. and Barnier, B.: Eddy compensation and controls of the enhanced sea-to-air CO2 flux during positive phases of the Southern Annular Mode, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 27, 950–961, https://doi.org/10.1002/gbc.20090, 2013.
du Plessis, M., Swart, S., Ansorge, I. J., and Mahadevan, A.: Submesoscale processes promote seasonal restratification in the Subantarctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res. Ocean., 122, 2960–2975, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012494, 2017.
Dunne, J. P., John, J. G., Shevliakova, S., Stouffer, R. J., Krasting, J. P., Malyshev, S. L., Milly, P. C. D., Sentman, L. T., Adcroft, A. J., Cooke, W., Dunne, K. A., Griffies, S. M., Hallberg, R. W., Harrison, M. J., Levy, H., Wittenberg, A. T., Phillips, P. J., and Zadeh, N.: GFDL's ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon earth system models, Part II: Carbon system formulation and baseline simulation characteristics, J. Climate, 26, 2247–2267, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00150.1, 2013.
Feely, R. A., Wanninkhof, R., McGillis, W., Carr M. E., and Cosca, C.: Effects of wind speed and gas exchange parameterizations on the air-sea CO2 fluxes in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S03, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC001896, 2004.
Frölicher, T. L., Sarmiento, J. L., Paynter, D. J., Dunne, J. P., Krasting, J. P., and Winton, M.: Dominance of the Southern Ocean in anthropogenic carbon and heat uptake in CMIP5 models, J. Climate, 28, 862–886, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00117.1, 2015.
Fung, I. Y., Doney, S. C., Lindsay, K., and John, J.: Evolution of carbon sinks in a changing climate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 102, 11201–11206, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0504949102, 2005.
Graham, R. M., De Boer, A. M., van Sebille, E., Kohfeld, K. E., and Schlosser, C.: Inferring source regions and supply mechanisms of iron in the Southern Ocean from satellite chlorophyll data, Deep. Res. Pt. I., 104, 9–25, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2015.05.007, 2015.
Gregor, L., Kok, S., and Monteiro, P. M. S.: Empirical methods for the estimation of Southern Ocean CO2: support vector and random forest regression, Biogeosciences, 14, 5551–5569, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-5551-2017, 2017.
Gregor, L., Kok, S., and Monteiro, P. M. S.: Interannual drivers of the seasonal cycle of CO2 in the Southern Ocean, Biogeosciences, 15, 2361–2378, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-2361-2018, 2018.
Gruber, N., Gloor, M., Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E., Doney, S. C., Dutkiewicz, S., Follows, M. J., Gerber, M., Jacobson, A. R., Joos, F., Lindsay, K., Menemenlis, D., Mouchet, A., Müller, S. A., Sarmiento, J. L., and Takahashi, T.: Oceanic sources, sinks, and transport of atmospheric CO2, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 23, 1–21, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003349, 2009.
Hauck, J. and Völker, C.: A multi-model study on the Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and the role of the biological carbon pump in the 21st century, EGU Gen. Assem., 17, 12225, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GB005140, 2015.
Hauck, J., Völker, C., Wolf-Gladrow, D. a., Laufkötter, C., Vogt, M., Aumont, O., Bopp, L., Buitenhuis, E. T., Doney, S. C., Dunne, J., Gruber, N., John, J., Le Quéré, C., Lima, I. D., Nakano, H., and Totterdell, I.: On the Southern Ocean CO2 uptake and the role of the biological carbon pump in the 21st century, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 29, 1451–1470, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GB005140, 2015.
Hirahara, S., Ishii, M., and Fukuda, Y.: Centennial-scale sea surface temperature analysis and its uncertainty, J. Climate, 27, 57–75, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00837.1, 2014.
Ilyina, T., Six, K. D., Segschneider, J., Maier-Reimer, E., Li, H., and Núñez-Riboni, I.: Global ocean biogeochemistry model HAMOCC: Model architecture and performance as component of the MPI-Earth system model in different CMIP5 experimental realizations, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 5, 287–315, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012MS000178, 2013.
Johnson, K. S., Plant, J. N., Coletti, L. J., Jannasch, H. W., Sakamoto, C. M., Riser, S. C., Swift, D. D., Williams, N. L., Boss, E., Haëntjens, N., Talley, L. D., and Sarmiento, J. L.: Biogeochemical sensor performance in the SOCCOM profiling float array, J. Geophys. Res.-Ocean, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC012838, 2017.
Kessler, A. and Tjiputra, J.: The Southern Ocean as a constraint to reduce uncertainty in future ocean carbon sinks, Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 295–312, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-7-295-2016, 2016.
Landschützer, P., Gruber, N., and Bakker, D. C. E.: Decadal variations and trends of the global ocean carbon sink, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 30, 1396–1417, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GB005359, 2016.
Landschützer, P., Gruber, N., Haumann, F. A., Rodenbeck, C., Bakker, D. C. E., van Heuven, S., Hoppema, M., Metzl, N., Sweeney, C., Takahashi, T., Tilbrook, B., and Wanninkhof, R.: The reinvigoration of the Southern Ocean carbon sink, Science, 349, 1221–1224, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aab2620, 2015.
Landschützer, P., Gruber, N., Bakker, D. C. E., and Schuster, U.: Recent variability of the global ocean carbon sink, Glob. Planet. Change, 927–949, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GB004853, 2014.
Landschützer, P., Gruber, N., Bakker, D. C. E., Schuster, U., Nakaoka, S., Payne, M. R., Sasse, T. P., and Zeng, J.: A neural network-based estimate of the seasonal to inter-annual variability of the Atlantic Ocean carbon sink, Biogeosciences, 10, 7793–7815, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-7793-2013, 2013.
Lauvset, S. K., Key, R. M., Olsen, A., van Heuven, S., Velo, A., Lin, X., Schirnick, C., Kozyr, A., Tanhua, T., Hoppema, M., Jutterström, S., Steinfeldt, R., Jeansson, E., Ishii, M., Perez, F. F., Suzuki, T., and Watelet, S.: A new global interior ocean mapped climatology: the GLODAP version 2, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 325–340, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-8-325-2016, 2016.
Lee, K., Tong, L. T., Millero, F. J., Sabine, C. L., Dickson, A. G., Goyet, C., Park, G. H., Wanninkhof, R., Feely, R. A., and Key, R. M.: Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL027207, 2006.
Lenton, A., Metzl, N., Takahashi, T., Kuchinke, M., Matear, R. J., Roy, T., Sutherland, S. C., Sweeney, C., and Tilbrook, B.: The observed evolution of oceanic pCO2and its drivers over the last two decades, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 26, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GB004095, 2012.
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Here we analyze seasonal cycle of CO2 biases in 10 CMIP5 models in the SO. We find two main model biases; exaggeration of primary production such that biologically driven DIC changes mainly regulates FCO2 variability, and an overestimation of the role of solubility, such that changes in temperature dominantly drive FCO2 seasonal changes to an extent of opposing biological CO2 uptake in spring. CMIP5 models show greater zonal homogeneity in the seasonal cycle of FCO2 than observational products.
Here we analyze seasonal cycle of CO2 biases in 10 CMIP5 models in the SO. We find two main...