Articles | Volume 21, issue 3
Research article
12 Feb 2024
Research article |  | 12 Feb 2024

Underestimation of multi-decadal global O2 loss due to an optimal interpolation method

Takamitsu Ito, Hernan E. Garcia, Zhankun Wang, Shoshiro Minobe, Matthew C. Long, Just Cebrian, James Reagan, Tim Boyer, Christopher Paver, Courtney Bouchard, Yohei Takano, Seth Bushinsky, Ahron Cervania, and Curtis A. Deutsch

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Cited articles

Bittig, H. C., Körtzinger, A., Neill, C., van Ooijen, E., Plant, J. N., Hahn, J., Johnson, K. S., Yang, B., and Emerson, S. R.: Oxygen Optode Sensors: Principle, Characterization, Calibration, and Application in the Ocean, Frontiers in Marine Science, 4, 429,, 2018. 
Boyer, T. P., Baranova, O. K., Coleman, C., Garcia, H. E., Grodsky, A., Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Paver, C. R., Reagan, J. R., Seidov, D., Smolyar, I. V., Weathers, K., and Zweng, M. M.: World Ocean Database 2018, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 87, edited by: Mishonov, A. V., Silver Spring, MD, 209, 2018 (data available at:, last access: 3 February 2024). 
Carpenter, J. H.: THE ACCURACY OF THE WINKLER METHOD FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN ANALYSIS1, Limnol. Oceanogr., 10, 135–140,, 1965. 
Short summary
This study aims to estimate how much oceanic oxygen has been lost and its uncertainties. One major source of uncertainty comes from the statistical gap-filling methods. Outputs from Earth system models are used to generate synthetic observations where oxygen data are extracted from the model output at the location and time of historical oceanographic cruises. Reconstructed oxygen trend is approximately two-thirds of the true trend.
Final-revised paper